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Application of Brain Oscillations in Neuropsychiatric Diseases

Application of Brain Oscillations in Neuropsychiatric Diseases
Selected Papers from "Brain Oscillations in Cognitive Impairment and Neurotransmitters" Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, 29 April-1 May 2011

by Erol Başar,Canan Bașar-Eroğlu,Ayșegül Özerdem,Paolo M. Rossini,Görsev G. Yener

  • Publisher : Elsevier Science Health Science Division
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 375
  • ISBN : 9780702053078
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cortical Oscillations and Plasticity Induced by Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Cortical Oscillations and Plasticity Induced by Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
A Book

by Nor Azila Noh,Giorgio Fuggetta,Douglas Barratt

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that is able to modulate cortical activity beyond the stimulation period. The residual aftereffects are akin to the plasticity mechanism of the brain and suggest the potential use of rTMS for therapy. In parallel, there is evidence that altered oscillatory brain rhythms and network dynamics may lead to symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the rTMS interference upon cortical and network oscillatory activity remains relatively unknown. Despite this uncertainty, rTMS continues to be used to alleviate symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. By combining rTMS and electroencephalography (EEG), the thesis explored the local and network cortical plasticity in healthy humans through the characteristics of oscillatory brain rhythms. We investigated cortical and network oscillatory activity following simple rTMS protocols and continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the primary motor cortex. The measurements of rTMS-induced aftereffects were quantified by the direct electrophysiology index of EEG and the indirect behavioural measures of motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The results of the experiments showed that rTMS was able to transiently modulate cortical brain rhythms, especially low frequency theta oscillations. The significance of this finding is the possible involvement of independent cortical theta generators besides mu and beta generators over the motor network with different reactivity to rTMS protocols. However, long-term potentiation/depression (LTP-/LTD)-like mechanisms may not be the only mechanisms that drive the rTMS aftereffects as shown by the dissociation between EEG and MEPs cortical output. Here, we explore alternative explanations that drive the EEG oscillatory modulations post rTMS. The significant of this work is the ability of rTMS to transiently modify the internal state of the brain by altering brain oscillations particularly low-frequency brain rhythms. This finding offers exciting possibilities for future clinical trials to explore the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to reverse abnormal synchronisation in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Connectomic Deep Brain Stimulation

Connectomic Deep Brain Stimulation
A Book

by Andreas Horn

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-09-10
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 0128218622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Connectomic Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) covers this highly efficacious treatment option for movement disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease, Essential Tremor and Dystonia. The book examines its impact on distributed brain networks that span across the human brain in parallel with modern-day neuroimaging concepts and the connectomics of the brain. It asks several questions, including which cortical areas should DBS electrodes be connected in order to generate the highest possible clinical improvement? Which connections should be avoided? Could these connectomic insights be used to better understand the mechanism of action of DBS? How can they be transferred to individual patients, and more. This book is suitable for neuroscientists, neurologists and functional surgeons studying DBS. It provides practical advice on processing strategies and theoretical background, highlighting and reviewing the current state-of-the-art in connectomic surgery. Written to provide a "hands-on" approach for neuroscience graduate students, as well as medical personnel from the fields of neurology and neurosurgery Includes preprocessing strategies (such as co-registration, normalization, lead localization, VTA estimation and fiber-tracking approaches) Presents references (key articles, books and protocols) for additional detailed study Provides data analysis boxes in each chapter to help with data interpretation

EEG-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease

EEG-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease
A Review and Novel Approaches for Feature Extraction and Classification Techniques

by Nilesh Kulkarni,Vinayak Bairagi

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-04-13
  • Pages : 110
  • ISBN : 0128153938
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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EEG-Based Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease: A Review and Novel Approaches for Feature Extraction and Classification Techniques provides a practical and easy-to-use guide for researchers in EEG signal processing techniques, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia diagnostics. The book examines different features of EEG signals used to properly diagnose Alzheimer’s Disease early, presenting new and innovative results in the extraction and classification of Alzheimer’s Disease using EEG signals. This book brings together the use of different EEG features, such as linear and nonlinear features, which play a significant role in diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease. Includes the mathematical models and rigorous analysis of various classifiers and machine learning algorithms from a perspective of clinical deployment Covers the history of EEG signals and their measurement and recording, along with their uses in clinical diagnostics Analyzes spectral, wavelet, complexity and other features of early and efficient Alzheimer’s Disease diagnostics Explores support vector machine-based classification to increase accuracy

Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology

Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology
A Book

by Peter M. Haddad,David J. Nutt

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2020-03-31
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1108850901
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This greatly expanded third edition provides a comprehensive overview of clinical psychopharmacology, incorporating the major advances in the field since the previous edition's publication. Renowned experts from psychiatry, pharmacy, and nursing have integrated basic science, psychopharmacology, and clinical practice throughout the book in order to provide a thorough basis for prescribing. It covers all key psychiatric drugs and disorders and includes the latest data on efficacy, safety and tolerability. Adopting a pragmatic approach to drug nomenclature, both Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) and older generic terminology are included in the text reflecting that clinicians are likely to use both systems. Many chapters refer to current National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, making this a crucial resource. Edited by leading authorities in the field, Professor Peter M. Haddad and Professor David J. Nutt, Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology emphasises evidence-based prescribing with the aim of achieving better clinical outcomes for patients.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications
A Book

by Tipu Aziz,Alex Green

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2018-03-23
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN : 3038425389
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications" that was published in Brain Sciences

Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease

Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease
A Book

by Roger D. Traub,Miles A. Whittington

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 431
  • ISBN : 0195342798
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book first reviews the case that brain oscillations not only are important for cognition, as long suspected, but also play a part in the expression of signs and symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. The cellular mechanisms of many of the clinically relevant oscillations have been studied by the authors and their colleagues, using in vitro slice methods as well as detailed computer simulations. A surprising insight is that gap junctions between principal neurons play an absolutely critical role in so many types of oscillation in neuronal populations; oscillations are not just the result of properties of individual neurons and their synaptic connections. Furthermore, the way in which gap junctions produce oscillations in the cortex is novel, involving as it does global properties of networks, rather than just the time constants of membrane currents. This insight has implications for therapeutics as well as for our understanding of normal brain functions.

Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography

Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography
A Book

by Shozo Tobimatsu,Ryusuke Kakigi

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-02-19
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 4431557296
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents an overview of the recent advances in clinical applications of magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the expansion of MEG to neuroscience, its clinical applications have also been actively pursued. Featuring contributions from prominent experts in the fields, the book focuses on the current status of the application of MEG, not only to each nervous system but also to various diseases such as epilepsy, neurological disorders, and psychiatric disorders, while also examining the feasibility of using MEG for these diseases. Clinical Applications of Magnetoencephalography offers an indispensable resource for neurologists, neurosurgeons, pediatricians, and psychiatrists, as well as researchers in the field of neuroscience.

Brain Oscillations, Synchrony and Plasticity

Brain Oscillations, Synchrony and Plasticity
Basic Principles and Application to Auditory-Related Disorders

by Jos J. Eggermont

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-01-11
  • Pages : 266
  • ISBN : 0128204087
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain Oscillations, Synchrony and Plasticity: Basic Principles and Application to Auditory-Related Disorders discusses the role of brain oscillations, especially with respect to the auditory system and how those oscillations are measured, change over the lifespan, and falter leading to a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. The book begins with a description of these cortical rhythm oscillations and how they function in both the normal and pathological brain. It explains how these oscillations are important to auditory, executive and attention brain networks and how they relate to the development, production and deterioration of speech and language. In addition, treatment of malfunctioning cortical rhythms are reviewed using neuromodulation, such as transcranial magnetic, direct current, random noise, and alternating current stimulation, as well as focused ultrasound. The book concludes by describing the potential role of oscillations in dyslexia, autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Introduces readers to brain imaging methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, EEG and magnetoencephalography, in the study of brain oscillations, synchrony and networks of the normal and pathological brain Highlights the role of brain oscillations in perception and cognition, in particular with respect to the auditory system, speech and language Describes lifespan changes, from preterm to senescence, of brain oscillations, brain networks and how they relate to the development and deterioration of speech and language Explains the effects of hearing loss on neural network change in the auditory and non-auditory networks such as the default mode-, the salience-, the executive- and attention networks Illustrates the breakdown of network connections in auditory-related disorders such as tinnitus and in psychiatric disorders with a strong auditory, speech and language component

Event-Related Dynamics of Brain Oscillations

Event-Related Dynamics of Brain Oscillations
A Book

by Christa Neuper,Wolfgang Klimesch

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2006-12-03
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 9780080465593
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Research on brain oscillations and event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related (de-) synchronization (ERD/ERS) in particular became a rapidly growing field in the last decades. A large number of laboratories worldwide are using ERD/ERS to study cognitive and motor brain function and the importance of this tool in neurocognitive research is widely recognized. This book is a summary of the most current research, methods, and applications of the study of event-related dynamics of brain oscillations. Facing the rapid progress in this field, it brings together, on the one side, fundamental questions of the underlying events, which still remain to be clarified and, on the other side, some of the most significant novel findings, which point to the key topics for future research. In particular, the chapters of this volume cover the neurophysiological fundamentals and models (Section I), new methodological approaches (Section II), current ERD research related to cognitive (Section III) and sensorimotor brain function (Section IV), invasive approaches and clinical applications (Section V), and novel developments of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback (Section IV).

Neurophysiology of the Migraine Brain

Neurophysiology of the Migraine Brain
A Book

by Gianluca Coppola,Wei-Ta Chen

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-10-20
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 3030565386
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Roughly one in every five patients referred to a neurologist suffers from headaches; the majority have migraines. Although headache specialists understand migraine on a clinical basis, the pathophysiological changes that provoke and accompany the development of a migraine attack continue to elude us. Several decades have passed since the pioneering electroencephalographic study by Golla and Winter (1959), which underscored the role of abnormal rhythmic activities in migraine. Since then, there have been substantial advances in the field; a wealth of neurophysiological studies has enriched our understanding of the pathophysiological facets of the migraine pathology. Virtually every known technique of clinical electrophysiology has since been used to study the migraine brain and, more recently, new neurophysiological tools have been added to the arsenal. Nevertheless, applying the principles of peripheral and central neuromodulation offers a promising way to transfer the principles of synaptic plasticity to the patient’s bedside. This book belongs to the Headache Series endorsed by the European Headache Federation. Written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields, it covers all aspects of clinical neurophysiological methods that represent significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine. It will offer a valuable toolkit for beginners, and a reference guide for experts.

Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits

Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits
A Book

by Roger D. Traub

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9780262293488
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Eyeblink Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions - State of the Field and Future Directions

Eyeblink Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions - State of the Field and Future Directions

by Tracy L. Greer,Lucien T. Thompson

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2017-09-22
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889452751
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) is a model paradigm for associative (also termed Pavlovian) learning, one of the simplest and best understood forms of learning and memory. Because EBC paradigms are readily adapted across species, the neural substrates of EBC have been well characterized, and include but are not limited to the cerebellum and anterior interpositus nucleus, the hippocampus, and prefrontal cortices. The ability to collect EBC data across many different species (i.e. including but not limited to humans) also has the distinct advantage of facilitating translational research, and therefore may be of particular benefit to elucidate mechanistic changes associated with a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. In fact, EBC paradigms have been employed to assess individuals with a wide range of neurological deficits (including Korsakoff’s amnesia, Alzheimer's disease as well as normal aging, dyslexia, inflammatory tremor, dystonia, and multiple sclerosis) and psychiatric disorders (including major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and alcohol use/addiction disorders). Individuals with these disorders exhibit differential impairments across different EBC task types (e.g., delay vs. trace EBC), with some showing impairment in one but not the other task and some showing impairments in both; across learning stage (e.g., acquisition, discrimination, or extinction), and across response variables (e.g., magnitude and timing of the conditioned eyeblink motor response, modality of the conditioned stimulus). Evaluating specific individual differences in the context of variable brain pathology should aid characterization and refinement of our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. The field of psychiatry has seen a transition from more traditional use of symptom clusters to define psychiatric disorders with subsequent examination of associated behaviors and traits, to the use of physiological and behavioral indicators to characterize individuals with respect to various psychological domains [in line with the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative]. This approach employs a neuroscience-based framework to assess the pathophysiology of chronic mental illnesses. Behavioral and cognitive processes are critical domains of interest in evaluating potential maladaptive patterns that may be indicative of specific psychopathologies. Furthermore, the rapid development of technological advances that allow for more detailed examination (e.g., EEG, MEG, MRI, fMRI, infrared imaging) and manipulation (e.g. transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation) of brain functions should enhance our ability to better characterize EBC performance and its utility in characterizing aspects of particular neuropathologies. Substantial research evidence exists for the value of EBC paradigms to inform our understanding of the pathophysiologies underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Despite these findings, this readily implemented classic cognitive-behavioral paradigm is relatively underutilized in clinical settings. This e-book highlights recent convergence of clinical and research efforts in this area and aims to promote a resurgent interest in eyeblink classical conditioning, and to emphasize the potential for future translational and diagnostic applications of EBC in combination with other techniques to strengthen our understanding of alterations in brain function manifested in behaviors characteristic of specific psychopathologies.

Dynamic Functional Connectivity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Methods and Applications

Dynamic Functional Connectivity in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Methods and Applications
A Book

by Wenbin Guo,Feng Liu,Zaixu Cui

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-12-03
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889661954
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rhythmic Stimulation Procedures in Neuromodulation

Rhythmic Stimulation Procedures in Neuromodulation
A Book

by James R. Evans,Robert Turner

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-06-24
  • Pages : 358
  • ISBN : 0128037474
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rhythmic Stimulation Procedures in Neuromodulation offers a unique approach to rhythm-related stimulation as it pertains to modulating neural functioning, with the goal of alleviating symptoms of mental disorder. Rhythm and related concepts (frequency, resonance, entrainment) are thought by many to be closely linked to human health and disease. Neurologists and clinical psychologists facilitate neuroplasticity by using pulsed (rhythmic) sensory or electromagnetic stimulation—a group of techniques broadly referred to as neuromodulation. This edited volume describes details of rhythm-related neuromodulation techniques, and experts in the field have detailed the pros and cons of each approach, citing both clinical and scientific support. Each technique chapter provides a detailed description of the procedure, a rationale for application with specific populations, discussion of similarities/differences relative to other approaches, and support for efficacy. This volume offers readers a historical overview of the roles of rhythm and dysrhythmia in health and disease, including examples of past and present therapeutic uses of rhythmic stimulation, entrainment, and/or modification. It also facilitates speculation about potential developments in rhythm-related methods for the future of mental health. Few books published in the general area of rhythm have focused on the scientific study of the significance of biological rhythms. Discusses features of the generally unknown early history of using rhythmic stimulation procedures in treating various disorders Provides an overview of the extent to which rhythmic stimulation of various types are basic to the majority of alternative and complementary medicine fields Provides details of several of today’s more commonly used stimulation techniques for neuromodulation, discussing the theoretical foundations and limitations of each, and providing clinical and scientific research evidence for their treatment efficacy in specific applications Discusses current directions in which stimulation techniques are moving and speculates on the promise they hold for major changes in mental health care

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Clinical Principles and Management

by André Brunoni,Michael Nitsche,Colleen Loo

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-09-12
  • Pages : 414
  • ISBN : 3319339672
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in different psychiatric conditions. Here we review tDCS clinical studies employing different types of design (from single-session tDCS studies to randomized clinical trials) as well as studies evaluating the impact of tDCS in neurophysiological, behavioral and brain imaging outcomes. Although the understanding about physiological foundations and effectiveness of clinical therapies of psychiatric diseases has been considerably increased during the last decades, our knowledge is still limited, and consequently psychiatric diseases are still a major burden to the individual patient and society. Recently, interest in pathological alterations of neuroplasticity in psychiatric diseases as a critical condition for development, and amelioration of clinical symptoms increased, caused by the fact that new tools, such as functional imaging, and brain stimulation techniques do allow to monitor, and modulate these phenomena in humans. Especially non-invasive brain stimulation techniques evolved as an attractive potential new therapeutic tool. The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation has grown exponentially in the past 25 years, with the development of non-pharmacological, neuromodulatory techniques such as tDCS and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). TDCS, although even newer than rTMS, has attracted considerable attention in both basic and clinical research scenarios. In the context of clinical research, tDCS is being increasingly investigated as a novel treatment tool for several psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, schizophrenia and neurocognitive and substance abuse disorders. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders – Clinical Principles and Management intends to serve as a practical guide on the field, attracting the interest of psychiatrists, neurologists and neuroscientists with little or no experience with tDCS, as well as those with a background on tDCS who want to increase their knowledge in any particular psychiatric condition.

Network Approaches to Diseases of the Brain

Network Approaches to Diseases of the Brain
A Book

by Matt T. Bianchi,Verne S. Caviness,Sydney S. Cash

  • Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 131
  • ISBN : 1608050173
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers novel approaches using networks and oscillations and it will serve as a catalyst for translating these exciting advancements into the clinical arena. This collection of articles aims to accelerate the widespread clinical translation of network approaches by providing practical information accessible to clinicians in neurology and psychiatry - fields that are uniquely poised to implement these developments in clinical treatment of brain diseases. It should be a useful resource for researchers and clinicians in neurology and psychiatry.

Neurostimulation and Neuromodulation in Contemporary Therapeutic Practice

Neurostimulation and Neuromodulation in Contemporary Therapeutic Practice
A Book

by Denis Larrivee,Seyed Mansoor Rayegani

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2020-09-30
  • Pages : 274
  • ISBN : 1838802916
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Clinical applications of neurostimulation or neuromodulation are experiencing rapid growth, driven by an evolution in neurotechnologies, the limitations of pharmacotherapy, and an improving understanding of brain physiology. New methods are promising for intractable or marginally tractable cognitive diseases and for adjunct therapies, as they offer greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution, thereby promising greater specificity and quicker recovery from disease. This book includes up-to-date and in-depth studies of many of these therapies, with chapters addressing their use in epilepsy, spasticity, pain, neurodegeneration, and spinal cord dysfunctions, among others, illustrating their versatility and therapeutic promise for cognitive dysfunction.

Brain Oscillations in Human Communication

Brain Oscillations in Human Communication
A Book

by Anne Keitel,Johanna Rimmele,Sophie Molholm,Joachim Gross

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2018-04-20
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889454584
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain oscillations, or neural rhythms, reflect widespread functional connections between large-scale neural networks, as well as within cortical networks. As such they have been related to many aspects of human behaviour. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the role of brain oscillations at distinct frequency bands in cognitive, sensory and motor tasks. Consequentially, those rhythms also affect diverse aspects of human communication. On the one hand, this comprises verbal communication; a field where the understanding of neural mechanisms has seen huge advances in recent years. Speech is inherently organised in a rhythmic manner. For example, time scales of phonemes and syllables, but also formal prosodic aspects such as intonation and stress, fall into distinct frequency bands. Likewise, neural rhythms in the brain play a role in speech segmentation and coding of continuous speech at multiple time scales, as well as in the production of speech. On the other hand, human communication involves widespread and diverse nonverbal aspects where the role of neural rhythms is far less understood. This can be the enhancement of speech processing through visual signals, thought to be guided via brain oscillations, or the conveying of emotion, which results in differential rhythmic modulations in the observer. Additionally, body movements and gestures often have a communicative purpose and are known to modulate sensorimotor rhythms in the observer. This Research Topic of Frontiers in Human Neuroscience highlights the diverse aspects of human communication that are shaped by rhythmic activity in the brain. Relevant contributions are presented from various fields including cognitive and social neuroscience, neuropsychiatry, and methodology. As such they provide important new insights into verbal and non-verbal communication, pathological changes, and methodological innovations.

Characterization of Neural Activity Using Complex Network Theory

Characterization of Neural Activity Using Complex Network Theory
An Application to the Study of Schizophrenia

by Javier Gomez-Pilar

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-06-30
  • Pages : 67
  • ISBN : 3030499006
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book reports on the development and assessment of a novel framework for studying neural interactions (the connectome) and their dynamics (the chronnectome). Using EEG recordings taken during an auditory oddball task performed by 48 patients with schizophrenia and 87 healthy controls, and applying local and network measures, changes in brain activation from pre-stimulus to cognitive response were assessed, and significant differences were observed between the patients and controls. This book investigates the source of the network abnormalities and presents new evidence for the disconnection hypothesis and the aberrant salience hypothesis with regard to schizophrenia. Moreover, it puts forward a novel approach to combining local regularity measures and graph measures in order to characterize schizophrenia brain dynamics, and presents interesting findings on the regularity of brain patterns in healthy control subjects versus patients with schizophrenia. Besides providing new evidence for the disconnection hypothesis, it offers a source of inspiration for future research directions in the field.