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Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
15. Coating techniques using brazing

by H. Krappitz

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088869
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Although brazing is commonly regarded as a joining technique, the following chapter will introduce possibilities for using brazing as a coating technology, which offers new and unique solutions for applying functional coatings to surfaces. Details are presented of some fundamental aspects of this coating technology with regard to processes, metallurgical considerations and mechanical properties, followed by the various methods for producing coatings by brazing. Examples of applications are explained with regard to the various coating techniques. The chapter gives an overview of the major technologies of coating by brazing and demonstrates that this relatively unknown coating technique offers complementary possibilities to other well-established coating processes. It is shown that the specific possibilities of coating by brazing create a niche where this coating technique can offer superior solutions.

Advances in Brazing

Advances in Brazing
Science, Technology and Applications

by Dušan P Sekulić

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0857096508
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brazing processes offer enhanced control, adaptability and cost-efficiency in the joining of materials. Unsurprisingly, this has lead to great interest and investment in the area. Drawing on important research in the field, Advances in brazing provides a clear guide to the principles, materials, methods and key applications of brazing. Part one introduces the fundamentals of brazing, including molten metal wetting processes, strength and margins of safety of brazed joints, and modeling of associated physical phenomena. Part two goes on to consider specific materials, such as super alloys, filler metals for high temperature brazing, diamonds and cubic boron nitride, and varied ceramics and intermetallics. The brazing of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals is also explored before applications of brazing and brazed materials are discussed in part three. Brazing of cutting materials, use of coating techniques, and metal-nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications are reviewed, along with fluxless brazing, the use of glasses and glass ceramics for high temperature applications and nickel-based filler metals for components in contact with drinking water. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Advances in brazing is a technical guide for any professionals requiring an understanding of brazing processes, and offers a deeper understanding of the subject to researchers and engineers within the field of joining. Reviews the advances of brazing processes in joining materials Discusses the fundamentals of brazing and considers specific materials, including super alloys, filler metals, ceramics and intermetallics Brazing of cutting materials and structural applications are also discussed

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
14. Brazing of cutting materials

by W. Tillmann,A. Elrefaey,L. Wojarski

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088850
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An important brazing application is the production of cutting and machining tools. This chapter provides an overview of brazing alloys for the joining of cutting materials. Process-related problems and solutions are presented and discussed. High strength values can be achieved with the right filler alloy and joint design. Most cemented carbides consist of a hard material such as tungsten carbide and a metallic binder. Due to the high carbide content, wetting and bonding reactions have to be monitored. Addition of active elements can help to induce a wetting reaction. Brazing ceramic cutting materials requires the use of active filler alloys to achieve a wetting reaction. The chapter reviews the alloys required. A joint can be weakened by interfacial effects or mismatches in physical properties. Employing the right filler metal with an adapted brazing process can significantly improve joint quality. Stress calculations based on the finite element method contribute to better joint design with reduced stress levels.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
8. Brazing of nickel, ferrite and titanium–aluminum intermetallics

by H. Peng

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088796
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Intermetallics have many metallic characteristics, including luster, and electrical and thermal conductivity. Ordered intermetallic structural materials have recently been the focus of many investigations. The physical and brazing properties of Ni–Al system intermetallics, Fe–Al intermetallics and Ti–Al intermetallics are presented in this chapter, including brazing methods, joint microstructure and corresponding mechanical strengths. The suitability of a variety of brazing filler metals for Ti–Al intermetallics is also discussed, and an extensive comparison is made between the brazing of traditional materials and those including more than three intermetallics.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
13. Brazing of carbon–carbon (C/C) composites to metals

by T.-T. Ikeshoji

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088842
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The brazing of carbon–carbon (C/C) composites and metals is a necessary manufacturing technique for some high-performance applications. In this chapter, the fundamentals of brazing C/C composites to metals are described including the wettability of the brazing filler on C/C composites and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) difference between C/C composites and metals. Commercially available brazing fillers for the brazing of C/C composites and various metals are listed. The effect of fiber orientation on the joint strength of C/C composites and titanium is described. The manufacturing method for overcoming the mismatch in CTE between C/C composites and metals is also described.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
1. The wetting process in brazing

by N. Eustathopoulos,F. Hodaj,O. Kozlova

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088729
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fundamental equations of wetting and adhesion are presented and the contact angles of non-reactive liquid metals and molten oxides on different types of solids are interpreted. The main features of reactive wetting are briefly described and illustrated. The two types of brazing used in practice (capillary brazing and sandwich brazing) are defined and the thermodynamics and kinetics of capillary infiltration are presented. The different configurations expected to occur in ‘sandwich brazing’ at varying intrinsic contact angles are described and illustrated. Three examples of brazing of metals and ceramics in non-reactive and reactive systems are discussed to show how wetting can affect brazability and the properties of brazed joints.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
19. Fluxless brazing of aluminium

by D.K. Hawksworth

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088907
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The creation of a thermally induced metallic bond between aluminium components in the absence of powdered brazing fluxes has been achieved using a number of different techniques. Oxide disruption to promote the wetting and flow of filler metal on the surface is necessary for brazed joint formation. This can be achieved by making modifications to the brazing sheet surface, filler metal alloy and the use of composite alloy–flux materials. Different inert atmosphere brazing techniques and associated brazing mechanisms are described, including nickel brazing, filler metal alloying, electrochemical surface treatment and composite filler material developments.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
16. Metal–nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications

by C.A. Walker

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088877
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Metal–nonmetal brazing is an established joining method used to fabricate products such as hermetic electronic packages, insulators for power generation and turbo-machinery components. Brazing presents opportunities for the materials engineer seeking to utilize recently engineered materials in advanced applications and extreme environments. Three commonly used brazing methods used for joining metals to nonmetals will be discussed: conventional brazing methods that use metallization coatings on the nonmetal surface to be brazed; active brazing methods that eliminate the need for metallization coatings; and direct brazing methods utilizing conventional brazing filler metals to join and seal packages without prior metallization.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
12. Brazing of metal and ceramic joints

by S. Hausner,B. Wielage

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088834
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This contribution presents the state of the art in brazing metal–ceramic compounds. General problems during brazing of metal and ceramic and different process variations with appropriate brazing materials are described. The brazing process itself and interesting examination methods for metal–ceramic compounds are explained. For a selected material combination, the microstructure and strength behaviour are described. In the final section, recent results for induction brazing of metal–ceramic compounds are introduced as an energy-efficient alternative to conventional furnace brazing processes. The process-specific basics of induction brazing and furnace brazing, as well as the microstructure and strength behaviour for both processes, are compared.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
9. Brazing of aluminium and aluminium to steel

by V.F. Khorunov,O.M. Sabadash

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 012808880X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter focuses on the problems of reactive-flux brazing and soldering of aluminium and aluminium to steel. High-temperature fluxes of the K,Al,Si/F salt system improve wetting and capillary properties of filler metals during brazing. The possibility of brazing aluminium using a reactive flux without a filler metal is established. Brazed joints on aluminium have strength equal to that of the base metal, and joints between aluminium and steel preserve their performance after thermal cycling tests. Reactive fluxes can be used for furnace, induction and arc brazing. Low-temperature fluxes based on polyatomic alcohols, which contain synthesised complex tetrafluoroborates of metals with nitrogen-bearing bases, improve conditions for formation of brazed joints on aluminium.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
4. Brazing of superalloys and the intermetallic alloy (γ-TiAl)

by V.F. Khorunov,S.V. Maksymova

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088753
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter investigates the problem of brazing heat-resistant materials – high nickel-base and γ-TiAl-base intermetallic alloys. Diffusion brazing with filler metals of the Ni–Cr–B and Ni–Cr–B–Si systems is inefficient for nickel alloys, while composite filler metals based on these systems yield satisfactory results. When used as an alternative to boron- and silicon-containing filler metals, alloys of the Ni–Cr–Zr systems do not form hard and brittle phases at the interface in the joints. Filler metals based on the Ti–Zr system are best suited for joining γ-TiAl-base intermetallic alloys. Ti–Zr–Fe and Ti–Zr–Mn alloys, which show promise as brazing filler metals are selected, and structures and mechanical properties of the brazed joints are presented.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
5. High-temperature brazing: filler metals and processing

by A. Rabinkin

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088761
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Huge technological progress in high-temperature brazing has made in the last few decades. This chapter reassesses the topic. It describes compositional and structural specifics of base metal (BM) classes at high temperatures. The classification of brazing filler metals (BFMs) is given, with some new compositions. In choosing optimal BFMs the metallurgical background is built on phase diagrams of BM and BFM and potential interactions. Novel methods of BFM placements, joint loading and heat treatment are covered. Rapidly solidified amorphous BFMs are described. The modern outlook on metallurgical paths of joint formation and an understanding of brazing mechanisms are provided. Finally, recent examples of advanced applications are given, particularly in the aerospace and automotive industries and in energy conservation and environment protection.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
6. Brazing of diamonds and cubic boron nitride

by A. Rabinkin,A.E. Shapiro,M. Boretius

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 012808877X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A quiet revolution in industry has happened over the last 50 or so years due to the use of diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN) in many applications. Joining of diamonds to various materials via brazing is very specific compared with conventional brazing due to the unique nature of diamond. This chapter describes the properties of diamond and CBN, and their wetting by and interaction with metals and alloys; factors that affect these interactions; and practical aspects of diamonds and CBN joining. Some properties of brazed joints of diamond and CBN with different metals, as well as cemented carbide inserts, are presented and discussed. Finally, application examples are provided.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
2. Strength and margins of brazed joints

by Y. Flom

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088737
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite the great advances in analytical methods available to structural engineers, designers of brazed structures have great difficulties in determining load-carrying capabilities of the brazed assemblies and predicting their failures. In this chapter we will review why such common engineering tools as finite element analysis (FEA) as well as many well-established theories (Tresca, von Mises, Highest Principal Stress, etc.) do not work well for brazed joints. This chapter will show how the classic approach of using interaction equations and the lesser-known Coulomb–Mohr failure criterion can be employed to estimate margins of safety (MS) in brazed joints.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
11. Active metal brazing of advanced ceramic composites to metallic systems

by R. Asthana,M. Singh

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088826
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) outperform traditional ceramics in many ways and have shown potential for demanding applications. Net-shape manufacture of CMC parts is challenging, and many advanced applications demand robust and reliable integration technologies such as brazing. Brazing of CMC/metal joints is reviewed, highlighting scientific issues together with a discussion of some of the challenges that brazing of CMCs presents. Brazing practices for SiC–SiC, C–SiC, C–C, ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature composites, and oxide, nitride and silicate-based composites are presented. Recent research results on interface microstructure, composition and properties are discussed. Scaling effects, time–temperature–environment dependent thermomechanical properties, design guidelines and life-prediction analyses, and tools for CMC/metal joints to be used in structures constitute future research imperatives.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
10. Controlled atmosphere brazing of aluminum

by H. Zhao,R. Woods

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088818
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Compact aluminum heat exchangers are widely used in the automotive industry. The market in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry is expected to grow. Controlled atmosphere brazing (CAB) is the state-of-the-art mass production technology. This chapter presents the manufacturing process for compact aluminum heat exchangers (e.g. micro-channel heat exchangers) using CAB. Suitable aluminum alloys are introduced and the principles of brazing sheet metallurgy, filler metal selection and application are described. Fluoride fluxes and recent developments in flux modification and application methods are discussed, and wetting and flow behavior of molten aluminum filler metals during brazing are explored. Some phenomena due to filler/base metal interactions are included. Recent developments of CAB heat exchanger materials with enhanced corrosion resistance are reviewed, and corrosion testing methods are discussed.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
7. Brazing of oxide, carbide, nitride and composite ceramics

by H. Peng

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088788
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ceramics are inorganic non-metallic materials made from natural or synthetic compounds using shaping and high-temperature sintering processes. At present, the poor plasticity and low impact resistance of engineering ceramics have limited their further application. Joining ceramics or composites to metal is challenging because of their chemical dissimilarity and differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. The complexity and high cost of procedures that can overcome these problems limit their application. In this chapter, the difficulties of brazing ceramics and solutions are presented. The brazing of oxide ceramics, nitride ceramics, carbide ceramics and C/C composites is discussed in more detail.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
3. Modeling of the sequence of phenomena in brazing

by D.P. Sekulić

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088745
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The phenomena involved in a brazing process constitute a set of very complex spatially distributed, transient physical and chemical processes, influenced by multiple parameters. This has been difficult to model reliably. This chapter offers a high level review of three broad areas of modeling: (i) the heating/cooling process during brazing, (ii) the thermomechanical behavior of brazed assemblies, and (iii) micro-scale phenomena, taking place in the joint zone and primarily related to transport phenomena. This discussion illustrates the importance of modeling brazing processes and its increasing contribution to the long-lasting success of the art.

Advances in brazing

Advances in brazing
18. Brazing of nickel-based filler metals for pipes and other components in contact with drinking water

by I. Hoyer,B. Wielage

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-03-04
  • Pages : 620
  • ISBN : 0128088893
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The amendment of the Drinking Water Directive has reduced the permissible nickel ion content in drinking water from 50μg/l to 20μg/l. The development of draft standards has begun on a European level so that national standards can be adjusted and transformed to meet European and international standards. For example, DIN EN 15664-1, valid since June 2008, regulates the influence of metallic materials on water intended for human consumption. Since heat exchangers joined with nickel-based filler metals are applied in the equipment for drinking water systems, there is a possible risk of exceeding the limits for nickel ions. So far, components joined with nickelbased filler metals have been applied according to the 5% rule defined in DIN 50930-6. Under the present circumstances, the ban on nickel-based filler metals as a result of the amendment of the Drinking Water Directive will cause severe economic losses for the suppliers of solders as well as for customers. Nickelbased filler metals have not yet been included in the list of harmless materials. Investigations on the release of nickel ions into drinking water carried out according to DIN EN 15664-1 are presented. These investigations are one step forward for the inclusion of nickel-based filler metals in the list of harmless materials. Further measures, which will also be reported in this contribution, have to be taken.

RECENT ADVANCES IN BRAZING.

RECENT ADVANCES IN BRAZING.
A Book

by G. M. SLAUGHTER,W. J. WERNER,R. G. GILLILAND,J. P. HAMMOND

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 7
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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