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Applications of ATILA FEM Software to Smart Materials

Applications of ATILA FEM Software to Smart Materials
Case Studies in Designing Devices

by Kenji Uchino,Jean-Claude Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0857096311
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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ATILA Finite Element Method (FEM) software facilitates the modelling and analysis of applications using piezoelectric, magnetostrictor and shape memory materials. It allows entire designs to be constructed, refined and optimized before production begins. Through a range of instructive case studies, Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials provides an indispensable guide to the use of this software in the design of effective products. Part one provides an introduction to ATILA FEM software, beginning with an overview of the software code. New capabilities and loss integration are discussed, before part two goes on to present case studies of finite element modelling using ATILA. The use of ATILA in finite element analysis, piezoelectric polarization, time domain analysis of piezoelectric devices and the design of ultrasonic motors is considered, before piezo-composite and photonic crystal applications are reviewed. The behaviour of piezoelectric single crystals for sonar and thermal analysis in piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials is also discussed, before a final reflection on the use of ATILA in modelling the damping of piezoelectric structures and the behaviour of single crystal devices. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials is a key reference work for all those involved in the research, design, development and application of smart materials, including electrical and mechanical engineers, academics and scientists working in piezoelectrics, magenetostrictors and shape memory materials. Provides an indispensable guide to the use of ATILA FEM software in the design of effective products Discusses new capabilities and loss integration of the software code, before presenting case studies of finite element modelling using ATILA Discusses the behaviour of piezoelectric single crystals for sonar and thermal analysis in piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials, before a reflection on the use of ATILA in modelling the damping of piezoelectric structures

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
1. Overview of the ATILA finite element method (FEM) software code

by K. Uchino

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 012808720X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The finite element method and its application to smart transducer systems are introduced in this chapter. The fundamentals of finite element analysis are introduced first. Then, the section ‘Defining the equations for the problem’ treats how to integrate the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and ‘Application of the finite element method’ describes the meshing. The last section ‘FEM simulation examples’ introduces six cases; multilayer actuator, Π-type linear ultrasonic motor, windmill ultrasonic motor, metal tube ultrasonic motor, piezoelectric transformer, and ‘cymbal’ underwater transducer, which includes most of the basic capabilities of ATILA FEM code.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
10. Studying the behavior of piezoelectric single crystals for sonar using ATILA

by A. Loussert,J.-C. Debus,G. Vanderborck

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087293
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For underwater applications and manufacture of sonar for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), large areas of piezoelectric materials with very good electromechanical properties are often needed. Piezoelectric single crystals (typically the compositions PMN-PT or PZN-PT) are high-performance materials (high yields), but are difficult to manufacture in large areas while maintaining homogeneous properties. This study on the behavior of piezoelectric single crystals will be conducted with the use of a finite-element code (ATILA) which was developed at ISEN in collaboration with the French Ministry of Defense. The results confirm the good fit between the models and experimental results after a phase of optimization.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
3. Loss integration in ATILA software

by K. Uchino

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087226
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Finite element analysis can be applied to smart structures with piezoelectric or magnetostrictive materials rather successfully when neither the applying electric field nor the generating AC strain is very large and when the linear relation can be supposed in the strain vs electric field or the strain vs stress. However, further improvement in the FEM algorithm is required for high field or high power drive of the piezoelectric system, where nonlinear and hysteretic characteristics should be taken into account, as well as heat generation. In this chapter, we will discuss the high power issues. There are three hysteresis loss components for piezoelectric vibrators, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric losses. Mechanical quality factors play a significant role in the loss study of piezoelectrics, and they are basically related to all dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric loss factors. Besides, a higher quality factor at the antiresonance is usually observed in the PZT based experiments, in comparison with that at the resonance. ATILA is the unique software for adopting dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric losses separately to calculate the impedance/admittance curve.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
6. Time domain analysis of piezoelectric devices with the transient module in ATILA

by S.-H. Park

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087250
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter describes time domain analysis capabilities of ATILA which might be useful in evaluating acoustic wave propagation and reflection by transducers, transient signal response of sensors, and overshoot and ringing behaviors for actuators. Three examples from different application fields were selected to show how time domain analysis can be achieved in ATILA, focusing on an analytical approach in simulation modeling, decisions based on transient module parameters, and interpretation of time domain results.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
12. Modelling the damping of piezoelectric structures with ATILA

by J.-C. Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087315
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The damping of a structure can be obtained by a transfer of the vibratory energy into thermal energy (dissipation in an electrical resistance). The transfer is carried out by using piezoelectric materials (PZT piezoelectric plate) and is improved by charging the piezoelectric material by an electrical circuit. This chapter describes finite element-electric circuit matrices created in the ATILA code. First, analytical models have been developed for the damping of a piezoelectric cylinder and a cantilever beam with a PZT plate; the results are compared with the numerical values (ATILA). Then, the damping of a cantilever beam charged by an electrical circuit is measured at the end of the beam using a laser vibrometer and compared with the numerical results. Finally, the vibrations damping is studied on a large aluminium plate; experimental and numerical results are compared.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
8. Piezocomposite applications of ATILA

by A-C. Hladky-Hennion

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087277
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Periodic structures have attracted considerable interest over the past three decades. Thus, passive structures with 1D or 2D periodicity are in standard use in underwater acoustics. Moreover doubly periodic active structures, such as 1–3 piezocomposite materials made of parallel piezoelectric bars embedded in a passive matrix, are also of great interest for mine hunting, underwater or medical ultrasonic imaging. In this chapter, a brief presentation of passive and active periodic structures is described. Then, the generic model developed for periodic studies is presented for the particular case of a 1–3 piezocomposite. The periodic structure is immersed in a fluid and the transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated. The test example discussed at the end of the chapter is devoted to an actual Alberich coating and an actual 1–3 piezocomposite for which previous experimental results are available.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
11. Thermal analysis in piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials using ATILA

by J.-C. Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087307
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this chapter, a coupled electromechanical thermal analysis is presented. For a steady-state solution, the thermal behaviour is weakly coupled to the electromechanical response. A simple model, a tonpilz, a doubled-ended and a flextensional transducer serve as validation of the numerical model compared to the analytical models. The transient thermal analysis is developed and the temperature and dissipated power distribution are obtained at each step. The validation concerns piezoelectric ring transducers driven at high power levels under continuous sine-wave drive. The aim of the second section of this chapter is to present heat generation in a magnetostrictive transducer. The development of heat generation is defined with two validations. The first example consists of a cylinder in vacuum, the second example shows the temperature behaviour of a Janus transducer; the results are compared with an analytical model and measurements.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
4. Finite element analysis of flexural vibration of orthogonally stiffened cylindrical shells with ATILA

by J.-C. Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087234
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The vibration and sound radiation of structures, like plates or shells stiffened by frames or ribs, is a problem of interest in the analysis of aircraft and marine structures. If the ribs are uniformly spaced, then the composite structure is spatially periodic. Many authors have proposed solutions for stiffened infinite shells with simple shapes. But, when the shape is more complicated, such as for a submarine or an aircraft, the numerical methods are not appropriate and the finite element method seems justified with finite element characterizing the stiffeners. In this chapter, from the theory of shells with the complicating effects of anisotropy due to the stiffeners, one finite element is presented. After, the presentation of the boundary conditions on the shell, a first validation will be realized on circular cylindrical shells having tranverse stiffeners. The modes of vibration obtained from the new shell element are compared with analytical and experimental results. The second validation concerns an elastic target with a stiffened shell. The comparison is made between the use of the new shell element and a 3D analysis.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
9. Phononic crystal (PC) applications of ATILA

by A.-C. Hladky-Hennion

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087285
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Phononic crystals (PCs) are usually defined as artificial materials made of periodic arrangement of scatterers embedded in a matrix. The band structure of PCs may present under certain conditions absolute band gaps: they display frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate. This fact is analogous to photonic band gaps for electromagnetic waves. Therefore, such systems can be applied as noise and vibration isolation, acoustic wave guiding, acoustic filters, etc. Moreover, band structures of PCs may exhibit dispersion curves with a negative slope, inducing negative refraction phenomenon. In this chapter, the general formalism is first presented. It is applied in the second part to a phononic crystal inducing filtering application and in the last section, negative refraction of elastic waves is presented for focusing application.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
2. The capabilities of the new version of ATILA

by J-C. Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The aim of this chapter is to compare the new version of ATILA (ATILA++) with the previous one. In Section 2.3, the new developments in the pre- and post-processor are presented. Then in Section 2.5, a time comparison is made from several examples. With a first example which is a 3D electromechanical structure, the CPU and real times are compared for the computation of the 10 resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and for a harmonic analysis of 30 frequencies. The second example concerns a fluid harmonic analysis with 30 frequencies of a piezoelectric transducer. A thermal harmonic analysis is performed on a piezoelectric cylinder. Using the same cylinder, a transient analysis is carried with 100 time steps. For each analysis, the CPU and real times are presented and a comparison is made between the two versions.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
7. Designing ultrasonic motors (USM) with ATILA

by S.-J. Yoon

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087269
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer many advantages such as high retention being very controllable, high torque at low speed, light weight, simple structure and no electromagnetic field induction compared with the conventional electromagnetic motors. These advantages have helped to expand the application fields where precise position control and rotational/linear motions can be utilized. One of the most remarkable features of the compact ultrasonic motor is that it has higher design flexibility compared with that of the conventional electromagnetic motors whose efficiency significantly decreases with miniaturization. In order to build a novel ultrasonic motor for a specific purpose, it is essential to examine the structural design and the electrical and mechanical properties prior to preparing a real motor. The ATILA simulation tool offers useful information related to the performance for a designed piezoelectric ultrasonic motor. A real motor can therefore easily be manufactured with minimized trial and error. In this chapter, two types of tiny motors are presented, including the process of ATILA simulation and the fabrication of ultrasonic piezoelectric motors.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
13. Modelling the behaviour of single crystal devices with ATILA: the effect of temperature and stress on a single crystal bar, tonpilz and sphere submitted to a harmonic analysis

by J-C. Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087323
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Traditional transmitting materials, such as PZT-8, exhibit some non-linearity in stress and temperature, but predicting performance under high stress and higher temperatures can be achieved by taking advantage of the weak coupling. One needs to predict the performance of these devices by considering the highly non-linear behaviour with a fully non-linear solution procedure in the ATILA finite element software package. The aim of this chapter is to analyze the behaviour of simple devices submitted to a harmonic analysis. Analytical models are developed and compared with the numerical analysis via the ATILA code for several devices. ATILA does not have a non-linear solver yet. ATILA results are obtained with up-dated properties.

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials

Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials
5. Utilization of piezoelectric polarization in ATILA: usual to original

by J.-C. Debus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-11-27
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128087242
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter provides the utilization of piezoelectric polarization. In smart structures, the polarization and the electric field are not necessarily parallel to each other. However, applying an electric field in a particular direction may change the behaviour of the device. Sections 5.3 to 5.5 present the utilization of Cartesian polarization with different electric fields on a PZT cube and on a PZT ring to compare analytical and numerical (ATILA) solutions. On the same ring with a cylindrical polarization, analytical and numerical results are compared. In Section 5.6, using original polarization, two new designs of PZT actuator are studied. The first device consists of an open ring of piezoelectric material polarized in the thickness direction. Under an appropriate electrical field applied in the poling direction and/or the radial direction, the ring behaves as a spring having rectangular torsion behaviour. The second device consists of a simple stripe actuator with an original polarization. This actuator can be used as a flexing actuator similar to a bilaminar transducer. For these two actuators, numerical results obtained with the ATILA code and analytical results are compared with experimental findings.

FEM and Micromechatronics with ATILA Software

FEM and Micromechatronics with ATILA Software
A Book

by Kenji Uchino

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-10-03
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 1351835068
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Students preparing to work with mechatronics, particularly with highly precise and smart actuators, face the challenge of designing and analyzing devices without formal and practical guidance in computer techniques. Finally there is a textbook that is as practical as it is authoritative: Kenji Uchino's FEM and Micromechatronics with ATILA Software. Ideal for Today's Computer-Based Curricula Every aspect of this book reflects its focus on being easy to use, easy to teach from, and above all, easy to implement. The first half of the text outlines the theory needed to develop and design smart actuators and transducers, while the second half walks students step-by-step through the software implementation using seven extensive examples. Even the book's lay-flat binding makes it easy for students to follow the text while working simultaneously at a computer. The companion CD-ROM supplies a free educational version of ATILA-Light. Unified Coverage for Integrated Technologies Covering the myriad challenges posed by smart transducers, the author introduces the fundamentals of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive devices, practical materials, device designs, drive and control techniques, and typical applications. Numerous problems and examples give students ample opportunity to put the concepts into practice. Outlining a complete treatment in 30 convenient 75 minute lessons, FEM and Micromechatronics with ATILA Software is a unique classroom text that students will continue to use throughout their entire careers.

Ecological Design of Smart Home Networks

Ecological Design of Smart Home Networks
Technologies, Social Impact and Sustainability

by N. Saito,D Menga

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-03-31
  • Pages : 130
  • ISBN : 1782421246
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides an authoritative guide for postgraduate students and academic researchers in electronics, computer and network engineering, telecommunications, energy technology and home automation, as well as R&D managers in industrial sectors such as wireless technology, consumer electronics, telecommunications and networking, information technology, energy technology and home automation. Part One outlines the key principles and technologies needed for ecological smart home networks. Beginning with a thorough overview of the concept behind ecological smart home network design, the book reviews such important areas as power line communications, hybrid systems and middleware platforms. Part Two then goes on to discuss some important applications of this technology, with wireless smart sensor networks for home and telecare, and smart home networking for content and energy management (including the intelligent Zero Emission Urban System), all explored in detail. More systematic and comprehensive coverage: the book covers ecological design and technology requirements, performance and applications for smart home networks Better focus on industry needs: the book covers current and emerging smart home networking technologies. It explains how the technologies work, how they have developed, their capabilities and the markets that they target Better coverage of the best international research: the book is multi-contributor and brings together the leading researchers from around the world

Smart Sensors and MEMS

Smart Sensors and MEMS
Intelligent Devices and Microsystems for Industrial Applications

by S Nihtianov,A. Luque

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2014-03-24
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 0857099299
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Smart sensors and MEMS can include a variety of devices and systems that have a high level of functionality. They do this either by integrating multiple sensing and actuating modes into one device, or else by integrating sensing and actuating with information processing, analog-to-digital conversion and memory functions. Part one outlines the industrial applications for smart sensors, covering direct interface circuits for sensors, capacitive sensors for displacement measurement in the sub-nanometer range, integrated inductive displacement sensors for harsh industrial environments, advanced silicon radiation detectors in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, and advanced optical incremental sensors (encoders and interferometers), among other topics. The second part of the book describes the industrial applications of smart micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Some of the topics covered in this section include microfabrication technologies used for creating smart devices for industrial applications, microactuators, dynamic behaviour of smart MEMS in industrial applications, MEMS integrating motion and displacement sensors, MEMS print heads for industrial printing, Photovoltaic and fuel cells in power MEMS for smart energy management, and radio frequency (RF)-MEMS for smart communication microsystems. Smart sensors and MEMS is invaluable reference for academics, materials scientists and electrical engineers working in the microelectronics, sensors and micromechanics industry, and engineers looking for industrial sensing, monitoring and automation solutions. Outlines industrial applications for smart sensors and smart MEMS Covers smart sensors including capacitive, inductive, resistive and magnetic sensors and sensors to detect radiation and measure temperature Covers smart MEMS including power MEMS, radio frequency MEMS, optical MEMS, inertial MEMS, and microreaction chambers

Lasers for Medical Applications

Lasers for Medical Applications
Diagnostics, Therapy and Surgery

by Helena Jelínková

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 832
  • ISBN : 0857097547
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lasers have a wide and growing range of applications in medicine. Lasers for Medical Applications summarises the wealth of recent research on the principles, technologies and application of lasers in diagnostics, therapy and surgery. Part one gives an overview of the use of lasers in medicine, key principles of lasers and radiation interactions with tissue. To understand the wide diversity and therefore the large possible choice of these devices for a specific diagnosis or treatment, the respective types of the laser (solid state, gas, dye, and semiconductor) are reviewed in part two. Part three describes diagnostic laser methods, for example optical coherence tomography, spectroscopy, optical biopsy, and time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectroscopy. Those methods help doctors to refine the scope of involvement of the particular body part or, for example, to specify the extent of a tumor. Part four concentrates on the therapeutic applications of laser radiation in particular branches of medicine, including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology, urology, gynecology, otorhinolaryngology (ORL), neurology, dentistry, orthopaedic surgery and cancer therapy, as well as laser coatings of implants. The final chapter includes the safety precautions with which the staff working with laser instruments must be familiar. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, this important book summarizes international achievements in the field of laser applications in medicine in the past 50 years. It provides a valuable contribution to laser medicine by outstanding experts in medicine and engineering. Describes the interaction of laser light with tissue Reviews every type of laser used in medicine: solid state, gas, dye and semiconductor Describes the use of lasers for diagnostics

Fundamentals and Applications of Nanophotonics

Fundamentals and Applications of Nanophotonics
A Book

by Joseph W. Haus

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2016-01-09
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN : 1782424873
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fundamentals and Applications of Nanophotonics includes a comprehensive discussion of the field of nanophotonics, including key enabling technologies that have the potential to drive economic growth and impact numerous application domains such as ICT, the environment, healthcare, military, transport, manufacturing, and energy. This book gives readers the theoretical underpinnings needed to understand the latest advances in the field. After an introduction to the area, chapters two and three cover the essential topics of electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and computation as they relate to nanophotonics. Subsequent chapters explore materials for nanophotonics, including nanoparticles, photonic crystals, nanosilicon, nanocarbon, III-V, and II-VI semiconductors. In addition, fabrication and characterization techniques are addressed, along with the importance of plasmonics, and the applications of nanophotonics in devices such as lasers, LEDs, and photodetectors. Covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and computation as these relate to nanophotonics Reviews materials, fabrication and characterization techniques for nanophotonics Describes applications of the technology such as lasers, LEDs and photodetectors

Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods

Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods
A Book

by Gerhard Huebschen,Iris Altpeter,Ralf Tschuncky,Hans-Georg Herrmann

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2016-03-23
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 008100057X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods discusses NDT methods and how they are highly desirable for both long-term monitoring and short-term assessment of materials, providing crucial early warning that the fatigue life of a material has elapsed, thus helping to prevent service failures. Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods gives an overview of established and new NDT techniques for the characterization of materials, with a focus on materials used in the automotive, aerospace, power plants, and infrastructure construction industries. Each chapter focuses on a different NDT technique and indicates the potential of the method by selected examples of applications. Methods covered include scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microtomography and diffraction, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, microwave, and hybrid techniques. The authors review both the determination of microstructure properties, including phase content and grain size, and the determination of mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, yield strength, texture, and residual stress. Gives an overview of established and new NDT techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microtomography and diffraction, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, microwave, and hybrid techniques Reviews the determination of microstructural and mechanical properties Focuses on materials used in the automotive, aerospace, power plants, and infrastructure construction industries Serves as a highly desirable resource for both long-term monitoring and short-term assessment of materials