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Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry

Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry
A Book

by Markus H.A. Piro

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2020-03-20
  • Pages : 670
  • ISBN : 008102651X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Nuclear Fuel Chemistry presents a high-level description of nuclear fuel chemistry based on the most recent research and advances. Dr. Markus H.A. Piro and his team of global, expert contributors cover all aspects of both the conventional uranium-based nuclear fuel cycle and non-conventional fuel cycles, including mining, refining, fabrication, and long-term storage, as well as emerging nuclear technologies, such as accident tolerant fuels and molten salt materials. Aimed at graduate students, researchers, academics and practicing engineers and regulators, this book will provide the reader with a single reference from which to learn the fundamentals of classical thermodynamics and radiochemistry. Consolidates the latest research on nuclear fuel chemistry into one comprehensive reference, covering all aspects of traditional and non-traditional nuclear fuel cycles Includes contributions from world-renowned experts from many countries representing government, industry and academia Covers a variety of fuel designs, including conventional uranium dioxide, mixed oxides, research reactor fuels, and molten salt fuels Written by experts with hands-on experience in the development of such designs

Advances in Nuclear Fuel

Advances in Nuclear Fuel
A Book

by Shripad T. Revankar

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2012-02-22
  • Pages : 186
  • ISBN : 9535100424
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Worldwide there are more than 430 nuclear power plants operating and more plants are being constructed or planned for construction. For nuclear power to be sustainable the nuclear fuel must be sustainable and there should be adequate nuclear fuel waste management program. Continuous technological advances will lead towards sustainable nuclear fuel through closed fuel cycles and advance fuel development. This focuses on challenges and issues that need to be addressed for better performance and safety of nuclear fuel in nuclear plants. These focused areas are on development of high conductivity new fuels, radiation induced corrosion, fuel behavior during abnormal events in reactor, and decontamination of radioactive material.

Comparative Evaluation of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Techniques for Advances [i.e. Advanced] Fuel Cycle Concepts

Comparative Evaluation of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Techniques for Advances [i.e. Advanced] Fuel Cycle Concepts
A Book

by Guna Seelan Selvaduray

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1978
  • Pages : 606
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a?single-tier? system or a?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas:? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either?single-tier? or?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear fuel cycle Development of advanced tools for designing reactors with reduced margins and lower costs? Long-term nuclear reactor development requires basic science breakthroughs: Understanding of materials behavior under extreme environmental conditions Creation of new, efficient, environmentally benign chemical separations methods Modeling and simulation to improve nuclear reaction cross-section data, design new materials and separation system, and propagate uncertainties within the fuel cycle Improvement of proliferation resistance by strengthening safeguards technologies and decreasing the attractiveness of nuclear materials A series of translational tools is proposed to advance the AFCI objectives and to bring the basic science concepts and processes promptly into the technological sphere. These tools have the potential to revolutionize the approach to nuclear engineering R & D by replacing lengthy experimental campaigns with a rigorous approach based on modeling, key fundamental experiments, and advanced simulations.

Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction

Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction
A Series of Advances

by Bruce A. Moyer

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2009-08-19
  • Pages : 673
  • ISBN : 9781420059700
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The growth in the world’s nuclear industry, motivated by peaking world oil supplies, concerns about the greenhouse effect, and domestic needs for energy independence, has resulted in a heightened focus on the need for next-generation nuclear fuel-cycle technologies. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: A Series of Advances, Volume 19 provides a comprehensive look at the state of the science underlying solvent extraction in its role as the most powerful separation technique for the reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Capturing the current technology and scientific progress as it exists today and looking ahead to potential developments, the book examines the overall state of solvent extraction in reprocessing, new molecules for increased selectivity and performance, methods for predicting extractant properties, and actinide-lanthanide group separation. The contributors also explore the simultaneous extraction of radionuclides by mixing extractants, the cause and nature of third-phase formation, the effects of radiation on the solvent and its performance, analytical techniques for measuring process concentrations, new centrifugal contactors for more efficient processing, and new chemistry using novel media. The long-term vision of many professionals in the field entails a proliferation-free nuclear energy economy in which little or no waste is stored or released into the environment and all potential energy values in spent nuclear fuel are recycled. This text opens a window on that possibility, offering insight from world leaders on the cutting edge of nuclear research.

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology
A Book

by Ernest J. Henley

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 565
  • ISBN : 1461328624
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The present volume in our annual review series reviews a wide range of developments, giving a broad interpretation to the "technology" of our title. Starting at the beginning, Science, we have the review of basic nuclear physics data of Walker and Weaver for reactor kinetics, particularly, there fore, delayed neutron data. In the search for better and better accuracy, it is being realized that this involves the closest scrutiny of fundamental data, given to us here from the Birmingham school. Associated with this review of data is the review from Italy by Professor Pacilio and his co workers of the theory of reactor kinetics in the stochastic form, and a valuable compilation of the theory underlying a wide range of practical techniques. Tending more to technology come the papers by Jervis, reviewing the application of digital computers to the control of large nuclear power stations as developed in both the united Kingdom and Canada, Pickman's review of the design of fuels for heavy water reactors, and the account by Ishi kawa and Inabe of the new Japanese Research Reactor Program, itself initially directed largely to fuel element studies. The balance of the volume is made up of more philoso phical contributions to the practicalities of nuclear power.

Recent Advances In Actinide Science

Recent Advances In Actinide Science
A Book

by Iain May,N D Bryan,Rebeca Alvares

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2007-10-31
  • Pages : 836
  • ISBN : 1847555365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Actinide elements and their chemistry have a significant number of applications. Bringing together contributions from the leading experts in the field, Recent Advances in Actinide Science covers six main topics: * Analysis, the environment and biotransformations * Coordination and organometallic chemistry * Heavy elements * Nuclear fuels, materials and waste forms * Separations and solution chemistry * Spectroscopy, magnetism and superconductivity Covering a wide range of research from pure academic studies to applied industrial science and technology, this book distils the knowledge and achievements gained in actinide science over the last four years. This high level book is aimed at researchers, both industrial and academic, and provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of actinide science.

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles, September 12-14, 2005

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles, September 12-14, 2005
A Book

by C. Burns,P. Peterson,D. Dixon,G. Henry,J. Sackett,B. Moyer,A. Navrotsky,K. McCarthy,W. Weber,K. Nash,J. Laidler,T. Allen,K. E. Sickafus,N. Edelstein,P. Finck,L. Morss,M. Chadwick,J. Tulenko,K. Pasamehmetoglu,M. Corradini,P. Oblozinsky,M. Goff

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a?single-tier? system or a?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas:? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either?single-tier? or?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear fuel cycle Development of advanced tools for designing reactors with reduced margins and lower costs? Long-term nuclear reactor development requires basic science breakthroughs: Understanding of materials behavior under extreme environmental conditions Creation of new, efficient, environmentally benign chemical separations methods Modeling and simulation to improve nuclear reaction cross-section data, design new materials and separation system, and propagate uncertainties within the fuel cycle Improvement of proliferation resistance by strengthening safeguards technologies and decreasing the attractiveness of nuclear materials A series of translational tools is proposed to advance the AFCI objectives and to bring the basic science concepts and processes promptly into the technological sphere. These tools have the potential to revolutionize the approach to nuclear engineering R & D by replacing lengthy experimental campaigns with a rigorous approach based on modeling, key fundamental experiments, and advanced simulations.

Gas-cooled Reactors Today

Gas-cooled Reactors Today
Proceedings of the Conference Held in Bristol on 20-24 September 1982

by British Nuclear Energy Society

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1982
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN : 9780727701664
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Papers are organised by the following session titles: 'Magnox Experience and Nuclear Fuel Testing', 'AGR Fuel', 'Graphite Corrosion and Coolant Chemistry', 'HTR and GCFR Fuel', 'Structural Materials in Helium-cooled Reactors' and 'Structural Materials for Magnox and AGRs'.

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology

Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology
A Book

by Ernest J. Henley,Herbert Kouts

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-05-12
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 1483224589
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants. Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider the synthesis of graft copolymers by radiation-induced graft polymerization. This book discusses as well the processes of technical importance in the nuclear field, such as the bonding of fuel materials to cladding, or the release of fission gases from fuel elements. The final chapter deals with the effects of nuclear radiation in causing chemical changes in matter. This book is a valuable resource for scientists and engineers.

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-07-22
  • Pages : 4868
  • ISBN : 0081028660
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Materials in a nuclear environment are exposed to extreme conditions of radiation, temperature and/or corrosion, and in many cases the combination of these makes the material behavior very different from conventional materials. This is evident for the four major technological challenges the nuclear technology domain is facing currently: (i) long-term operation of existing Generation II nuclear power plants, (ii) the design of the next generation reactors (Generation IV), (iii) the construction of the ITER fusion reactor in Cadarache (France), (iv) and the intermediate and final disposal of nuclear waste. In order to address these challenges, engineers and designers need to know the properties of a wide variety of materials under these conditions and to understand the underlying processes affecting changes in their behavior, in order to assess their performance and to determine the limits of operation. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials 2e provides broad ranging, validated summaries of all the major topics in the field of nuclear material research for fission as well as fusion reactor systems. Attention is given to the fundamental scientific aspects of nuclear materials: fuel and structural materials for fission reactors, waste materials, and materials for fusion reactors. The articles are written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource of information. Most of the chapters from the first Edition have been revised and updated and a significant number of new topics are covered in completely new material. During the ten years between the two editions, the challenge for applications of nuclear materials has been significantly impacted by world events, public awareness, and technological innovation. Materials play a key role as enablers of new technologies, and we trust that this new edition of Comprehensive Nuclear Materials has captured the key recent developments. Critically reviews the major classes and functions of materials, supporting the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments Comprehensive resource for up-to-date and authoritative information which is not always available elsewhere, even in journals Provides an in-depth treatment of materials modeling and simulation, with a specific focus on nuclear issues Serves as an excellent entry point for students and researchers new to the field

Actinoid Series Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition

Actinoid Series Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
  • Release : 2013-06-21
  • Pages : 226
  • ISBN : 1481669222
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Actinoid Series Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Uranium. The editors have built Actinoid Series Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Uranium in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Actinoid Series Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Nuclear and Radiochemistry
Fundamentals and Applications

by Jens-Volker Kratz

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-10-05
  • Pages : 976
  • ISBN : 3527831959
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The leading resource for anyone looking for an accessible and authoritative introduction to nuclear and radiochemistry In the newly revised Fourth Edition of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications, distinguished chemist Jens-Volker Kratz delivers a two-volume handbook that has become the gold standard in teaching and learning nuclear and radiochemistry. The books cover the theory and fundamentals of the subject before moving on the technical side of nuclear chemistry, with coverage of nuclear energy, nuclear reactors, and radionuclides in the life sciences. This latest edition discusses the details and impact of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear disasters, as well as new research facilities, including FAIR and HIM. It also incorporates new methods for target preparation and new processes for nuclear fuel recycling, like EURO-GANEX. Finally, the volumes extensively cover environmental technological advances and the effects of radioactivity on the environment. Readers will also find: - An accessible and thorough introduction to the fundamental concepts of nuclear physics and chemistry, including atomic processes, classical mechanics, relativistic mechanics, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - Comprehensive explorations of radioactivity in nature, radioelements, radioisotopes and their atomic masses, and other physical properties of nuclei - Practical discussions of the nuclear force, nuclear structure, decay modes, radioactive decay kinetics, and nuclear radiation - In-depth examinations of the statistical considerations relevant to radioactivity measurements Written for practicing nuclear chemists and atomic physicists, Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications is also an indispensable resource for nuclear physicians, power engineers, and professionals working in the nuclear industry.

Storage and Hybridization of Nuclear Energy

Storage and Hybridization of Nuclear Energy
Techno-economic Integration of Renewable and Nuclear Energy

by Hitesh Bindra,Shripad Revankar

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-11-22
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 0128139765
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Storage and Hybridization of Nuclear Energy: Techno-economic Integration of Renewable and Nuclear Energy provides a unique analysis of the storage and hybridization of nuclear and renewable energy. Editor Bindra and his team of expert contributors present various global methodologies to obtain the techno-economic feasibility of the integration of storage or hybrid cycles in nuclear power plants. Aimed at those studying, researching and working in the nuclear engineering field, this book offers nuclear reactor technology vendors, nuclear utilities workers and regulatory commissioners a very unique resource on how to access reliable, flexible and clean energy from variable-generation. Presents a unique view on the technologies and systems available to integrate renewables and nuclear energy Provides insights into the different methodologies and technologies currently available for the storage of energy Includes case studies from well-known experts working on specific integration concepts around the world

Analytical Chemistry of Uranium

Analytical Chemistry of Uranium
Environmental, Forensic, Nuclear, and Toxicological Applications

by Zeev Karpas

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2014-11-21
  • Pages : 324
  • ISBN : 148222058X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Accurate uranium analysis, and particularly for isotope measurements, is essential in many fields, including environmental studies, geology, hydrogeology, the nuclear industry, health physics, and homeland security. Nevertheless, only a few scientific books are dedicated to uranium in general and analytical chemistry aspects in particular. Analytical Chemistry of Uranium: Environmental, Forensic, Nuclear, and Toxicological Applications covers the fascinating advances in the field of analytical chemistry of uranium. Exploring a broad range of topics, the book focuses on the analytical aspects of industrial processes that involve uranium, its presence in the environment, health and biological implications of exposure to uranium compounds, and nuclear forensics. Topics include: Examples of procedures used to characterize uranium in environmental samples of soil, sediments, vegetation, water, and air Analytical methods used to examine the rigorous specifications of uranium and its compounds deployed in the nuclear fuel cycle Health aspects of exposure to uranium and the bioassays used for exposure assessment Up-to-date analytical techniques used in nuclear forensics for safeguards in support of non-proliferation, including single particle characterization Each chapter includes an overview of the topic and several examples to demonstrate the analytical procedures. This is followed by sample preparation, separation and purification techniques where necessary. The book supplies readers with a solid understanding of the analytical chemistry approach used today for characterizing the different facets of uranium, providing a good starting point for further investigation into this important element.

Advances in Nuclear Engineering

Advances in Nuclear Engineering
A Book

by John Ray Dunning,Bruce R. Prentice

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1957
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Actinide Chemistry

Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Actinide Chemistry
A Book

by John K. Gibson,Wibe A. de Jong

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2018-01-08
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 1119115531
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A review of contemporary actinide research that focuses on new advances in experiment and theory, and the interplay between these two realms Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Actinide Chemistry offers a comprehensive review of the key aspects of actinide research. Written by noted experts in the field, the text includes information on new advances in experiment and theory and reveals the interplay between these two realms. The authors offer a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to the nature of actinide chemistry, and explore the interplay between multiple experiments and theory, as well as between basic and applied actinide chemistry. The text covers the basic science used in contemporary studies of the actinide systems, from basic synthesis to state-of-the-art spectroscopic and computational techniques. The authors provide contemporary overviews of each topic area presented and describe the current and anticipated experimental approaches for the field, as well as the current and future computational chemistry and materials techniques. In addition, the authors explore the combination of experiment and theory. This important resource: Provides an essential resource the reviews the key aspects of contemporary actinide research Includes information on new advances in experiment and theory, and the interplay between the two Covers the basic science used in contemporary studies of the actinide systems, from basic synthesis to state-of-the-art spectroscopic and computational techniques Focuses on the interplay between multiple experiments and theory, as well as between basic and applied actinide chemistry Written for academics, students, professionals and researchers, this vital text contains a thorough review of the key aspects of actinide research and explores the most recent advances in experiment and theory.

Structural Chemistry of Inorganic Actinide Compounds

Structural Chemistry of Inorganic Actinide Compounds
A Book

by Sergey Krivovichev,Peter Burns,Ivan Tananaev

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2006-12-08
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 9780080467917
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Structural Chemistry of Inorganic Actinide Compounds is a collection of 13 reviews on structural and coordination chemistry of actinide compounds. Within the last decade, these compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their importance for radioactive waste management, catalysis, ion-exchange and absorption applications, etc. Synthetic and natural actinide compounds are also of great environmental concern as they form as a result of alteration of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste under Earth surface conditions, during burn-up of nuclear fuel in reactors, represent oxidation products of uranium miles and mine tailings, etc. The actinide compounds are also of considerable interest to material scientists due to the unique electronic properties of actinides that give rise to interesting physical properties controlled by the structural architecture of respective compounds. The book provides both general overview and review of recent developments in the field, including such emergent topics as nanomaterials and nanoparticles and their relevance to the transfer of actinides under environmental conditions. * Covers over 2,000 actinide compounds including materials, minerals and coordination polymers * Summarizes recent achievements in the field * Some chapters reveal (secret) advances made by the Soviet Union during the 'Cold war'

LIFE Materials

LIFE Materials
Overview of Fuels and Structural Materials Issues

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 171
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including un-enriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to divert in large quantities. Several topical reports are being prepared on the materials and processes required for the LIFE engine. Specific materials of interest include: (1) Baseline TRISO Fuel (TRISO); (2) Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) & Other Alternative Solid Fuels; (3) Beryllium (Be) & Molten Lead Blankets (Pb/PbLi); (4) Molten Salt Coolants (FLIBE/FLiNaBe/FLiNaK); (5) Molten Salt Fuels (UF4 + FLIBE/FLiNaBe); (6) Cladding Materials for Fuel & Beryllium; (7) ODS FM Steel (ODS); (8) Solid First Wall (SFW); and (9) Solid-State Tritium Storage (Hydrides).

Advanced Neutron Imaging for Nuclear Engineering Applications

Advanced Neutron Imaging for Nuclear Engineering Applications
A Book

by Adrian S. Losko

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 218
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The growing demand for electrical power presents one of the major challenges for the well-being of future generations. For the foreseeable future, it seems highly unlikely that the projected energy needs can be met by fossil and/or alternative energy sources alone; therefore, nuclear power will continue to play a significant role in power generation. Neutrons can be used to study a wide range of problems related to these efforts, providing a unique probe ranging from crystal chemistry of nuclear fuels to engineering diffraction of structural materials used in nuclear reactors. Traditionally, most experimental investigations with neutrons invoke diffraction techniques. However, recent advances in neutron detection resulted in new capabilities of material characterization using neutron imaging, which provides unparalleled opportunities particularly for nuclear materials, where heavy elements (e.g., uranium) need to be imaged together with light elements (e.g., hydrogen, oxygen). The inherent energy sorting of the neutrons at pulsed sources permits performing isotope-specific studies through selected settings of the contrast to a particular isotope (via neutron resonances). Moreover, the application of state-of-the-art tomographic reconstruction algorithms allows reconstructing, in 3D, the spatial distribution in cm-sized samples of quantities derived from these effects, in particular element or isotope distributions. None of this is currently possible with X-ray or reactor neutron radiography, and at present this technique is only possible at pulsed neutron sources at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Spallation Neutron Source at Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, ISIS in the United Kingdom, and at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Japan, of which only the J-PARC facility has a dedicated beam line for this technique. In this dissertation, I present the results of spatially-resolved neutron imaging and diffraction experiments (including texture measurements) on non-irradiated nuclear fuels. Furthermore, I present absolute isotopic areal density measurements with a two-dimensional detector and a pixel size of 55[mu]m using the time-structured LANSCE neutron beam applied to some nuclear-engineering application for the first time. More specifically, I introduce a novel, energy-resolved neutron imaging technique that utilizes the physical properties of neutron cross sections by analyzing nuclear resonances with the SAMMY code, which was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the analysis of cross section data in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. To the best of my knowledge, this work presents the first applications beyond demonstration experiments of absorption based energy-resolved neutron imaging by applying this technique to characterize the isotope distributions in nuclear fuel and study the diffusion of ions dissolved in aquaeous solution into cement. My dissertation emphasizes the benefits of neutron radiography as a non-destructive characterization method to guide future experiments on post-irradiated nuclear fuels, enabling the quantification of isotope concentrations for a variety of imaging problems.