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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Couple Relationships

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Couple Relationships
Impacts on Relationship Quality and Partner Selection

by Michael Redd

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 148
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of the present study was to replicate the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study framework, using relationship outcomes, and studied within the context of couple relationships. A thorough review of the literature on trauma, its prevalence, prior studies on ACEs, trauma and couples, and partner selection is presented. A secondary data analysis of 146 couples from a clinical source was used to test the present study's hypotheses. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to test the hypothesis that an individual's ACE exposure history would be negatively related to both their own and their partner's reported relationship quality. A cluster analysis was used to test the hypothesis that couples could be statistically grouped by ACE score combinations, and an ANOVA was used to test average group differences on relationship quality. Regression analyses were used to test hypotheses about partner selection. Results from the analysis include: (1) a small but significant negative impact of an individual's ACEs on their own reported relationship quality, but no finding of a significant impact on their partner's reported relationship quality; (2) a small but significant relationship between partner ACE scores; (3) a preliminary ability to group couples by ACE score combinations into three clusters (Low-Low, High-Moderate, Moderate-High) and a small but significant difference between two of the clusters; (4) an increased likelihood that couples will be partnered with those who have more similar than different ACE scores, and a significant trend that as ACEs increase, the likelihood of being partnered with someone who has similar ACEs will decrease; (5) a small but significant dose-response relationship between increasing ACEs and the likelihood of being partnered with someone who has more than minimal ACEs. Further discussion of the results, implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also included.

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Adverse Childhood Experiences
Using Evidence to Advance Research, Practice, Policy, and Prevention

by Gordon G. J. G. Asmundson,Tracie O. Afifi

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-10
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 0128160659
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences: Using Evidence to Advance Research, Practice, Policy, and Prevention defines ACEs, provides a summary of the past 20 years of ACEs research, as well as provides guidance for the future directions for the field. It includes a review of the original ACEs Study, definitions of ACEs, and how ACEs are typically assessed. Other content includes a review of how ACEs are related to mental and physical health outcome, the neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking ACEs to psychopathology, sexual violence and sexual health outcomes, and violence across the lifespan. Important and contemporary issues in the field, like reconsidering how ACEs should be defined and assessed, the appropriateness of routine ACEs screening, thinking about ACEs from a public health and global perspective, strategies for preventing ACEs, understanding ACEs and trauma-informed care and resilience, and the importance of safe stable and nurturing environments for children are discussed. Adverse Childhood Experiences is a useful evidence-based resource for professionals working with children and families, including physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, lawyers, judges, as well as public health leaders, policy makers, and government delegates. Reviews the past 20 years of ACEs research Examines ACEs and mental and physical health Discusses the neurodevelopment mechanisms of ACEs and psychopathology Examines ACEs and violence across the lifespan Reconsiders the definition and assessment of ACEs Examines the issue of routine ACEs screening Discusses ACEs from a public health and global perspective Summarizes effective ACEs prevention, trauma-informed care, and resilience Provides recommendations for the future directions of the ACEs field

The Aces Revolution!

The Aces Revolution!
The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences

by John Richard Trayser

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Release : 2016-01-25
  • Pages : 106
  • ISBN : 9781523710195
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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John's book does a superb job of giving hope on how to prevent ACEs and has remarkable results for EVERY FAMILY THAT READS THE SECOND PART OF THE BOOK OUT LOUD TOGETHER! Conversations will begin that are essential to heartfelt communication. The ACE (Adverse Childhood Experiences) study details the significant impact of childhood trauma on the emotional and physical well being for the remainder of your life. John's book does a great job of showing the IMPACT of ACEs in all phases of our lives...and WE ARE ALL IMPACTED...even if you have zero ACEs yourself. This book gives hope to those who have lived in the shadows of pain and vulnerability from trauma in their childhood. His adopted grand daughter was a 7 ACE score...and after 9 years of love from the family...feels like a ZERO! You can change your stars with LOVE.

Adverse Childhood Experiences Effects

Adverse Childhood Experiences Effects
Individual ACEs Score: Childhood Trauma Psychology Books

by Alvera Devillez

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021-04-05
  • Pages : 50
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have a tremendous impact on future violence victimization and perpetration, and lifelong health and opportunity. Working together, we can help create neighborhoods, communities, and a world in which every child can thrive. This book explores the 10 areas used to determine an individual ACEs score. The maximum score is a 10. The higher the ACEs score, the more likely the person is to experience a more difficult path in adulthood. This is the story of how I became a perfect 10.

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Adverse Childhood Experiences
What Students and Health Professionals Need to Know

by Roberta Waite,Ruth Ann Ryan

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2019-08-09
  • Pages : 172
  • ISBN : 0429536798
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This guide provides healthcare students and professionals with a foundational background on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) – traumatic early life experiences, which can have a profound impact on health in later life. ACEs can include being a victim of abuse, neglect or exposure to risk in the home or community. How healthcare students and professionals learn to recognize, react and respond to persons affected by trauma will lay the foundation for their relationships with patients. This book intentionally uses micro-to-macro lenses accompanied by a structural competency framework to elucidate health implications across the lifespan. It explores the nature of adversity and its effects on the physical, emotional, cognitive and social health of individuals, communities and society. The book, written by two experienced psychiatric nurses, will equip healthcare students and professionals with an understanding for critical change in practice and offer action steps designed to assist them with prevention and intervention approaches and steps to help build resilience. This book will be core reading for healthcare students within mental health, pediatric and primary care nursing courses. It will also be of interest to students and professionals in the social work, psychology and public health fields who are exploring resilience and trauma-informed practices

Adverse Childhood Experiences ACEs: Why All the Fuss

Adverse Childhood Experiences ACEs: Why All the Fuss
England, the North East and Cumbria

by Ruth Whiteside,Elly Chapple,Wendy Thorley,Wendy Thorley Editor

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019-05
  • Pages : 204
  • ISBN : 9781096500407
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents a whole child, whole family, whole community overview of what ACEs means to families, children and young people in the North East of England and Cumbria. These regions of England have some of the highest levels of childhood adversity in England and this is reflected in the higher levels of risk taking behaviours young people take. It is clear that Adverse Childhood Experiences are a 'big deal' in the North for this generation and the next. Time for discussion is a luxury these families do not have. If not now- when? If not us- who? The book was written and developed in support of the Great North ACE conference 2019 at St James Park and provides the basis of understanding ACEs: why all the fuss and is applicable for any area anywhere in understanding why we need to see the whole child, the whole family and the whole community.

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Adverse Childhood Experiences
High ACEs Score & Its Effects: Books On Childhood Trauma

by Nikki Klawiter

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021-04-04
  • Pages : 50
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have a tremendous impact on future violence victimization and perpetration, and lifelong health and opportunity. Working together, we can help create neighborhoods, communities, and a world in which every child can thrive. This book explores the 10 areas used to determine an individual ACEs score. The maximum score is a 10. The higher the ACEs score, the more likely the person is to experience a more difficult path in adulthood. This is the story of how I became a perfect 10.

Long-term Psychobiological Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Long-term Psychobiological Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences
Implications for Vulnerability and Resilience

by Gunther Pascal Meinlschmidt

  • Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 181
  • ISBN : 3865375863
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adaptive Functioning

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adaptive Functioning
A Book

by Jessie Bridgewater

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 66
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An adverse childhood experience (ACE) is a negative life event experienced during childhood such as abuse, neglect, and witnessing domestic violence. ACEs have traditionally been measured using a cumulative score, but recent studies have demonstrated the importance of considering ACE type and impact. The former refers to ACE categories, such as childhood maltreatment, while the latter refers to how an individual rates the current impact an ACE(s) is continuing to have on their lives (e.g., mostly positive vs. mostly negative). Furthermore, although many studies have found ethnic differences in the number of ACEs, the majority of these studies consist of primarily White samples. Additionally, while a vast portion of the literature delineates the negative outcomes associated with enduring ACEs, there are some individuals who effectively adapt in the face of adversity. Although adaptive functioning is often assessed using a total score, there is extensive support for examining multi-domain functioning. To address the lack of diversity (i.e., age and ethnicity) of past studies, the sample of the current study was comprised of young adults (i.e., 18-29) of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, the current study addressed gaps in the literature by examining how the relationships among ACE predictors and adaptive functioning outcomes varied depending on the measurement of these constructs. Furthermore, the influence of ACE type and race/ethnicity was also explored. Results indicated that the relationship between ACEs and adaptive functioning do change depending on how these constructs are measured and when ACE type and race/ethnicity are accounted for. Future studies should further explore the relationship between ACEs and domains of adaptive functioning among young adults of diverse backgrounds.

The Adverse Childhood Experiences Recovery Workbook

The Adverse Childhood Experiences Recovery Workbook
Heal the Hidden Wounds from Childhood Affecting Your Adult Mental and Physical Health

by Glenn R. Schiraldi

  • Publisher : New Harbinger Publications
  • Release : 2021-01-02
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN : 1684036666
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Practical skills for healing the hidden wounds of childhood trauma We’re all a product of our childhood, and if you’re like most people, you have experienced some form of childhood trauma. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at the root of nearly all mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Memories associated with ACEs imprint on a child’s brain, and can manifest themselves mentally and physically throughout adulthood—even decades after the traumatic incident. So, how can you begin healing the deep wounds of ACEs and build strength and resilience? In this innovative workbook, trauma specialist Glenn Schiraldi presents practical, evidence-based skills to help you heal from ACEs. In addition to dealing with the symptoms, you’ll learn to address the root cause of your suffering, change the way your brain responds to stress and the outside world, and soothe troubling memories. Using the trauma-informed and resilience-building practices in this book, you will: Understand how toxic childhood stress is affecting your health Rewire disturbing imprints in your brain using cutting-edge skills Learn how to regulate stress and emotional arousal Discover why traditional psychological approaches might not be helping Know when and how to find the right kind of therapy Childhood trauma doesn’t have to define you for the rest of your life. With this book as your guide, you will be able to make fundamental changes and replace needless suffering with self-care, security, and contentment.

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Adverse Childhood Experiences
Predicting Cyclical Patterns Between Childhood Experiences and Adverse Behaviors in Adulthood

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 103
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are ten specific incidences occurring in childhood known to have deleterious impacts on an individual’s life (Felitti et al., 1998). The more ACEs (i.e. abuse, neglect, household dysfunction) the worse the outcomes in several domains across the lifespan—chronic health conditions, mental health disorders, social problems, and high-risk behaviors. The aim of this study was to predict a cycling pattern of specific behaviors from childhood experiences to adult behaviors by collecting self-report survey data. Participants (N =212) reported ACEs before age 18 and five specific adverse behaviors endorsed after age 18 congruent with the ACE measure evaluating household dysfunction. Participants endorsing divorce, alcoholism or drug use, mental illness, or history of incarceration or domestic violence reflected a cyclic pattern of adverse behaviors. Cycling behaviors were summed to total a Cycling Score for participants quantifying the number of behaviors endorsed in adulthood. A linear regression showed a significant positive effect in the prediction of adverse adult behaviors endorsed by an individual who has ACEs, F(1, 210) = 33.01,p

Adverse Childhood Experiences, Attachment, and the Early Years Learning Environment

Adverse Childhood Experiences, Attachment, and the Early Years Learning Environment
Research and Inclusive Practice

by Hazel G. Whitters

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020-01-20
  • Pages : 88
  • ISBN : 9780367901967
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences, Attachment, and the Early Years Learning Environment explores the concept of learning by presenting research and illustrations from practice on three major topics: adverse childhood experiences, attachment, and environment. Each child has a unique reaction to adversity in the early years, and the book discusses the effect upon approach and avoidance motivation for learning, and the rationale of trauma-informed practice. The influence from a secure attachment figure is explored, and links between emotions and involvement are presented. The book highlights the current indoor and outdoor use of natural green spaces as a response to attention-fatigue and promotes comprehension of the issues in a context of attention restoration theory. Intervention for extended families is presented as an approach to supporting development and attainment in each generation, and to achieving a legacy beyond the professional network. This book will appeal to academics, researchers, and postgraduate students in the fields of early years care and education. It will also appeal to those working within children's services.

Adverse and Protective Childhood Experiences

Adverse and Protective Childhood Experiences
A Developmental Perspective

by Jennifer Hays-Grudo,Amanda Sheffield Morris

  • Publisher : American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 9781433832116
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides an interdisciplinary lens from which to view the multiple types of effects of enduring childhood experiences, and to recommend evidence-based approaches for protecting and buffering children and repairing the negative consequences of ACEs as adults.

Alleviating the Educational Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Alleviating the Educational Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences
School-University-Community Collaboration

by R. Martin Reardon,Jack Leonard

  • Publisher : IAP
  • Release : 2020-05-01
  • Pages : 365
  • ISBN : 164802114X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent crises—whether policy-induced (e.g., family separation at the Mexico/U.S. border) or natural disaster-related (e.g., hurricanes in Florida and North Carolina and wildfires in California)—have galvanized the attention of the U.S. and international public on the plight of children who endure these traumatic events. The sheer enormity of such wrenching events tend to overshadow the trauma endured by many children whose everyday life circumstances fall short of affording them a safe, stable, and nurturing environment. At the national level, three rounds of data collection spanning January 2008 through April 2014 constituted the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) that—according to Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck, and Hambly (2013) in reporting on the 2011 round—assessed “a wide range of childhood victimizations” (pp. 614-615). Among many other findings, Finkelor et al. concluded that “overall, 57.7% of the children and youth had experienced or witnessed at least 1 to 5 aggregate exposures (assaults and bullying, sexual victimization, maltreatment by a caregiver, property victimization, or witnessing victimization) in the year before this survey” (p. 619). According to the recent re-visiting of NatSCEV II by Turner et al. (2017), “almost 1 in 4 children and adolescents ages 5-15 in the United States lived in family environments with only modest levels of safety, stability, and nurturance, while about 1 in 15 had consistently low levels across multiple domains” (p. 8). Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have both immediate and long-term impacts on children’s health and well-being (Banyard, Hambly, & Grych, 2017; Bowen, Jarrett, Stahl, Forrester, & Valmaggia, 2018; Walker & Walsh, 2015). Children do not shed their entanglement with ACEs at the schoolroom door. To highlight just one study, Jimenez, Wade, Lin, Morrow, & Reichman (2016) conducted a secondary analysis of a national urban birth cohort and found that experiencing ACEs in early childhood was “associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and [more] behavior problems in kindergarten” (p. 1). Chapter Proposals For this fifth volume in the Current Perspectives on School/University/Community Research series, we invite chapter proposals from authors who are engaged in school-university-community collaborative educational research focused on the alleviation of the educational impact of adverse childhood experiences. Authors may submit proposals to discuss research projects that have been completed or that are still in progress, but all proposals should clearly indicate the engagement of stakeholders from each of the three categories (school, university, and community). Chapter proposals of no more than 500 words are welcome. Please cite at least 10 sources and include a reference page. The proposal cover page must contain the author’s full contact information. For multiple authored proposals, please list all authors’ contact information and indicate the corresponding author. Decisions will be made and communicated by March 25, 2019, and a Manual for Authors will be provided to accepted corresponding authors. At all stages, manuscripts must conform to 6th edition APA conventions. Following the submission of full chapter drafts on June 3, 2019, a blind review process among the corresponding authors will be conducted and feedback communicated by June 24, 2019. (See Projected 2019 Deadlines.) Full chapters will range from 7,000 to 8,000 words in Times New Roman 12, double spaced text, inclusive of title, abstract, manuscript, and references and are to be submitted to the volume editors as a Microsoft Word email attachment by August 26, 2019. Graphics and images may be included. See Author Guidelines. Projected 2019 Deadlines Chapter Proposals: February 28, 2019 Notification of Invitation to Contribute Chapter: March 25, 2019 Submission of Draft Chapters for Blind Peer Review: June 3, 2019 Return of Blind Peer Reviewed Chapters to Authors: June 24, 2019 Submission of Revised Chapters: August 26, 2019 Submission of Final Chapters to IAP: October 21, 2019 Anticipated Publication in Spring 2020

P023 The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in Live Kidney Donors

P023 The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in Live Kidney Donors
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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IntroductionThe relationship between ACEs (including physical and sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence or growing up with household substance abuse) and poorer health outcomes is well established. A history of ACEs increases risks of health-harming behaviours and affects neurological, immunological and hormonal development but is not routinely considered in a live donor population. We have begun to measure ACEs as part of the psychological assessment of people offering a directed and non-directed kidney donation. MethodsAll potential live kidney donors attending the Renal Psychology Service for a pre-donation assessment completed the GP ACE questionnaire (adapted by Public Health Wales, 2015), alongside measures of psychological well-being and a semi-structured interview.ResultsTo date 11 donors (6 Male/5 female; mean age 49) have completed the ACE questionnaire. Scores ranged from 0 to 8 (median 1). Of these, 8 people had experienced at least 1 ACE and 5 had scores u2265 4.Table 1. Prevalence of Individual ACEs ACEtttttPrevalence (%)Child Maltreatment:tttVerbal abusetttt27Physical abusett 18Sexual abusett 18Neglectt 18Childhood Household Included:tParental sep/divorce t 36Domestic Violence t 18Mental Illnesst 36Alcohol abuset 36Drug uset 9Incarceration t 9DiscussionACEs were prevalent and higher than those previously found in the general population in Wales (Public Health Wales, 2015); 45% scored u2265 4 compared with 13.6% in the general population. Currently there is no evidence to exclude donors on the basis of a high ACE score but renal psychologists are well placed to counsel donors with a history of trauma and offer appropriate psycho-education. Further research into the long term health outcomes of donors with high ACE scores may contribute to an understanding of a potential link between childhood trauma and subsequent risk in live kidney donors.

Understanding the Mechanisms Through which Adverse Childhood Experiences Affect Lifetime Economic Outcomes

Understanding the Mechanisms Through which Adverse Childhood Experiences Affect Lifetime Economic Outcomes
A Book

by Stefanie Schurer

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 43
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is well known that children raised in poverty are at risk of a wide range of developmental delays and lifelong poor outcomes, but is it the economic hardship that causes this later life disadvantage, or is it the type of adversities that children experience disproportionately in economically disadvantaged households, such as parental abuse and neglect and instability, often caused by parental mental health or substance abuse problems. This paper adopts adverse childhood experiences (ACE) as a new definition of childhood poverty, and investigates whether ACE alters brain functionality of children, thus causing long-term poor human capital accumulation and economic outcomes. Data is taken from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) in the United Kingdom, which is following a birth cohort of children born in 1958 - with participants now aged 55 years old. An ACE index is constructed based on prospective childhood information, with an estimate earnings penalty of 7.3 percent for each additional ACE, and a 53.1 (34.0) percent higher probability of being welfare dependent (subjectively poor) at age 55, controlling for economic background factors. The associations are driven by parental neglect, as based on teacher assessments, with differences in earnings between neglected and non-neglected children explained by differences in human and health capital accumulated by young adulthood. The findings also highlight the multidimensionality of childhood poverty.

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Their Association with Chronic Disease and Health Service Use in the Welsh Adult Population

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Their Association with Chronic Disease and Health Service Use in the Welsh Adult Population
A Book

by Kathryn Ashton,Mark A. Bellis,Alisha Davies,Katherine A. Hardcastle,Karen Hughes

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 24
  • ISBN : 9781910768389
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Their Impact on Substance Misuse & Overall Health

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Their Impact on Substance Misuse & Overall Health
A Book

by Casey Balio

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 12
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Childhood Experiences Indirectly Affect Child Telomere Length Through Self-regulation

Adverse Childhood Experiences Indirectly Affect Child Telomere Length Through Self-regulation
A Book

by David W. Sosnowski

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 74
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The goals of present study were: (a) to examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and telomere length during childhood using ACE composite scores both with and without "new" adversities (i.e., parental death and poverty), and (b) to determine if ACEs indirectly affect telomere length through children's self-regulatory abilities (i.e., effortful control and self-control). The analytic sample consisted of national data from teachers, biological parents, and their children (N = 2,527; Mage = 9.35, SD = .36 years; 52% male; 45% Black). Results from linear regression analyses revealed a statistically significant main effect of updated (but not traditional) ACEs on child telomere length, controlling for hypothesized covariates, although the additional amount of variance explained by ACEs was negligible. Results from mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of ACEs on child telomere length through self-control, assessed via a teacher-reported Social Skills Rating System, but not effortful control. While longitudinal studies are needed to strengthen claims of causation, the present study clarifies the association between ACEs and telomere length during middle childhood, and identifies a pathway from ACEs to changes in telomere length that should be explored further.

Growing Up

Growing Up
Tales Of Childhood In Rural Minnesota: Adverse Childhood Experiences

by Orlando Kolkemeyer

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021-04-20
  • Pages : 56
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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People who grew up in rural areas had more nature-related experiences than those who grew up in urban areas. Growing up with six sisters, and one brother in rural Minnesota is a journey. Enjoy the tales of childhood shenanigans, dangerous animal encounters, near-death experiences, and all the laughs that go along with them. It's a miracle we made it out alive.