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Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
A Book

by Celia Holland

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 012397285X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book tackles a number of different perspectives concerning the parasitic helminth Ascaris, both in animals and in humans and the disease known as ascariasis. It seeks to identify interesting, exciting and novel aspects, which will interest readers from a broad range of disciplines. Over a quarter of the world's population are infected with the human roundworm, and the equivalent in pigs is equally ubiquitous. Both contribute to insidious and chronic nutritional morbidity, and this has been quantified, in humans, as disability adjusted life years approximating 10.5 million. Ascaris larvae develop in host parenteral tissues, and the resultant pathology has been condemnation. Ascariasis, despite its staggering global prevalence and the sheer numbers of people it infects, remains a classic neglected disease. However, renewed interest in the consequences of early infection with worms from the perspective of immune modulation, co-infections and the development of allergy further enhances the relevance of these parasites. Brings together a wide range of topics and approaches and recent, comprehensive and progressive research concerning the neglected parasite Ascaris Provides a blueprint of how a single parasite entity can stimulate interest in basic biology, clinical science, veterinary science, public health and epidemiology Presents a wealth of new insights given that a book on this parasite has not been published for over 20 years 16 chapters from a range of top authors from around the world

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Chapter 5. Larval Ascariasis: Impact, Significance, and Model Organisms

by Celia V. Holland,Jerzy M. Behnke,Christina Dold

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 0128061286
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Larval ascariasis is much less well understood than adult worm infection. Part of the explanation for this is the difficulty in assessing the impact of larval infections in human subjects. In contrast, adult worms can be counted after post-chemotherapeutic expulsion or, additionally, eggs voided in host feces can be quantified as an indirect measure of infection intensity. Furthermore, respiratory and hepatic disease, which may be associated with transient passage of larvae through these organs, can be either non-specific or cryptic, making Ascaris-specific diagnosis through clinical signs of infection challenging. The influence of early infection on parasite establishment and host immunity is recognized as important but it remains challenging to unravel the complexities of the relationship. Both pigs as natural hosts of Ascaris suum and a range of abnormal hosts have been utilized to investigate larval migration. Few if any of these model systems have enabled clarification of the basis of variation in susceptibility and resistance to larval migration and accumulation in the liver and lungs. In this chapter, we document the literature on larval ascariasis with a particular emphasis on studies utilizing mice because mice are now developing as useful model systems for the study of early Ascaris infection, the migratory path and its duration being similar to that of pigs. We describe a mouse model of early Ascaris infection that mimics the extremes of the host phenotype displayed in the aggregated distribution of adult worms in human and pig populations, outline the existing evidence for the role of the liver in susceptibility to larval ascariasis and discuss future directions for the use of this model system.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Chapter 16. Diagnosis and Control of Ascariasis in Pigs

by Johnny Vlaminck,Peter Geldhof

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 0128061391
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Roundworms are the most prevalent parasite of swine in the world today. Their presence on a pig farm can have detrimental effects on farm profitability due to their impact on growth rate, feed conversion, and general health of the produced pigs. For farmers, it is therefore essential to be aware of the “worm status” of their herd in order to make informed decisions on how to control this disease on their farm. This chapter concentrates on the diverse aspects involved in the diagnosis and control of Ascaris suum infections on pig farms. It focuses on how the results obtained from different detection methods should be interpreted and what efforts could be made to control parasite transmission and consequentially reduce the prevalence and economic impact of this parasite on a pig farm.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Chapter 12. Genetics of Human Host Susceptibility to Ascariasis

by Sarah Williams-Blangero,Mona H. Fenstad,Satish Kumar,John Blangero

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 0128061359
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ascaris infections remain major global public health problems despite the wide availability of cheap, effective anthelminthic drugs. An improved understanding of host susceptibility to Ascaris infection may suggest new approaches for targeting available drugs more effectively, or may suggest novel targets for drug development efforts. This chapter explores our current understanding of the underlying genetic architecture of susceptibility to Ascaris infection. The past and potential future uses of different types of genetic approaches, from quantitative genetic studies of heritability, to gene localization, to sequencing of functional variants, are explored. The field of human complex disease genetics is moving rapidly as a result of both technological and theoretical advances. State-of-the-art genetic techniques promise to yield new insights which will dramatically improve our understanding of the determinants of differential host susceptibility to Ascaris infection.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Chapter 13. Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascariasis: Estimating Numbers Infected and Burden of Disease

by Simon J. Brooker,Rachel L. Pullan

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 0128061367
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) affecting 763 million people worldwide, with nutritional and developmental consequences of chronic childhood infection and severe clinical disease occurring in heavy infections. Reliably estimating the extent of the problem of Ascaris lumbricoides and ascariasis is difficult because of inaccuracies in parasitological diagnosis, the non-specificity of clinical signs, and a paucity of reliable and accurate data. As a consequence, estimating the global distribution and disease burden has been based on informed approximations, using the best available information. This chapter provides an overview of past and current estimates of the global population at risk of and infected with A. lumbricoides. The regional and global burden of ascariasis is estimated by extrapolation from data on the prevalence of infection and a series of epidemiological methods. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study uses disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden, based on an assessment of premature mortality and years lived with disability. The data and methods used to estimate the disease burden of ascariasis in the 1990 GBD study and the 2010 study are compared. Globally, intestinal nematodes are estimated to contribute 5.184 million DALYs in 2010, with ascariasis contributing 1.3148 million, trichuriasis 0.6382 million, and hookworm 3.2311 million. The 2010 study provides estimates for both 1990 and 2010, and these findings indicated that the burden of ascariasis in 2010 is much lower than in 1990, where ascariasis contributed 4.2173 billion DALYs. The use of DALYs to estimate the burden of ascariasis is not without its limitations, however, and fails to capture the broader societal impact of ascariasis and other NTDs or that they disapportionally affect the poorest populations.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Chapter 6. The Neurobiology of Ascaris and Other Parasitic Nematodes

by Antony O.W. Stretton,Aaron G. Maule

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 0128061294
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The structural simplicity of nematode nervous systems has provided a useful resource for studies on basic neurobiology. Two species have underpinned basic neuroscience research in phylum Nematoda, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the pig parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to their genetic tractability and large size, respectively. The fact that most of the chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of roundworm parasite infections of animals and man associate with neuromuscular function means that nematode neurobiology research resonates beyond discovery biology and informs parasite control. These diverse drivers for the interrogation of nematode neurobiology have exposed a unique approach to the regulation of complex behavioral traits, encompassing structural simplicity with profound chemical complexity. The latter embraces extreme diversity in both the ligand-gated ion channel subunit complements for classical neurotransmitters and in the neuropeptide ligands that signal mostly via G-protein coupled receptors, offering compelling opportunities for parasite control-target discovery and validation.

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite

Ascaris: The Neglected Parasite
Chapter 8. Genetic Epidemiology of Ascaris: Cross-transmission between Humans and Pigs, Focal Transmission, and Effective Population Size

by Charles D. Criscione

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-09
  • Pages : 460
  • ISBN : 0128061316
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fields of conservation genetics and genetic epidemiology share many parallel questions. Hence, methodologies can be adapted from the former to the latter. Three applications of population genetics are presented to further our understanding of Ascaris epidemiology. (1) I address if Ascaris infections in humans and pigs constitute a single population or subdivided host-affiliated populations with potential for cross-transmission and hybridization. (2) I discuss the use of landscape genetics as a means to identify transmission foci and epidemiologically relevant variables correlated to parasite population substructure. (3) I propose the novel integration of the effective population size (Ne) parameter into population monitoring and epidemiological studies of parasites in general. Using microsatellite data from a metapopulation of A. lumbricoides in Nepal, I demonstrate the utility of estimating Ne with single-sample contemporary estimators, offer epidemiologically related questions that can be addressed with Ne, and highlight assumptions of Ne estimation related to Ascaris biology.

The Relationship Between Ascaris Infection and the Nutritional Status of Pre-school Children in Central Bali-Nyonga in Cameroon

The Relationship Between Ascaris Infection and the Nutritional Status of Pre-school Children in Central Bali-Nyonga in Cameroon
A Book

by Georgia Lema Ndasi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 332
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Multicriteria-based Ranking for Risk Management of Food-borne Parasites

Multicriteria-based Ranking for Risk Management of Food-borne Parasites
Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting, 3-7 September 2012, FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy

by Pascal Boireau

  • Publisher : Microbiological Risk Assessmen
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 302
  • ISBN : 9789251081990
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This product documents the process by which foodborne parasites were ranked from a global food safety perspective and provides a ranking and information on all the top ranked parasites both generally and from a regional perspective. It directly supports the establishment of international standards on foodborne parasites by the Codex Alimentarius which are agreed by countries and can then be used as a basis for improving the safety of specific products and facilitation their trade internationally. These in turn directly contribute to the SO by promoting more efficient and inclusive trade.

Neglected Tropical Diseases - South Asia

Neglected Tropical Diseases - South Asia
A Book

by Sunit K. Singh

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-03-19
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 3319684930
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers all aspects of Neglected Tropical Diseases in the region of South Asia. NTDs constitute a significant part of the total disease burden in this geographic area, including soil borne helminth infections, vector borne viral infections, protozoan infections and a few bacterial infections. The current volume covers the most common neglected viral, bacterial and protozoan infections. On top of that, the last part of the volume is dedicated to the management of neglected tropical diseases.

The Neglected and Abused

The Neglected and Abused
A Physician's Year in Haiti

by Joseph Francis Bentivegna

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Pediatric Infectious Diseases: Essentials for Practice, 2nd Edition

Pediatric Infectious Diseases: Essentials for Practice, 2nd Edition
A Book

by Samir S. Shah

  • Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
  • Release : 2018-11-02
  • Pages : 912
  • ISBN : 125986152X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The most practice-oriented guide to diagnosing and managing infectious diseases in children Pediatric Infectious Diseases: Essentials for Practice, Second Edition is filled with practical, clinically relevant guidance for successful infectious disease management. The care of the patient forms the core of this indispensable resource, which also provides perspectives on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis that every pediatrician, pediatric hospitalist, and pediatric nurse practitioner needs to know. The book's high-yield coverage includes detailed, yet precise overviews of specific infections and their etiology, along with proven diagnostic and management strategies that readers can incorporate into their practice right away. FEATURES: •Tips that tell you what you must know--and do--at every stage of care •Diagnostic and treatment algorithms •Signs/Symptoms and Differential Diagnosis boxes •"When to Refer" boxes, which examine all the relevant clinical considerations •Diagnostic Tests--with a realistic emphasis on the right tests to order •Medical Treatment coverage that includes drugs, dosages, and administration in an easy-to-read tabular format •Convenient icons and a templated chapter design •Numerous clinical color photos and didactic diagrams •NEW! Clinical Pearls boxes accompany coverage of each infectious disease •Updated treatment guidelines and protocols from the CDC If you are in need of an up-to-date, clinically relevant guide to treating infectious diseases in pediatric patients, your search ends here.

Immunity to Parasitic Infection

Immunity to Parasitic Infection
A Book

by Tracey Lamb

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-08-10
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 1118393333
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Parasitic infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the world today. Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system. This book examines current knowledge about immune responses to parasitic infections affecting humans, including interactions that occur during co-infections, and how immune responses may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field. An overview of the immune system, as well as introductions to protozoan and helminth parasites, is included to guide background reading. A historical perspective of the field of immunoparasitology acknowledges the contributions of investigators who have been instrumental in developing this field of research.

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution
A Book

by Smithsonian Institution,Smithsonian Institution. Board of Regents

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1960
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reports for 1884-1886/87 issued in 2 pts., pt. 2 being the Report of the National Museum.

Parasite Neurobiology

Parasite Neurobiology
A Book

by D. W. Halton,Leslie H. Chappell

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 118
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biochemistry and Physiology of Endoparasites

Biochemistry and Physiology of Endoparasites
A Book

by T. Von Brand,Theodor Von Brand

  • Publisher : Elsevier-North-Holland Biomedical Press
  • Release : 1979
  • Pages : 447
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Livro jubilar do professor Lauro Travassos

Livro jubilar do professor Lauro Travassos
editado para commemorar o 25o anniversario de suas actividades scientificas (1913-1938).

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1938
  • Pages : 589
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Modern Encyclopedia of Baby and Child Care

The Modern Encyclopedia of Baby and Child Care
Editor-in-chief: Benjamin F. Miller. Associate Ed.: David Harris

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1966
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Veterinary Alumni Quarterly

Veterinary Alumni Quarterly
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1930
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forest and Stream

Forest and Stream
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1886
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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