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Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
1. Introduction

by J. Bai

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088311
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have become essential materials for maintaining and strengthening existing infrastructure. Many new innovative types of hybrid material and structural systems have been developed using FRP composite materials. Increased utilisation of FRP requires that structural engineers and practitioners be able to understand the behaviour of FRP materials and design composite structures. This book provides an overview of different advanced FRP composites and the use of these materials in a variety of application areas. This chapter specifically covers a brief review on FRP applications and gives an outline of the book.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
18. Advanced fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for the manufacture and rehabilitation of pipes and tanks in the oil and gas industry

by F. Taheri

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088486
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There is strong evidence that the oil and gas industry has become increasingly interested in using pipes and risers made of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. Moreover, oil and gas exploration nowadays has to be conducted in much deeper water depths (500–1500m and deeper), thus requiring more resilient and lighter materials. in this section various applications of FRP in relation to pipes and risers are discussed to familiarise the reader with various FRP and hybrid pipes. The issues affecting the long-term performance of these materials, as well as issues involved with joining pipes and risers are also covered. Finally, the recent trends related to the use of FRP for repair and rehabilitation of deteriorated metallic pipes are presented.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
12. Understanding the durability of advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

by K. Benzarti,X. Colin

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088427
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being used in the field of civil engineering, either for the rehabilitation/retrofitting of existing infrastructures or for the construction of new structural elements. However, such applications are still recent and there are still unresolved questions regarding the long-term durability of FRP reinforcements or structural elements under service conditions, and their behaviour under accidental fire events as well. In this chapter, it is proposed to highlight the basic mechanisms involved in the environmental degradation of FRP composites, with a large emphasis on ageing mechanisms of the polymer matrix and their consequences on the mechanical properties. The last section is specifically devoted to the fire behaviour of polymer composites and also recalls existing fire-proofing solutions.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
10. Understanding and predicting interfacial stresses in advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

by A. Al-Shawaf

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088400
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter addresses all aspects pertaining to stresses inherent within civil applications of advanced composites, particularly the critical interfacial adhesive stresses usually controlling the design strength for externally bonded FRP composites. Informed discussions and explanations are presented on influential aspects closely affecting the distribution and magnitude of interfacial stresses along the bondline. Traditional and promising experimental methods for stress estimation are addressed, together with a corresponding brief literature review highlighting their evolution and practical advantages and disadvantages. Theoretical and numerical methods for interfacial stress analyses are also reviewed for different FRP bonding applications, and their stress prediction capabilities are verified with experimental validations. Finally, key conclusions and recommendations for future trends in the stress characterizations of adhesive joints are provided.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
6. Prepreg processing of advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by S. Pansart

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088362
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter provides some basic knowledge about FRP manufacturing processes involving prepreg materials. It contains information regarding the manufacture of prepreg semi-finished products, processing methods for obtaining structural components, and some considerations about quality. It is intended as an overview only, addressing engineering students or practitioners who have only little knowledge about composites and prepreg processing technologies.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
7. Resin infusion/liquid composite moulding (LCM) of advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)

by S. Bickerton,Q. Govignon,P. Kelly

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088370
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The term liquid composite moulding (LCM) encompasses a family of processes in which a dry fibrous reinforcement is impregnated by a liquid resin inside a sealed cavity. As the understanding and control of these processes improve, their field of application widens. LCM processes can be used as a replacement to decrease the environmental impact and improve the quality of composite parts made via traditional open-mould processes. they can also provide a cost-cutting alternative to prepreg techniques while maintaining a high part quality. This chapter describes the variety of processes blanketed under the class liquid composite moulding and the research advances in the monitoring and simulation of these processes. the subsequent section presents the current usage of LCM techniques in the field of civil engineering, including some case studies, before outlining some future trends and offering sources for further information.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
15. High performance fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) for civil engineering applications

by T.H. Panzera,A.L. Christoforo,P.H. Ribeiro Borges

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088451
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Portland cement concrete is a brittle material. The main reason for incorporating fibres into a cement matrix is to improve the cracking deformation characteristics, increasing not only the toughness, impact and tensile strength, but also eliminating temperature and shrinkage cracks. Several different types of fibres have been used to reinforce cement-based materials. This chapter briefly discusses the characteristics of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC), reporting the effect of the fibres on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties. It also presents some of the recent research and future perspectives of FRC.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
9. Pultrusion of advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by J. Ramôa Correia

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088397
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter focuses on the properties, manufacturing processes and quality control of pultruded advanced composites used in civil engineering applications. Pultrusion technology is first briefly explained, with the main features of the raw materials used being introduced, and the philosophy underlying the development of pultruded advanced composites discussed. A detailed description of the pultrusion process then follows, covering the equipment and procedure, technical specifications and quality control. Subsequently, the types, properties, applications and sustainability of pultruded profiles, reinforcing bars and strengthening strips are described. The final part of the chapter discusses future trends for the pultrusion of the advanced composites used in civil engineering applications.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
3. Polyester resins as a matrix material in advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by N. Miskolczi

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088338
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter discusses the use of one type of thermoset polymer, polyester, and its use as a matrix material in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. It begins with an overview of FRP composites, before explaining why polyester is a particularly suitable material for this application, through discussion of its key properties and structures and the manufacturing processes involved. Composites can offer improved mechanical properties compared with pure polymers at no extra cost, meaning that they are widely used in a variety of applications, including in the transport industry (manufacturing passenger cars and other vehicles), marine and shipping uses, and as structural materials. Some examples of these applications, particularly in civil engineering, are provided in this chapter, along with discussion of potential future trends in the field.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
20. Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for sustainable energy technologies

by L.C. Hollaway

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088508
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter will introduce advances in properties, production and manufacturing techniques of the advanced polymer/fibre composite materials that are utilised in the manufacture of machines that produce sustainable energy. discussed the various methods of transferring wind, tidal, wave and solar energies into electrical power and this chapter will show how advanced composites are utilised in these various machines. Furthermore, it will suggest methods for the repair, maintenance and recycling of advanced polymer composite wind turbine blades. Finally, the future trends of sustainable energy systems and the role that polymers and polymer/fibre composites will have in their manufacture/fabrication will be evaluated.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
2. Phenolic resins as a matrix material in advanced fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by E. Frollini,C.G. Silva,E.C. Ramires

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 012808832X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermosets such as phenolic thermosets are brittle at room temperature. Thus, in applications where good mechanical properties are required thermosets must be combined with reinforcements to improve these properties. Composites based on thermoset matrices can substitute for steel and concrete in some applications of civil construction structures because of their higher resistance to oxidation than steel and better freeze–thaw resistance than concrete. Furthermore, phenolic composites can be produced with complex shapes, and with careful design, materials can be obtained with high strength and stiffness and excellent impact strength, making these materials alternatives to metals. Construction materials require fire- and high-temperature-resistant components, and moldings and laminates based on phenolics can be utilized due to their resistance to burning and minimal smoke and toxic fumes production. Phenolic composites can positively impact the building and construction industry by improving safety and reducing cost.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
22. Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for the rehabilitation of timber and concrete structures: assessing strength and durability

by J. Custódio,S. Cabral-Fonseca

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088524
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter briefly discusses the performance and durability of bonded composite systems used for on-site rehabilitation of timber and concrete structures. In spite of some recent developments, the exploitation of their full potential is still often restrained by the lack of structural design guidance, standards for durability assessment and on-site acceptance testing. Therefore, this chapter provides a review of current understanding on the use of hybrid bonded composite systems on the construction site in terms of structural repair, reinforcement, and seismic retrofit. It focuses on the requirements and practical difficulties in the work on-site with regards to the performance and durability of the rehabilitated structure, the characteristics and requirements that must be fulfilled by structural adhesives and advanced polymer composite materials, and the subsequent need for quality control and in-service monitoring. It also highlights the factors affecting performance and durability of bonded joints. Finally, a general overview of the research needs and a bibliography giving references to more detailed information on this topic is given.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
4. Vinylester resins as a matrix material in advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by F. Sarasini,C. Santulli

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088346
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter discusses the use of vinylester resin as a matrix in polymer composite materials to be used in civil engineering applications. The chapter begins by discussing the increasing trend of composite development and use in civil engineering along with the related reasons. It then reviews the chemistry of vinylester resins together with their mechanical and chemical properties as well as the applications of vinylester resin and composites in the construction industry. The chapter includes indications on future applications of vinylester-based fibre-reinforced composites along with a section devoted to sources of further and relevant information.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
21. Improving the durability of advanced fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites using nanoclay

by S. Zainuddin,M.V. Hosur,S. Jeelani,A. Kumar,J. Trovillion

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088516
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this chapter, we report the findings of experimental investigations conducted on durability of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites with and without the addition of montmorillonite nanoclay. First, neat and nanoclay-added epoxy systems were characterized to evaluate the extent of clay platelet exfoliation and dispersion of nanoclay. GFRP composite panels were then fabricated with neat/modified epoxy resin and exposed to six different conditions, i.e. hot-dry/wet, cold-dry/wet, ultraviolet radiation and alternate ultraviolet radiation–condensation. Room temperature condition samples were also used for baseline consideration. An improved dispersion of nanoclay and exfoliation of clay platelets were observed in 2wt% of epoxy samples. Weight change, discoloration and significant reduction in properties were observed in all conditioned GFRP samples. However, addition of nanoclay considerably improved the durability of GFRP samples as evident from the mechanical and micrographical results in comparison to neat samples subjected to similar conditions.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
16. Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials in bridge engineering: materials, properties and applications in bridge enclosures, reinforced and prestressed concrete beams and columns

by L.C. Hollaway

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 012808846X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chapters 16 and discuss the development of the advanced polymer composite material applications in bridge engineering. They demonstrate the innovative types of components and structures which have been developed from FRP composite materials and the most advantageous way to employ composites in bridge engineering. Given the importance of bridge infrastructure, the discussion of this topic has been split over two chapters. This chapter focuses on the type of FRP composite materials used in bridge engineering, their in-service properties and their applications in bridge enclosures and the rehabilitation of reinforced and prestressed concrete bridge beams and columns. covers rehabilitation of metallic bridge structures, all FRP composite bridges and bridges built with hybrid systems.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
13. Testing of pultruded glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials and structures

by G.J. Turvey

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An overview is presented of four groups of static load tests to determine the mechanical properties of pultruded GFRP materials and structures. The first group includes standard and non-standard tests on material samples. The second group encompasses bending, buckling and collapse load tests on structural elements. The third and fourth groups include tests on bolted joints and sub-structures/full-scale structures, respectively. Throughout the overview, the difficulties of simulating practical support and loading conditions and monitoring deformations are emphasised. Future developments are mentioned briefly in the final section. It is noted that dynamic load testing and monitoring of static/dynamic deformations by means of full-field and other novel techniques are likely to receive much greater attention.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
11. Understanding and predicting stiffness in advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

by R.M. Guedes,J. Xavier

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088419
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter describes the elastic qualities of advanced fibre-reinforced composites, in terms of characterization, measurement and prediction from the basic constituents, i.e. the fibre and matrix. The elastic analysis comprises applying micromechanics approaches to predict the lamina elastic properties from the basic constituents, and using classical lamination theory to predict the elastic properties of composite materials composed of several laminae stacked at different orientations. Examples are given to illustrate the theoretical analysis and give a full apprehension of its prediction capability. The last section provides an overview on identification methods for elastic proprieties based on full-field measurements. It is shown that these methodologies are very convenient for elastic characterization of anisotropic and heterogeneous materials.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
5. Epoxy resins as a matrix material in advanced fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by V. Fiore,A. Valenza

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088354
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter discusses the epoxy resins which, thanks to their good and versatile properties, can be considered nowadays the most important class of thermosetting polymers. In particular the chapter first reviews both the epoxy resins commonly available on the market, including a new class of bio-derived epoxy resins, and the most-used curing agents. it then describes the principal characteristics of the epoxy resins and how it is possible to enhance them by adding several fillers to the epoxy system. Finally, the chapter analyzes the main engineering fields in which epoxy resins find application today and their possible future utilization.

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications

Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
8. Filament winding processes in the manufacture of advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites

by A. Khennane

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 0128088389
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite considerable potential and many advantages over conventional materials, composites are making limited progress in the field of infrastructure applications, where the only niche market for composites is in FRP deck construction over steel girders and externally bonded FRP repair. The reasons, of course, are to be found in their high initial cost compared with conventional materials. This can only be addressed through the use of large-volume automated processes such as pultrusion and filament winding, which have the potential to lower the cost of raw materials and technologies for all applications. This chapter summarises the current level of applications of filament winding in the infrastructure industry.

Advanced Fibre-reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Structural Applications

Advanced Fibre-reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Structural Applications
A Book

by Jiping Bai

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing Limited
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 906
  • ISBN : 9780857094186
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have become essential materials in the building and repair of civil infrastructure. This wide ranging book reviews key developments in the use of these materials. There are sections on fiber-reinforced polymer composites and assessments of the material performance, processing and applications. Part one introduces materials used in the creation of advanced FRP composites including polyester, vinylester and epoxy resins. Chapters in part two goes on to explore the processing and fabrication of advanced FRP composites and includes contributions on prepreg processing and filament winding processes. Part three highlights properties of advanced FRP composites and discusses how performance can be managed and tested. The conclusion reviews applications of advanced FRP composites, including bridge engineering, pipe rehabilitation in the oil and gas industry and sustainable energy production.