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Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus
Health, Psychopathology, and Brain Disease

by Juan J. Canales

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-04-01
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN : 9780128019771
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neurogenesis in the adult brain has emerged as one of the most dynamic and rapidly moving fields in modern neuroscience research. The implications of adult neurogenesis for health and well-being are wide-ranging, with findings in this area having distinct relevance for treatment and rehabilitation in neurology and psychopathology. Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus addresses these implications by providing an up-to-date account on how neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus contributes to critical psychological and physiological processes, such as learning and memory, and how it is modified by life experiences, such as aging, environmental enrichment, exercise, and dieting. The book also provides the most current reviews of how adult hippocampal neurogenesis influences the pathogenesis of mood disorders, addiction, and key neurological disorders. This book is the ideal resource for researchers and advanced graduates seeking focused knowledge on the role of adult neurogenesis in brain health and disease. Provides a unique overview of how adult hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to adaptive processes, brain psychopathology, and disease Includes state-of-the-art reviews by leading world experts in adult neurogenesis Companion website featuring supplemental learning materials

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain I

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain I
Neurobiology

by Tatsunori Seki,Kazunobu Sawamoto,Jack M. Parent,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-06-15
  • Pages : 413
  • ISBN : 9784431539339
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The discovery of adult neurogenesis caused a paradigm shift in the neurosciences. For more than 100 years, it was believed that adult neurons do not regenerate. Joseph Altman and Fernando Nottebohm found proof to the contrary and changed the course of history. Their research, included here, provides the foundations of the field. Today, adult neurogenesis is a rapidly expanding discipline applicable to the study of brain development and diseases, learning and memory, aging, and neuropsychiatric disorders. With multiple authors, the 27 chapters of this book contain the latest work in two volumes. The first presents the basic biology of adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates and in the mammalian hippocampus and olfactory bulb, and the second discusses clinical implications and delves into adult neurogenesis and brain injury as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric pathologies. With details of the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the two neurogenic brain regions, this book provides indispensable knowledge for many areas of neuroscience and for experimental and clinical applications of adult neurogenesis to brain therapy.

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis: Olfaction, Hippocampus and beyond

50th Anniversary of Adult Neurogenesis: Olfaction, Hippocampus and beyond

by Alino Martinez-Marcos,José L.Trejo,Laura López-Mascaraque

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-09-21
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889199630
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the mid-sixties, the discovery by Altman and co-workers of neurogenesis in the adult brain changed the previous conception of the immutability of this organ during adulthood sustained among others by Cajal. This discovery was ignored up to eighty’s when Nottebohm demonstrated neurogenesis in birds. Subsequently, two main neurogenic zones were characterized: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus. Half century later, the exact role of new neurons in the adult brain is not completely understand. This book is composed by a number of articles by leaders in the filed covering from an historic perspective to potential therapeutic opportunities.

Emerging Roles for Hippocampal Adult Neural Stem Cells in Memory

Emerging Roles for Hippocampal Adult Neural Stem Cells in Memory
A Book

by Aaron R. Friedman,Daniela Kaufer

  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release : 2013-12-01
  • Pages : 39
  • ISBN : 1615044779
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Approximately 50 years ago, newly generated neurons were discovered in the adult hippocampus of the rat brain. This discovery contradicted a key principle in mammalian developmental neurobiology—that all the neurons of the brain are made during early development—and led to intensive study to find out how new neurons are generated and how the process of neurogenesis is regulated. Since then, a unique population of adult neural stem cells has been identified, and many of the molecular pathways that control their self-renewal, proliferation, and cell fate have been elucidated. However, the presence of new neurons in the adult brain also poses intriguing functional questions that have, as yet, gone largely unanswered. Why is adult neurogenesis restricted to select brain regions? What functional benefit do these new cells confer? Indeed, the field of adult neurogenesis offers a unique opportunity to study naïve neurons as they mature, form connections with existing neural networks, and begin to participate in information processing. We review the basics of adult NSC biology and the maturation of newborn neurons. In particular, we focus on new neurons in the hippocampus, and how they contribute to function in this key memory-forming structure of the brain.

Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis

Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis
A Book

by Arie S. Mobley

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-03-15
  • Pages : 375
  • ISBN : 0128110147
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neural Stem Cells and Adult Neurogenesis provides graduate students and neuroscientists with a basic understanding of what neural stem cells are and the cell types they produce. This early graduate level reference describes their physiology and potential for medicine and provides students with fundamental stem cell information. An overview of stem cell sources in the human body and a brief mention of relevant diseases provide context for the value of this knowledge. The book also includes chapters on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the methods used to obtain them, and a review of the ethical challenges associated with stem cell research. For each region, the book provides a description of its neurogenic niche, cellular and molecular biology, and information on the neurons' contribution to normal and diseased brain function. The level of information is appropriate for early graduate students, introducing technology and molecular biology in an accessible format. Provides a basic understanding of what a stem cell is, the different types, and their potential in health and research Details adult neurogenesis and its role in behavior, stroke and disease Includes walkthrough and technology boxes that illustrate experimental concepts, new approaches and techniques

Adult Neurogenesis

Adult Neurogenesis
Stem Cells and Neuronal Development in the Adult Brain

by Gerd Kempermann

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN : 9780195179712
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The discovery of adult neurogenesis and of stem cells in the brain has changed our view of the mature brain. Though we now know that the adult brain can make new neurons, it normally does so only in two privileged regions, the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Yet stem cells, which have the potential to produce new neurons, can be found throughout the adult brain. So why does the brain not make wider use of its potential for neurogenesis? And what is the function of new neurons and of neural stem cells in areas where they occur? After all, the brain regenerates poorly and many neurological and psychiatric disorders are chronic because cell replacement has not taken place. This is the first comprehensive, integrated account of one of the most exciting areas of neuroscience. It begins with the historical background and discusses theories of adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell biology in the context of learning and memory processes as well as structural plasticity. It describes in detail neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and olfactory system and then surveys the regulatory, functional, and comparative aspects, concluding with a chapter on the provocative hypotheses that link failing adult neurogenesis with such diseases as temporal lobe epilepsy, major depression, brain tumors, and dementias. For graduate students, investigators, and clinicians in the neurosciences, developmental biology, and stem cell research, this book is a unique resource that sifts through the evidence for exciting scientific ideas and fosters a realistic view of the therapeutic possibilities for the use of stem cells in the adult brain.

Absent Or Low Rate of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Bats (Chiroptera)

Absent Or Low Rate of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Bats (Chiroptera)
A Book

by Irmgard Amrein,Dina K. N. Dechmann,York Winter,Hans-Peter Lipp

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Time Course Investigation Into Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Zebra Finches

Time Course Investigation Into Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Zebra Finches
A Book

by Michael E. Milroy

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 116
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II

Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain II
Clinical Implications

by Tatsunori Seki,Kazunobu Sawamoto,Jack M. Parent,Arturo Alvarez-Buylla

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-06-15
  • Pages : 211
  • ISBN : 9784431539452
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The discovery of adult neurogenesis caused a paradigm shift in the neurosciences. For more than 100 years, it was believed that adult neurons do not regenerate. Joseph Altman and Fernando Nottebohm found proof to the contrary and changed the course of history. Their research, included here, provides the foundations of the field. Today, adult neurogenesis is a rapidly expanding discipline applicable to the study of brain development and diseases, learning and memory, aging, and neuropsychiatric disorders. With multiple authors, the 27 chapters of this book contain the latest work in two volumes. The first presents the basic biology of adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates and in the mammalian hippocampus and olfactory bulb, and the second discusses clinical implications and delves into adult neurogenesis and brain injury as well as neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric pathologies. With details of the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the two neurogenic brain regions, this book provides indispensable knowledge for many areas of neuroscience and for experimental and clinical applications of adult neurogenesis to brain therapy.

Adult Neurogenesis and Its Anatoical Context in the Hippocampus of Three Mole-rate Species

Adult Neurogenesis and Its Anatoical Context in the Hippocampus of Three Mole-rate Species
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 68
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adult Neurogenesis: Beyond Rats and Mice

Adult Neurogenesis: Beyond Rats and Mice
A Book

by Luca Bonfanti,Irmgard Amrein

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-02-11
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889457613
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Researchers working on adult neurogenesis have focused largely on inbred laboratory rodents. While this provides a strong advantage of restricting genetic variation in the group, it also narrows our perspective on adult neurogenesis as a biological phenomenon. Many unsolved issues and open questions cannot be resolved without the contribution of comparative studies spanning through widely different species: how did adult neurogenesis evolve, what is the link between adult neurogenesis and brain complexity, how do adult neurogenesis and animal behavior influence each other, how does adult neurogenesis contribute to brain plasticity, cognition and, possibly, repair, and how do experimental conditions affect adult neurogenesis. The main message from the comparative approach to adult neurogenesis is that the relative exclusive focus on laboratory rodents can result in a bias on how we think about this biological process.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
Volume I: Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells

by Philippe Taupin

  • Publisher : Nova Publishers
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN : 9781604564723
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The subject of this book is stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into different lineages of the body. Stem cells carry tremendous potential for the treatment of a broad range of disease and injuries. Stem cells exist in embryonic, fetal, and adult tissues, including the adult central nervous system. This book aims at, in depth, the recent developments in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Though this book encompasses all the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, it emphasises adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell research and therapy.

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair

Adult neurogenesis twenty years later: physiological function versus brain repair

by Paolo Peretto,Luca Bonfanti

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-05-01
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889194949
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The discovery that mammalian brains contain neural stem cells which perform adult neurogenesis - the production and integration of new neurons into mature neural circuits - has provided a fully new vision of neural plasticity. On a theoretical basis, this achievement opened new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in restorative and regenerative neurology. Nevertheless, in spite of striking advancement concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms which allow and regulate the neurogenic process, its exploitation in mammals for brain repair strategies remains unsolved. In non-mammalian vertebrates, adult neurogenesis also contributes to brain repair/regeneration. In mammals, neural stem cells do respond to pathological conditions in the so called "reactive neurogenesis", yet without substantial regenerative outcome. Why, even in the presence of stem cells in the brain, we lack an effective reparative outcome in terms of regenerative neurology, and which factors hamper the attainment of this goal? Essentially, what remains unanswered is the question whether (and how) physiological functions of adult neurogenesis in mammals can be exploited for brain repair purposes.

The Impact of Hippocampal Neuronal Loss on Adult Neurogenesis

The Impact of Hippocampal Neuronal Loss on Adult Neurogenesis
A Book

by Kristoffer Myczek

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 9781267815965
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neuronal loss is a common component of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Neuronal loss can also result from trauma to the brain, such as stroke, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury. Particularly devastating is damage to the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for the formation and retrieval of memories. Long-lasting and sometimes unrecoverable deficits caused by neuronal loss present a unique challenge for clinicians and for those who attempt to model these traumas in animals. Can these deficits be recovered, and if so, is the brain capable of regeneration following neuronal loss? Although neuronal proliferation is generally halted by the end of development, new neurons can still be produced in the adult brain. Interestingly, and of vital relevance to the study of the possible recovery of memory deficits, new neurons continue to be produced in the hippocampus throughout adulthood. These neurons proliferate from persistent pools of neural stem cells (NSCs), and knockout and neurogenic inhibition studies have demonstrated a significant role for these adult-born cells in a variety of behavioral tasks. Furthermore, this proliferation is enhanced following stroke, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy. However, it remains unclear if a global and harsh injury to the brain is necessary to achieve neurogenic upregulation, or if selective hippocampal neuronal loss is sufficient to cause this phenomenon. In our studies, we utilize the CaM/Tet-DTA model of selective neuronal ablation. We find that, through induction of transgene driven toxin expression, we are able to inflict a consistent and significant lesion to the hippocampus. In the pages that follow, we investigate the behavioral effects of this hippocampal neuronal loss and the possible recovery of lesion-induced deficits. We also offer the first evidence of neurogenic-upregulation in this model, and provide a comprehensive analysis of the proliferation, survival, and migration of new-born neurons in the post-lesion environment. We also discover a unique phenomenon in which lesion induction can reverse irradiaton inhibition of neurogenesis. Finally, we provide novel evidence of angiogenic and vasculature changes following hippocampal neuronal loss in CaM/Tet-DTA mice. We posit that angiogenesis may be an important factor that contributes to neurogenic upregulation following hippocampal neuronal loss.

The Hippocampus

The Hippocampus
Plasticity and Functions

by Ales Stuchlik

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-07-11
  • Pages : 178
  • ISBN : 1789233569
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The hippocampus is an important brain region, a true central hub for memory of various kinds and other processes. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, and schizophrenia are characterized by hippocampal alterations. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a site exhibiting adult neurogenesis. This book covers the topic of the hippocampus from various perspectives. It discusses adult neurogenesis, effect of enriched environments on hippocampal plasticity, and long-term potentiation-associated gene expression. The book also addresses multiscale representations of complex environments and strategies in the hippocampus-dependent spatial tasks. Finally, insight into the hippocampus as a link between negative affect and relapse to psychostimulants is provided. The book collects evidence of various hippocampal functions in healthy and disordered brain.

The Functional and Comparative Characterisation of Adult Neurogenesis and Plasticity in the Hippocampus

The Functional and Comparative Characterisation of Adult Neurogenesis and Plasticity in the Hippocampus
A Book

by Roelof Maarten van Dijk

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Computational Modeling of Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus

Computational Modeling of Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus
A Book

by James Bradley Aimone

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 211
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The incorporation of new neurons into the adult brain is a form of plasticity that has only recently been appreciated in neuroscience. The localization of adult neurogenesis to the dentate gyrus (DG) area of the hippocampus is of particular interest, given the hippocampus's observed role as a structure crucial for memory formation. In the rodent, thousands of new neurons are born daily, and research into this process has revealed a complex maturation process, with newborn neurons showing unique physiological and anatomical features at different stages of development. Despite these findings regarding the biology of the neurogenesis process itself, a functional role for new neurons has remained elusive. This dissertation will describe the design, implementation, and testing of a biologically driven computational model of the adult neurogenesis process in the DG. In this model, new neurons are incorporated into the DG circuit according to the process revealed by previous biological studies. Ultimately, this work provides evidence for three separate functions for new neurons that are both novel and experimentally testable. The first hypothesis is that immature neurons are more likely to contribute to the encoding of new memories than mature neurons. This increased activity provides a pattern integration component to the global pattern separation function of the DG. The second hypothesis is that the continuing maturation of these young neurons makes this pattern integration role temporally dependent. As such, memories encoded close in time will be associated, while memories encoded far apart in time will be separated. Third, the results suggest that continual neurogenesis results in a DG network that is a cumulative representation of events experienced throughout life. Finally, this dissertation will discuss how neuromodulation may affect the neurogenesis process and its relationship with hippocampal function and will include a description of how modulatory neurotransmitters can be considered in the computational model, and the specific example of dopamine will show how preliminary data regarding the effects of modulators on neurogenesis can be incorporated into the modeling framework.

Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 36
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction
Chapter 30. Addiction, Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Neuroplasticity in the Adult Brain

by Sarah E. Bulin,Irene Masiulis,Phillip D. Rivera,Amelia J. Eisch

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-17
  • Pages : 758
  • ISBN : 0128064889
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells in Mammals

Adult Neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cells in Mammals
A Book

by Philippe Taupin

  • Publisher : Nova Publishers
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 9781594548567
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This title contains a book and CD. The brain has a number of nerve cells estimated at a magnitude of 10 to 100 billion, and 1014 to 1015 synapses, and therefore is the most complex organ of the human body. During fetal development the foundations of the brain are laid as billions of neurons form appropriate connections and patterns. In the adult mammalian brain, most neurons are post-mitotic, and therefore at risk for irreversible damage. As we age, atrophy of the brain occurs. As brain weight declines the volume of the brain in the 8th decade is reduced by 6 per cent -10 per cent versus the third decade, and neuronal loss occurs, up to 10,000 to 100,000 neurons are lost per day, though this estimation is being revised downward with the advance of more sophisticated measurements.