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Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials
Exposure, Toxicology, and Impact on Human Health

by Bengt Fadeel,Antonio Pietroiusti,Anna A. Shvedova

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-02-14
  • Pages : 486
  • ISBN : 0128094907
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials: Exposure, Toxicology, and Impact on Human Health, Second Edition, provides a systematic evaluation of representative engineered nanomaterials (ENM) of high volume production and their high economic importance. Each class of nanomaterials discussed includes information on what scientists, industry, regulatory agencies, and the general public need to know about nanosafety. Written by leading international experts in nanotoxicology and nanomedicine, this book gives a comprehensive view of the health impact of ENM, focusing on their potential adverse effects in exposed workers, consumers, and patients. All chapters have been updated with new sections on the endocrine system and other organ systems. In addition, other newly added sections include introductory chapters on the physio-chemical characterization of nanomaterials and interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems, as well as a new chapter that explores risk assessment and management of nanomaterials. This book fills an important need in terms of bridging the gap between experimental findings and human exposure to ENM, also detailing the clinical and pathological consequences of such exposure in the human population. Uses a schematic, non-exhaustive approach to summarizes the most important research data in this field Discusses the health implications of experimental data in nanotoxicology Presents a completely revised edition that focuses on the human health impacts of engineered nanomaterials, including many organ-specific chapters

Engineered Nanoparticles

Engineered Nanoparticles
Structure, Properties and Mechanisms of Toxicity

by Ashok K. Singh

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2015-12-04
  • Pages : 550
  • ISBN : 9780128014066
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Engineered Nanoparticles: Structure, Properties and Mechanisms of Toxicity is an indispensable introduction to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. Although research in the area of pharmacology and toxicology of ENM is rapidly advancing, a possible correlation between their physicochemical properties and biomedical properties or toxicity is not yet fully understood. This understanding is essential to develop strategies for the safe applications and handling of ENM. The book comprehensively defines the current understanding of ENM toxicity, first describing these materials and their physicochemical properties, and then discussing the toxicological theory and methodology before finally demonstrating the potential impact of ENM on the environment and human health. It represents an essential reference for students and investigators in toxicology, pharmacology, chemistry, material sciences, medicine, and those in related disciplines who require an introduction to ENM and their potential toxicological effects. Provides state-of-the-art physicochemical descriptions and methodologies for the characterization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) Describes the potential toxicological effects of ENM and the nanotoxicological mechanisms of action Presents how to apply theory to practice in a public health and risk assessment setting

Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Adverse Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials
Exposure, Toxicology, and Impact on Human Health

by Bengt Fadeel,Antonio Pietroiusti,Anna A. Shvedova

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 347
  • ISBN : 0123869404
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An essential reference that discusses occupational exposure and the adverse health effects of engineered nanomaterials and highlights current and future biomedical applications of these nanomaterials in relation to nanosafety. Multi-authored book written by leading US and European experts on nanotoxicology and nanomedicine Discusses the health implications and a clinical translation of experimental data in this area Takes a schematic, non-exhaustive approach to summarize the most important research data in this field Includes a glossary, with a brief explanation of the term and with a reference to where the term or phrase has been used will be included within the book

Nanotechnology Safety

Nanotechnology Safety
Chapter 6. Nanotechnology Safety in the Biomedical Industry

by Charles C. Blatchley

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-06-12
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 0128083115
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanomaterials are of interest in many biomedical applications for potential enhancements in structural strength of bone implants, controlled drug release, improved chemical interactions, and scaffolding for cell in-growth and tissue replacement. Unfortunately, the key changes in material properties that enhance performance seem to lead in some cases to increased toxicity. By shifting the distribution of wear particle sizes to smaller individual particles, adverse effects may be created, either directly from the nanoparticle interactions or through intermediary species, such as reactive oxygen. Either way, biological activity often seems to be dependent on particle size, and deleterious side effects and workplace hazards must be evaluated and avoided.

NIOSH Fact Sheet

NIOSH Fact Sheet
A Book

by Catherine Beaucham,Laura Hodson,Nanotechnology Research Center (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health),NSF Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 42
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at a nanometer scale to produce new materials, structures, and devices having new properties, may revolutionize life in the future. It has the potential to impact medicine through improved disease diagnosis and treatment technologies and to impact manufacturing by creating smaller, lighter, stronger, and more efficient products. Nanotechnology could potentially decrease the impact of pollution by improving methods for water purification or energy conservation. Although engineered nanomaterials present seemingly limitless possibilities, they bring with them new challenges for identifying and controlling potential safety and health risks to workers. Of particular concern is the growing body of evidence that occupational exposure to some engineered nanomaterials can cause adverse health effects. As with any new technology or new material, the earliest exposures will likely occur for those workers conducting discovery research in laboratories or developing production processes in pilot plants. The research community is at the front line of creating new nanomaterials, testing their usefulness in a variety of applications and determining their toxicological and environmental impacts. Researchers handling engineered nanomaterials in laboratories should perform that work in a manner that protects their safety and health. This guidance document provides the best information currently available on engineering controls and safe work practices to be followed when working with engineered nanomaterials in research laboratories. Risk Management: Risk management is an integral part of occupational health and safety. Potential exposures to nanomaterials can be controlled in research laboratories through a flexible and adaptive risk management program. An effective program provides the framework to anticipate the emergence of this technology into laboratory settings, recognize the potential hazards, evaluate the exposure to the nanomaterial, develop controls to prevent or minimize exposure, and confirm the effectiveness of those controls. Hazard Identification: Experimental animal studies indicate that potentially adverse health effects may result from exposure to nanomaterials. Experimental studies in rodents and cell cultures have shown that the toxicity of ultrafine particles or nanoparticles is greater than the toxicity of the same mass of larger particles of similar chemical composition. Research demonstrates that inhalation is a significant route of exposure for nanomaterials. Evidence from animal studies indicates that inhaled nanoparticles may deposit deep in lung tissue, possibly interfering with lung function. It is also theorized that nanoparticles may enter the bloodstream through the lungs and transfer to other organs. Dermal exposure and subsequent penetration of nanomaterials may cause local or systemic effects. Ingestion is a third potential route of exposure. Little is known about the possible adverse effects of ingestion of nanomaterials, although some evidence suggests that nanosized particles can be transferred across the intestinal wall. Exposure Assessment: Exposure assessment is a key element of an effective risk management program. The exposure assessment should identify tasks that contribute to nanomaterial exposure and the workers conducting those tasks. An inventory of tasks should be developed that includes information on the duration and frequency of tasks that may result in exposure, along with the quantity of the material being handled, dustiness of the nanomaterial, and its physical form. A thorough understanding of the exposure potential will guide exposure assessment measurements, which will help determine the type of controls required for exposure mitigation. Exposure Control: Exposure control is the use of a set of tools or strategies for decreasing or eliminating worker exposure to a particular agent. Exposure control consists of a standardized hierarchy to include (in priority order): elimination, substitution, isolation, engineering controls, administrative controls, or if no other option is available, personal protective equipment (PPE). Substitution or elimination is not often feasible for workers performing research with nanomaterials; however, it may be possible to change some aspects of the physical form of the nanomaterial or the process in a way that reduces nanomaterial release. Isolation includes the physical separation and containment of a process or piece of equipment, either by placing it in an area separate from the worker or by putting it within an enclosure that contains any nanomaterials that might be released. Engineering controls include any physical change to the process that reduces emissions or exposure to the material being contained or controlled. Ventilation is a form of engi-neering control that can be used to reduce occupational exposures to airborne particulates. General exhaust ventilation (GEV), also known as dilution ventilation, permits the release of the contaminant into the workplace air and then dilutes the concentration to an acceptable level. GEV alone is not an appropriate control for engineered nanomaterials or any other uncharacterized new chemical entity. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV), such as the standard laboratory chemical hood (formerly known as a laboratory fume hood), captures emissions at the source and thereby removes contaminants from the immediate occupational environment. Using selected forms of LEV properly is appropriate for control of engineered nanomaterials. Administrative controls can limit workers' exposures through techniques such as using job-rotation schedules that reduce the time an individual is exposed to a substance. Administrative controls may consist of standard operating procedures, general or specialized housekeeping procedures, spill prevention and control, and proper labeling and storage of nanomaterials. Employee training on the appropriate use and handling of nanomaterials is also an important administrative function. PPE creates a barrier between the worker and nanomaterials in order to reduce exposures. PPE may include laboratory coats, impervious clothing, closed-toe shoes, long pants, safety glasses, face shields, impervious gloves, and respirators. Other Considerations: Control verification or confirmation is essential to ensure that the implemented tools or strategies are performing as specified. Control verification can be performed with traditional industrial hygiene sampling methods, including area sampling, personal sampling, and real-time measurements. Control verification may also be achieved by monitoring the performance parameters of the control device to ensure that design and performance criteria are met. Other important considerations for effective risk management of nanomaterial expo-sure include fire and explosion control. Some studies indicate that nanomaterials may be more prone to explosion and combustion than an equivalent mass concentration of larger particles. Occupational health surveillance is used to identify possible injuries and illnesses and is recommended as

Case Studies in Nanotoxicology and Particle Toxicology

Case Studies in Nanotoxicology and Particle Toxicology
A Book

by Antonietta M Gatti,Stefano Montanari

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2015-05-29
  • Pages : 276
  • ISBN : 0128012544
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Case Studies in Nanotoxicology and Particle Toxicology presents a highly-illustrated analysis of the most prominent cases on the adverse effects of nanoparticles and their impact on humans and the environment. This comprehensive reference demonstrates the possible risks imposed by managing and handling nanoparticles, showing the effects of involuntary inhalation or ingestion during their use and after their incineration. Through the use of numerous examples, readers will discover the possible risks and effects of working with nanoparticles, along with best practices to prevent these effects. The text is an essential reference for anyone working in the risk assessment of nanoparticles, including nanosafety professionals, occupational toxicologists, regulatory toxicologists, and clinicians. Presents real-life cases showing the potential risks to human health following exposure to nanoparticles An ideal reference for anyone working in the risk assessment of nanoparticles, including nanosafety professionals, occupational toxicologists, regulatory toxicologists, and clinicians Provides examples to help assess risks of handling engineered nanomaterials Advises on the best forms of protection and the safest nanotechnological products

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles
A Book

by Mohammad Faisal,Quaiser Saquib,Abdulrahman A. Alatar,Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-06-28
  • Pages : 407
  • ISBN : 3319767089
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides relevant findings on nanoparticles’ toxicity, their uptake, translocation and mechanisms of interaction with plants at cellular and sub-cellular level. The small size and large specific surface area of nanoparticles endow them with high chemical reactivity and intrinsic toxicity. Such unique physicochemical properties draw global attention of scientists to study potential risks and adverse effects of nanoparticles in the environment. Their toxicity has pronounced effects and consequences for plants and ultimately the whole ecosystem. Plants growing in nanomaterials-polluted sites may exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, and lower biomass production. Nanoparticles can adhere to plant roots and exert physicochemical toxicity and subsequently cell death in plants. On the other hand, plants have developed various defense mechanisms against this induced toxicity. This books discusses recent findings as well as several unresolved issues and challenges regarding the interaction and biological effects of nanoparticles. Only detailed studies of these processes and mechanisms will allow researchers to understand the complex plant-nanomaterial interactions.

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 14
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials

Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials
A Book

by Marina A. Dobrovolskaia,Scott E. McNeil

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 692
  • ISBN : 9814390259
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials provides a comprehensive overview of the current literature, methodologies, and translational and regulatory considerations in the field of nanoimmunotoxicology. The main subject is the immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials. Focus areas include interactions between engineered nanomaterials and red blood cells, platelets, endothelial cells, professional phagocytes, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, complement and coagulation systems, and plasma proteins, with discussions on nanoparticle sterility and sterilization. Each chapter presents a broad literature review of the given focus area, describes protocols and resources available to support research in the individual focus areas, highlights challenges, and outlines unanswered questions and future directions. In addition, the Handbook includes an overview of and serves a guide to the physicochemical characterization of engineered nanomaterials essential to conducting meaningful immunological studies of nanoparticles. Regulations related to immunotoxicity testing of materials prior to their translation into the clinic are also reviewed.The Handbook is written by top experts in the field of nanomedicine, nanotechnology, and translational bionanotechnology, representing academia, government, industry, and consulting organizations, and regulatory agencies. The Handbook is designed to serve as a textbook for students, a practical guide for research laboratories, and an informational resource for scientific consultants, reviewers, and policy makers. It is written such that both experts and beginners will find the information highly useful and applicable.

Nanotechnologies - Occupational Risk Management Applied to Engineered Nanomaterials

Nanotechnologies - Occupational Risk Management Applied to Engineered Nanomaterials
Part 2: Use of controlled banding approach

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 31
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This standard 'describes the use of a control banding approach for controlling the risks associated with occupational exposures to nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates greater than 100nm (NOAA), even if knowledge regarding their toxicity and quantitative exposure estimations is limited or lacking'. ISO/TS 12901-2: 2014 is 'focused on intentionally produced nano-objects' either in 'their original form or incorporated in materials or preparations from which they could be released during their lifecycle'. The control banding approach is meant to limit exposure 'in order to prevent any possible adverse effects on workers' health'. This version focuses on inhalation control. This standard 'is intended to help businesses and others [...] engaged in the manufacturing, processing or handling of NOAA, by providing an easy-to-understand, pragmatic approach for the control of occupational exposures'." --Publisher's note.

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology
A Book

by Ramesh C. Gupta

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-03-24
  • Pages : 1460
  • ISBN : 0128042400
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and authoritative resource that provides the latest literature on this complex subject with a primary focus on three core components—parent, placenta, and fetus—and the continuous changes that occur in each. Enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of reproductive toxicology, this revised and updated resource addresses the totality of the subject, discussing a broad range of topics, including nanoparticles and radiation, gases and solvents, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and metals, amongst others. With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, also including discussions on reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife. Completely revised and updated to include the most recent developments in the field, the book is an essential resource for advanced students and researchers in toxicology, as well as biologists, pharmacologists, and teratologists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies. Provides a complete, up-to-date, integrated source of information on the key risk stages during reproduction and development Includes new chapters covering significant developments, such as dose-response assessment for developmental toxicity, juvenile toxicity, and neural tube defects, as well as emerging science, such as stem cell application, toxicoproteomics, metabolomics, endocrine disruption, surveillance and regulatory considerations, and risk assessment Offers diverse and unique in vitro and in vivo toxicity models for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing in a user-friendly format that assists in comparative analysis

Interaction of Nanomaterials with the Immune System

Interaction of Nanomaterials with the Immune System
A Book

by James C. Bonner,Jared M. Brown

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-01-30
  • Pages : 223
  • ISBN : 3030339629
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers the latest information related to understanding immune responses to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Many ENMs used in both the consumer and biomedical fields have been reported to elicit adverse immune responses ranging from innate immune responses such as complement activation to changes in adaptive immunity that influence pathogen responses and promote disease states such as asthma. Interaction of Nanomaterials with the Immune System covers the most up to date information on our understanding of immune responses to ENMs across a wide range of topics including innate immunity, allergic immune responses, adaptive provides the reader with (1) up to date understanding of immune responses to ENMs; (2) current testing methods; and (3) appropriate models including alternative testing strategies for evaluating immunotoxicity of ENMs.

Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health

Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health
A Book

by Gurumurthy Ramachandran

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2016-07-21
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 0323354084
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health provides a systematic overview of nanoparticle risks and considers the limitations of this paradigm in a context where extreme uncertainties prevail. As well as exploring conventional risk assessment methodology, the contributing authors investigate several alternate approaches. The adequacy of current frameworks for risk management and regulatory oversights, including corporate approaches in the US and EU, are explored, and suggestions are made as to how these frameworks can be modified to make them more efficient and effective. Presenting a coherent framework for analysis of the available information, this book presents the latest scientific understanding of the toxicity and health effects of nanoparticles, the technical issues relating to exposure assessment and management, and the ways in which the current risk paradigm can be used/modified to deal with the challenges of nanoparticle risks. All chapters of this new edition have been thoroughly updated to reflect the many changes in the field since the first edition. Additions and updates in the second edition of the book include: New exposure assessment strategies for nanomaterials including life cycle exposure assessment approaches and detailed information on nanoparticle exposure control and protection in the workplace. A state-of-the-art scientific update on the hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials: discussion of key additional publications on the toxicology and biokinetics of nanomaterials; available data and methods to characterize the health hazard and risk of exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace; additional examples of the use of such data and methods to develop occupational safety and health guidance; and discussion of progress to date, ongoing efforts, and remaining challenges in nanomaterials hazard and risk characterization. New studies on the use of expert judgment in nanotechnology. Quantitative data from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s 4-phase study. A description and evaluation of new CB tools and new ISO technical specifications. A comprehensive update of the legal frameworks in the US and the EU. With the second edition of Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health Prof. Ramachandran provides researchers and practitioners producing or using nanoparticles, or those involved in nanomaterials risk assessments, technology, health science, policy, safety, environment and regulatory aspects an invaluable reference to adopt the right technologies and strategies and to comply to legal frameworks and regulations. For policy makers and advisory firms it provides the knowledge needed to advise on compliance with or development of new regulations on nanomaterials. Makes essential reading for risk assessment professionals, companies working with nanoparticles, nanotechnology research groups and regulators Explores the use of risk assessment methodologies in an occupational health setting, and their limitations Provides a framework for evidence-based decision making in a context with many uncertainties

Nano-Safety

Nano-Safety
What We Need to Know to Protect Workers

by Dominick E. Fazarro,Walt Trybula,Jitendra Tate,Craig Hanks

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2017-09-25
  • Pages : 213
  • ISBN : 3110386216
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanotechnology safety is the practice of handling engineered nanomaterials in production and manufacturing. Good practice consists of understanding and interpreting Material Safety Data Sheets, behaving safely when working with yet unknown nanomaterials, understanding health effects, and proactively creating safety measures against potential hazards. This book introduces nanotechnology risk management to readers from academia and industry.

Nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity, Safety, and Public Perception

Nanomaterials: Ecotoxicity, Safety, and Public Perception
A Book

by Mahendra Rai,Jayanta Kumar Biswas

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-01-04
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 3030051447
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The environment is prone to suffer pollution and toxic insult from generations of nanomaterials as well from accidental releases during production, transportation, and disposal operations. The NMs could interact with and cause adverse biological effects at cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels. Assessing potential environmental/ecological risks requires quality information on transport and fate of nanoparticles in the environment, exposures and vulnerabilities of organisms to the nanomaterials and standard methods for assessing toxicity for aquatic or terrestrial organisms and human health. The systematic risk characterization and evaluation of the safety of nanomaterials require a multidisciplinary approach and convergence of knowledge and efforts from researchers and experts from toxicology, biotechnology, materials science, chemistry, physics, engineering, and other branches of life sciences. Although studies are beginning to appear in the literature addressing the toxicity of various nanomaterials and their potential for exposure, at this stage definitive statements regarding the impacts of nanomaterials on human health and the environment remain sketchy requiring an increased level of precautions with regard to nanomaterials, as has happened with other emerging contaminants and technologies (e.g., biotechnology). The need for an increased level of understanding the perception of risk and of benefits will vary and is likely to influence public, regulatory, and non-governmental activities regarding risk and benefit evaluations. Systematic identification and assessment of the risks posed by any new technology are essential. A prudent, integrated, and holistic approach is required to develop best practices based on the scientific understanding about what we know and what we don’t know but need to know. Nanomaterials addresses key issues of ecotoxicological actions and effects of nanomaterials on life and environment, their threats, vulnerability, risks, and public perception. The readers learn to read bad news objectively and think about and search for ecological ‘green’ solutions to current environmental and ecological problems with blue, grey, brown, and red shades for building a sustainable ecosystem. It shows how this molecular terrain is a common ground for interdisciplinary research and education that will be an essential component of science, engineering and technology in the future. The book is divided into three sections. Section I includes general topics related to ecotoxicity of nanomaterials to microbes, plants, human and environment. Section 2 incorporates risks generated by the use of nanomaterials. Section 3 discusss safety issues and the public.

Characterizing Nanoparticle Interactions at the Cellular Membrane

Characterizing Nanoparticle Interactions at the Cellular Membrane
A Book

by Arielle Christen Mensch

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As the use of nanotechnology continues to rise, the release of engineered nanomaterials into the environment becomes inevitable. A need exists to understand the implications of engineered nanomaterials and to develop sustainable alternatives as adverse impacts are uncovered. In order to reduce any negative impacts of nanomaterials and exploit any beneficial impacts, the field of environmental nanotechnology must aim to understand the behavior of nanomaterials in complex environments through the use of [in situ] analytical methods and utilize model systems (both in terms of nanomaterials and organisms) to determine the chemical factors that drive nanoparticle behavior. The work presented here focuses on the cellular membrane, which is hypothesized to be the first point of contact between a nanomaterial and an organism. The characterization of different models cellular membranes and the characterization of nanoparticle interactions at these model membranes are presented. First, we investigated the impact of natural organic matter (NOM), which is found ubiquitously in the environment, on the interactions between polymer wrapped diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) and lipopolysaccharide-containing supported lipid bilayers, a model for Gram-negative bacteria cell membranes. To demonstrate the relevance of our model system we extended our study to include experiments using a Gram-negative bacterium, [Shewanella oneidensis] MR-1.We found that NOM impacted the hydrodynamic and electrokinetic properties of DNPs in a concentration dependent manner, which altered subsequent interactions with both model and actual biological membranes. Our results demonstrate that the effects of NOM coronas on nanoparticle properties and interactions with biological surfaces can depend on the relative amounts of NOM and nanoparticles. We then examined the impact of polymer wrapped quantum dots (QDs) on supported lipid bilayers containing important biomolecules found in the outer membrane of eukaryotic cells (cholesterol and sphingomyelin). We used [in situ] analytical methods to study these interactions in real time and found that the QDs caused structural changes to the bilayers studied. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring coupled with nanoplasmonic sensing revealed favorable interaction between the QDs and the bilayers. Increases in dissipation and apparent mass gains upon rinse suggested structural rearrangement was occurring. Time-lapsed atomic force microscopy confirmed this hypothesis and revealed the disappearance of phase-segregated domains upon interaction with the QDs. Our results demonstrate the importance of using complementary [in situ] analytical methods to understand the complex interactions that occur at the cellular membrane. We next demonstrate the powerful capabilities of atomic force microscopy for imaging and characterizing biological membranes. We investigate the impact of the substrate in the formation and characteristics of phase-segregated domains in supported lipid bilayers. We considered commonly used substrates in different analytical techniques (e.g., mica, silica, and glass). We discussed the importance of considering the substrate in drawing conclusions across different techniques. We also demonstrated the spatial and temporal correlation of atomic force and fluorescence microscopy. Finally, we extended our work using atomic force microscopy and developed a protocol to image and characterize the mechanical properties of fixed and live rainbow trout ([Oncorhynchus mykiss]) gill epithelial cells. We discussed various experimental variables such as instrumental parameters, type of AFM probe used, and the confluency of the cells on the substrate. We found that the ideal imaging conditions included using an AFM probe with a low spring constant and relatively dull tip, working with cells grown to ~75% confluency, and scanning at low speeds, high amplitudes, and minimal forces. We showed that fixed trout gill cells had an increased height and modulus value as compared to live cells. This work demonstrated the first example of AFM imaging and mechanical mapping on either fixed or live trout gill cells and set a protocol to examine the impacts of different stressors, such as nanomaterials, on trout gill cells.

Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials
Toxicity, Human Health and Environment

by Simona Clichici,Gabriela Adriana Filip,Gustavo Morari Do Nascimento

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2020-02-19
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN : 1789846161
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the last decade, nanomaterials have become a double-edged sword. On one hand, nanomaterials have proven their limitless potential not only for technological applications, but also for medical ones. On the other hand, the increasing use of these nanomaterials has raised concerns regarding their safety for environmental and human health, due to their potential toxicity. The toxic effects of nanomaterials depend on their type, surface geometry, diameter, length and function. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evidence-based overview of nanomaterial toxicity, from their synthesis and characterization, environmental impact, tests to assess their toxicity in vitro and in vivo, ways to modulate their impact on living organisms, to their beneficial use in biomedical applications.

Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment

Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment
A Book

by Nelson Marmiroli,Jason C. White,Jing Song

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-05-28
  • Pages : 362
  • ISBN : 0128148365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment provide a new, holistic framework for testing and evaluating the potential benefits and risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including their potential socioeconomic impacts, ethical issues and consumers’ expectations and fears. The book covers nanomaterial presence in various environments, agroecosystems and other areas within the human sphere of actions. The book includes sections on (i) Chemical, physical and biological properties, (ii) Presence and diffusion of ENMs in human environments, agriculture, food and drug products, (iii) ENMs as a pillar in biological and medical research, and (iv) Social and regulatory issues emerging from years of application. The book is designed to increase awareness to key end-users and stakeholders, including food producers and processors, industry, representatives of society and consumers, and those looking to implement an accurate and effective risk analysis procedure that promotes the sustainable use of nanotechnology. Assesses both the positive and negative impacts of engineered nanomaterials in the environment Shows how engineered nanomaterials are used in agricultural environments, food products, drugs and cosmetics Discusses the unique properties of a range of engineered nanomaterials that lead to their environmental effects

Advances in Molecular Toxicology

Advances in Molecular Toxicology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-10-03
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN : 0444633901
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Molecular Toxicology features the latest advances in all of the subspecialties of the broad area of molecular toxicology. Toxicology is the study of poisons, and this series details the study of the molecular basis by which a vast array of agents encountered in the human environment and produced by the human body itself manifest themselves as toxins. Not strictly limited to documenting these examples, the series is also concerned with the complex web of chemical and biological events that give rise to toxin-induced symptoms and disease. The new technologies that are being harnessed to analyze and understand these events will also be reviewed by leading workers in the field. Advances in Molecular Toxicology will report progress in all aspects of these rapidly evolving molecular aspects of toxicology with a view toward detailed elucidation of progress on the molecular level and on advances in technological approaches employed. Cutting-edge reviews by leading workers in the discipline In-depth dissection of molecular aspects of interest to a broad range of scientists, physicians and any student in the allied disciplines Leading edge applications of technological innovations in chemistry, biochemistry and molecular medicine

Current Strategies for Engineering Controls in Nanomaterial Production and Downstream Handling Processes

Current Strategies for Engineering Controls in Nanomaterial Production and Downstream Handling Processes
A Book

by Department of Health and Human Services,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,National Institute Safety and Health

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Release : 2014-02-18
  • Pages : 94
  • ISBN : 9781495988691
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The focus of this document is to identify and describe strategies for the engineering control of worker exposure during the production or use of engineered nanomaterials. Engineered nanomaterials are materials that are intentionally produced and have at least one primary dimension less than 100 nanometers (nm). Nanomaterials may have properties different from those of larger particles of the same material, making them unique and desirable for specific product applications. The consumer products market currently has more than 1,000 nanomaterial-containing products including makeup, sunscreen, food storage products, appliances, clothing, electronics, computers, sporting goods, and coatings. As more nanomaterials are introduced into the workplace and nano-enabled products enter the market, it is essential that producers and users of engineered nanomaterials ensure a safe and healthy work environment. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with protecting the safety and health of workers through research and training. An area of current concentration is the study of nanotechnology, the science of matter near the atomic scale. Much of the current research focuses on understanding the toxicology of emerging nanomaterials as well as exposure assessment; very little research has been conducted on hazard control for exposures to nanomaterials. As we continue to research the health effects produced by nanomaterials, particularly as new materials and products continue to be introduced, it is prudent to protect workers now from potential adverse health outcomes. Controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protecting workers. Traditionally, a hierarchy of controls has been used as a means of determining how to implement feasible and effective control solutions. Elimination; Substitution; Engineering Controls; Administrative Controls; Personal Protective Equipment. Following this hierarchy normally leads to the implementation of inherently safer systems, where the risk of illness or injury has been substantially reduced. Engineering controls are favored over administrative and personal protective equipment for controlling existing worker exposures in the workplace because they are designed to remove the hazard at the source, before it comes in contact with the worker. However, evidence of control effectiveness for nanomaterial production and downstream use is scarce. This document is a summary of available technologies that can be used in the nanotechnology industry. While some of these have been evaluated in this industry, others have been shown to be effective at controlling similar processes in other industries. The identification and adoption of control technologies that have been shown effective in other industries is an important first step in reducing worker exposures to engineered nanoparticles. Our hope is that this document will aid in the selection of engineering controls for the fabrication and use of products in the nanotechnology field. As this field continues to expand, it is paramount that the health and safety of workers is protected.