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Aspects of Explosives Detection

Aspects of Explosives Detection
A Book

by Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2011-07-28
  • Pages : 302
  • ISBN : 9780080923147
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives
A Book

by Paul M. Pellegrino,Ellen L. Holthoff,Mikella E. Farrell

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-09-03
  • Pages : 409
  • ISBN : 1351831178
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understanding and appreciation of each technology’s capabilities and potential for standoff hazard detection.

Explosives Detection

Explosives Detection
Sensors, Electronic Systems and Data Processing

by Lorenzo Capineri,Eyüp Kuntay Turmuş

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-01-29
  • Pages : 331
  • ISBN : 940241729X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume presents selected contributions from the “Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection” hosted by the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Florence, Italy in 2018. The main goal of the workshop was to find out how Science for Peace and Security projects in the field of Explosives Detection contribute to the development and/or refinement of scientific and technical knowledge and competencies. The findings of the workshop, presented in the last section of the book, determine future actions and direction of the SPS Programme in the field of explosives detection and management.The NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme, promotes dialogue and practical cooperation between NATO member states and partner nations based on scientific research, technological innovation and knowledge exchange. Several initiatives were launched in the field of explosive detection and clearance, as part of NATO’s enhanced role in the international fight against terrorism. Experts and scientists from NATO members and partner countries have been brought together in multi-year projects, within the framework of the SPS Programme, to cooperate in the scientific research in explosive detection field, developing new technologies and methods to be implemented in order to detect explosive substances in different contexts.

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti-Terrorism Purposes

Vapour and Trace Detection of Explosives for Anti-Terrorism Purposes
A Book

by M. Krausa

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-11-06
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 1402027168
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fast detection of explosives from the vapor phase would be one way to enhance the protection of society against terrorist attacks. Up to now the problem of detection of explosives, especially the location of explosives whether at large areas e. g. station halls, theaters or hidden in cars, aircraft cargo, baggage or explosives hidden in crowds e. g. suicide bombers or bombs in bags has not been solved. Smelling of explosives like dogs do seems to be a valuable tool for a security chain. In general different strategies can be adopt to the basic problem of explosive detection: • bulk detection • vapor detection Normally meetings cover both aspects and applications of the detection. Even though both methods might fulfill special aspects of a general security chain the underlying scientific questions differ strongly. Because of that the discussions of the scientists and practitioners from the different main directions are sometimes only less specific. Therefore the NATO Advisory Panel in Security-Related Civil Science and Technology proposed a small series of NATO ARW's which focuses on the different scientific aspects of explosives detection methods. This book is based on material presented at the first NATO ARW of this series in Moscow which covered the topic: Vapor and trace detection of explosives. The second ARW was held in St. Petersburg and treated the topic Bulk detection methods. The third workshop was held in Warwick and focused on electronic noses which cover a somewhat different aspect of vapor detection.

Explosives Detection using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques

Explosives Detection using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques
A Book

by Jacques Fraissard,Olga Lapina

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2009-07-06
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN : 904813062X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to build a multichannel system necessary to cover a wide range of target substances. Moreover, substances fully screened by metallic enclosures, etc. are difficult to detect. A workshop was held at St Petersburg in July 2008 in an attempt to solve these problems and make NQR the universal technique for the detection of bombs regardless of type. This book presents the essentials of the papers given there.

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives
A Book

by Jehuda Yinon

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2011-10-13
  • Pages : 454
  • ISBN : 9780080545202
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The detection of hidden explosives has become an issue of utmost importance in recent years. While terrorism is not new to the international community, recent terrorist attacks have raised the issue of detection of explosives and have generated a great demand for rapid, sensitive and reliable methods for detecting hidden explosives. Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives covers recent advances in this area of research including vapor and trace detection techniques (chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, electrochemical methods and micromechanical sensors, such as microcantilevers) and bulk detection techniques (neutron techniques, nuclear quadrupole resonance, x-ray diffraction imaging, millimeter-wave imaging, terahertz imaging and laser techniques). This book will be of interest to any scientists involved in the design and application of security screening technologies including new sensors and detecting devices which will prevent the smuggling of bombs and explosives. * Covers latest advances in vapor and trace detection techniques and bulk detection techniques * Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development * Techniques that are described in detail, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques
A Book

by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2004-05-14
  • Pages : 148
  • ISBN : 9780309166034
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.

Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security

Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security
First Report

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1999-11-23
  • Pages : 86
  • ISBN : 0309172438
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report assesses the operational performance of explosives-detection equipment and hardened unit-loading devices (HULDs) in airports and compares their operational performance to their laboratory performance, with a focus on improving aviation security.

Configuration Management and Performance Verification of Explosives-Detection Systems

Configuration Management and Performance Verification of Explosives-Detection Systems
A Book

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Technical Regulation of Explosives Detection Systems

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1998-10-23
  • Pages : 88
  • ISBN : 0309061962
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report assesses the configuration-management and performance-verification options for the development and regulation of commercially available Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) and other systems designed for detection of explosives. In particular, the panel authoring this report (1) assessed the advantages and disadvantages of methods used for configuration management and performance verification relative to the FAA's needs for explosives-detection equipment regulation, (2) outlined a "quality management program" that the FAA can follow that includes configuration management and performance verification and that will encourage commercial development and improvement of explosives-detection equipment while ensuring that such systems are manufactured to meet FAA certification requirements, and (3) outlined a performance-verification strategy that the FAA can follow to ensure that EDSs continue to perform at certification specifications in the airport environment.

K9 Explosive Detection

K9 Explosive Detection
A Manual for Trainers

by Ron Mistafa

  • Publisher : Dog Training Press
  • Release : 1998-01
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 1550591614
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Conduct efficient, effective and safe searches in any setting K9 Explosive Detection is for detector dog trainers and police departments looking for alternative training ideas or for ways to set up their own course training standards. Ron Mistafa examines some of the major training systems in use by police departments across North America, and he offers a system that combines the most effective elements of each one. This manual focuses on the how-to aspects of explosive detector dog (EDD) training. A gradual build-up of learning experiences and ongoing problem solving techniques produce more confident EDD teams. Ron also examines US and Canadian laws governing possession of explosive materials and devices, provides tips on working with other police specialty units, and explains how to involve non-police personnel at airports in EDD training.

Field Detection Technologies for Explosives

Field Detection Technologies for Explosives
A Book

by Yin Sun

  • Publisher : ILM Publications
  • Release : 2009-12
  • Pages : 301
  • ISBN : 1906799024
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Analysis of Explosives

The Analysis of Explosives
Pergamon Series in Analytical Chemistry

by Jehuda Yinon,Shmuel Zitrin

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN : 1483140059
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Analysis of Explosives surveys the principles of the various analytical methods, describes how these methods are used for the analysis of explosives, and reviews the major analytical work carried out in this field. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with the classification of explosives. Subsequent chapters discuss the different methods for the analysis of explosives. The detection and identification of explosive residues and hidden explosives are also explained. This monograph will be useful as a reference book for chemists in analytical and forensic laboratories, as well as a textbook for graduate students in analytical chemistry and forensic sciences.

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives
A Book

by Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2006-01-02
  • Pages : 230
  • ISBN : 1402048874
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book collects lectures of an international NATO-Russian Advanced Research Workshop on Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives (IE) used by terrorists. The disposal of IE is especially dangerous, because they are often much more unstable and mechanically more sensitive than commercial or military explosives. This text covers detection of explosives by different analytical methods and the different shape and compositions of the explosive charge, and offers up-to-date advice on handling and disposal.

Aspects of Explosives Detection

Aspects of Explosives Detection
A Book

by Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2011-07-28
  • Pages : 302
  • ISBN : 9780080923147
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Bombs, IEDs, and Explosives

Bombs, IEDs, and Explosives
Identification, Investigation, and Disposal Techniques

by Paul R. Laska

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-08-10
  • Pages : 285
  • ISBN : 1498714501
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A guide on procedures, administration, and equipment, Bombs, IEDs, and Explosives: Identification, Investigation, and Disposal Techniques introduces concepts, basic knowledge, and necessary skill sets for bomb technicians. It covers topics such as training resources, bomb threat and incident response, legal aspects of bomb disposal, explosives and

Electronic Noses

Electronic Noses
Principles and Applications

by Julian W. Gardner,Philip Nigel Bartlett

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 245
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since the mid 1980s there has been increasing interest in the development of so-called 'electronic noses', electronic instruments capable of detecting and recognizing complex odours. In this book, the authors discuss the basic principles of an electronic nose, give practical examples of applications, review the field, and detail the major new developments. Electronic noses: principles and applications will be essential reading for anyone working, researching, or simply interested in, the field of electronic noses or machine olfaction. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject is reflected by the different disciplines of the authorsengineering and chemistry - and the book is accessible to engineers, physicists, chemists and biologists.

Magnetic Resonance Detection of Explosives and Illicit Materials

Magnetic Resonance Detection of Explosives and Illicit Materials
A Book

by Tomaž Apih,Bulat Rameev,Georgy Mozzhukhin,Jamie Barras

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2013-10-02
  • Pages : 168
  • ISBN : 9400772653
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Detection of concealed explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, and many different approaches have been proposed to solve this problem. Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is unique in many ways. It operates in a safe AM radio frequency range, and it can remotely detect unique “fingerprint” (NQR spectrum) of many explosives, such as TNT or RDX. As such, the detection of target does not depend on the shape or material of the container, or the presence of metallic object such as triggers etc. Spectra of chemically similar compounds differ enough that their presence never causes interference or false alarms. Unfortunately, widespread use is prevented due to low sensitivity, radiofrequency interference from the noisy environment, and inability to detect liquid explosives. This book presents current state of the art of the attempts to overcome NQR sensitivity problem, either by increasing the strengths of signals generated, or by increasing the specificity of the technique through a better understanding of the factors that affect the quadrupolar parameters of specific explosives. The use of these specific quadrupolar parameters is demonstrated on signal processing techniques that can detect weak signals, which are hidden in a noisy background. The problem of differentiation of liquid explosives and benign liquids in closed containers is approached by measurements of different nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters. As shown, a couple of solutions has reached a prototype stage and could find their use in a near future.

Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism

Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism
A Book

by Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-05-21
  • Pages : 233
  • ISBN : 1402084668
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The organization of an Advanced Research Workshop with the title “Detection and Disposal of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism” was motivated by international findings about activities in this field of application. This ARW followed a meeting about the “Detection of Disposal Improvised Explosives” (St. Petersburg, 2005). Both items show the logistic problems as one of the lessons, terrorists have to overcome. These problems are connected with the illegal supply and transport of explosives and fuels and as counter-measure the detection of these materials. The invention of liquid explosives goes back to the middle of the 19th century and was used for special purposes in the commercial field of application. Because of the high sensitivity of liquid explosives against mechanical shock, caused by adiabatic compression of air-bobbles producing “hot spots” as origin of initiation the commercial application was not very successful. Because of this high risk, liquid explosives are not used in military or commercial application with some exceptions. In the commercial field explosives as slurries or emulsions consisting of suitable salts (Ammoniumnitrate etc.) and water are used to a large extend because of their high insensitivity. In many cases these slurries or emulsions were unfit for terrorist actions, because of their low sensitivity, large critical diameter and using in confinement. In the military field liquid explosives are used in World War I and II as bomb-fillings.

Electronic Noses & Sensors for the Detection of Explosives

Electronic Noses & Sensors for the Detection of Explosives
A Book

by J. Gardner,Jehuda Yinon

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2021-02-04
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 1402028008
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives
A Book

by Jehuda Yinon

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 1999-09-09
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9780471983712
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives is the first comprehensive book on the detection of explosives. It combines the two main fields of application: * Forensic detection of explosives - the detection of hidden explosives in airfreight, luggage, vehicles, and on suspects. * Environmental detection of explosives - detecting on-site explosives in soil and water of contaminated areas and the detection of landmines. Dr Jehuda Yinon is a world renowned expert on the analysis of explosives and has served as consulting expert during the Oklahoma bombing trial, where his previous book Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives was quoted by both the prosecution and defense experts. This new book complements the author's previous book on the analysis of explosives. It includes the following features: * Classifications of explosives * Explanations of the basic terms related to the detection of explosives * Vapor detection methods * Probing radiation methods * Tagging of explosives * Systems integration and performance testing * Detection of explosives in contaminated areas * Detection of landmines. This book is an ideal reference book for those working in forensic and law enforcement agencies concerned with the detection of hidden explosives, as well as for environmental scientists dealing with explosives decontamination. The book is also recommended as a text book for graduate students in analytical, environmental and forensic science.