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Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds

Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds
A Book

by Dudley Shallcross,Carl Percival

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-10-15
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 9780128228623
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Climate change and air quality are two of the most pressing concerns in the 21st century and VOCs play a pivotal role in both spheres. Scientists across the world are becoming aware of the importance of understanding the role that VOCs play from a wide range of fields. Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds is comprehensive but concise book with information that is extremely important to groups in the field of atmospheric science but also to the myriad groups that border this field, such as climate scientists, analytical scientists, health professionals, agricultural and botanical related researchers and many more. Atmospheric Sources and Sinks of Volatile Organic Compounds provides the reader with information in a form that they can adapt, such as emission factors, ways to estimate emissions as a function of appropriate variables, removal processes etc. The research also is connected to topics allied fields including land use, agriculture, measurement (analytical), and climate science. Features datasets and global maps of VOC distributions with supporting data Provides readers with information so that they can carry out 'what if' calculations, to be able to estimate the change in emissions in the future or make the information relevant to their region of the world Includes comprehensive coverage of VOCs and demonstrations of patterns in emission and removal

Atmospheric Degradation

Atmospheric Degradation
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018-05
  • Pages : 314
  • ISBN : 9781642240559
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Earth's atmosphere holds a mass of organic compounds, which differ by orders of magnitude regarding fundamental properties such as volatility, reactivity, and propensity to form cloud droplets, affecting their impact on global climate and human health. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a vital role in the chemistry of the atmosphere by impelling ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations and the renovation rates of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Elevated levels of VOCs and NOx have led to an approximate doubling of ozone in the lower troposphere over the past couple of centuries, making tropospheric ozone the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a key piece in understanding photochemical air quality in urban atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of organic substances, the use of petrochemical solvents, and vaporizations of petroleum products are sources of VOCs. Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Therefore, their sources, sinks and dwelling times are the subject of current research. Atmospheric Degradation of Organic Substances describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyze gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The book also includes evaluation of the relative ozone-forming potentials of the captured VOC species in the atmosphere of urban settlement. The analytical toolbox available for chemists to study atmospheric organic compounds has expanded considerably during the past decade, opening new windows into speciation, time resolution and detection of reactive and semi-volatile compounds at low concentrations. This has provided unprecedented opportunities, but also revealed new scientific challenges.This book is of interest to students, practitioners, as well as guiding tool for researchers in the field of atmospheric research.

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast-GC-MSD System

Airborne VOC measurements on board the Zeppelin NT during the PEGASOS campaigns in 2012 deploying the improved Fast-GC-MSD System

by Jäger, Julia

  • Publisher : Forschungszentrum Jülich
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 3893369368
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles

The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles
A Book

by Andreas Herrmann

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2011-06-15
  • Pages : 428
  • ISBN : 1119956986
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Coming to a conclusion, this wonderful, informative and very interesting book presents an excellent overview of small volatile organic compounds and their role in our life and environment. Really fascinating is the entirety of scientific disciplines which were addressed by this book." –Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2011 "... this book deserves to be a well-used reference in the library of any laboratory specialising in VOC". –Chemistry World, 2011 Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles; and they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to volatile molecules. Review-style introductions to the main topics in volatile chemistry and biology are provided by international experts, building into a broad overview of this fascinating field. Topics covered include: The structural variety of volatile compounds Biogeneration of volatiles Synthesis of natural and non-natural volatiles Analysis of volatiles Volatile compounds as semiochemicals in plant-plant or plant-insect interactions Volatiles in pest control Pheromones and the influence of volatiles on mammals Olfaction and human perception Volatiles as fragrances The generation of flavours and food aroma compounds Stabilisation and controlled release of volatiles The impact of volatiles on the environment and the atmosphere

Advances in Building Energy Research

Advances in Building Energy Research
A Book

by Mat Santamouris

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2012-05-04
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 1136572406
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Building Energy Research (ABER) offers state-of-the-art information on the environmental science and performance of buildings, linking new technologies and methodologies with the latest research on systems, simulations and standards. As stringently reviewed as a journal but with the breadth of a book, this annual volume brings together invited contributions from the foremost international experts on energy efficiency and environmental quality of buildings. Spanning a broad range of technical subjects, this is a 'must have' reference on global developments in the field, suitable for architects and building engineers, environmental engineers, industry professionals, students, teachers and researchers in building science, technical libraries and laboratories. Volume 3 covers: - Energy, Carbon and Cost Performance of Building Stocks - Solar Chimneys in Buildings - Optimization and Economics of Solar Cooling Systems - Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms in Energy Applications in Buildings - Decision Support Methodologies on the Energy Efficiency and Energy Management in Buildings - Progress in Numerical Modelling for Urban Thermal Environment Studies - Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE): An Inevitable Step Toward Sustainability - Guidelines to Avoid Mould Growth in Buildings - Thermal Impact of Strategic Landscaping in Cities - Urban Heat Island and its Impact on Building Energy Consumption - Green Roofs in Buildings: Thermal and Environmental Behaviour - Building Earth-Contact Heat Transfer

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere
A Book

by Ralf Koppmann

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-04-15
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 0470994150
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The formation of gaseous and particulate secondary products caused by oxidation of VOCs is one of the largest unknowns in the quantitative prediction of the earth’s climate on a regional and global scale, and on the understanding of local air quality. To be able to model and control their impact, it is essential to understand the sources of VOCs, their distribution in the atmosphere and the chemical transformations which remove these compounds from the atmosphere. In recent years techniques for the analysis of organic compounds in the atmosphere have been developed to increase the spectrum of detectable compounds and their detection limits. New methods have been introduced to increase the time resolution of those measurements and to resolve more complex mixtures of organic compounds. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyse gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The aim is to provide an authoritative review to address the needs of both graduate students and active researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry research.

Toxicity of Building Materials

Toxicity of Building Materials
A Book

by Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,S Jalali,Aleksandra Fucic

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-08-13
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 0857096354
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions. Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials. Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Organic Indoor Air Pollutants

Organic Indoor Air Pollutants
Occurence, Measurement, Evaluation

by Tunga Salthammer

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-07-11
  • Pages : 343
  • ISBN : 3527613676
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Indoor air quality has gained more and more attention in recent years. The book covers organic pollutants in indoor air, their sources, measurement, and evaluation. It is written from a chemical-analytical point of view. Therefore it fills a gap in the literature on this very topical subject. The book is divided into four parts covering the measurement of organic pollutants, environmental test chambers, the release of organic compounds from indoor materials as well as investigation concepts and quality guidelines. Each section was written by an experienced expert. The authors work in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The book is adressed to chemists, physicists, biologists, and medical doctors at universities and research facilities, in industry and environmental laboratories as well as regulative bodies.

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects

Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects
A Book

by Bruce A. Tichenor

  • Publisher : ASTM International
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 406
  • ISBN : 0803120303
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Based on presentations at a 1994 Symposium, these detailed papers review source/sink characterization; design, construction, characterization, and operation of test chambers and facilities; testing protocols for determining emission factors and sink absorption/desorption rates; models for predicting

Research Strategies for the U.S. Global Change Research Program

Research Strategies for the U.S. Global Change Research Program
A Book

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Global Change

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1990-02-01
  • Pages : 294
  • ISBN : 0309043484
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book recommends research priorities and scientific approaches for global change research. It addresses the scientific approaches for documenting global change, developing integrated earth system models, and conducting focused studies to improve understanding of global change on topics such as earth system history and human sources of global change.

Organic Bromine and Iodine Compounds

Organic Bromine and Iodine Compounds
A Book

by Alasdair H. Neilson

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2003-10-09
  • Pages : 346
  • ISBN : 9783540027775
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume addresses a broad spectrum of the environmental issues surrounding organic bromine and iodine compounds. It covers their partition among the environmental compartments and the potential for their long-range dissemination. The important issue of their atmospheric chemistry is discussed in detail in the context of ozone depletion and global warming, and the significant difference between the reactions of methyl bromide and methyl iodide are underscored. The mammalian toxicity is discussed and the mechanisms of the degradation and transformation of organic bromine and iodine compounds addressed. There has been considerable interest in naturally occurring metabolites in the current debate on the fate and partition of methyl bromide that is an important fungicide and is produced in substantial quantities as a metabolite of marine algae. The possible natural occurrence of diphenyl ethers that are used as flame retardants have also been raised. A discussion is given on plausible mechanisms for the biosynthesis of representative organic bromine and organic iodine metabolites. Reaction pathways are illustrated throughout and comprehensive references are given.

Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry

Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry
A Book

by Ronald G. Prinn

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 261
  • ISBN : 1461525241
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume contains the invited papers and a transcript of the final panel discussion in the First Scientific Conference of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (lGAC) Project, held in Eilat, Israel from April 18-22, 1993. The conference was hosted by the Israeli Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) and was the 37th in the prestigious OHOLO Conference series in Israel. The conference was devoted to the subject of "Global Atmospheric-Biospheric Chemistry" and was a landmark event in this area. It provided the first comprehensive report of progress under IGAC toward improving our understanding of the chemical and biological processes that determine the changing composition of the earth's atmosphere. This work is an essential component of the comprehensive International Geosphere Biosphere Program (lGBP) devoted to measuring and understanding global changes in the past and present, and predicting the future evolution of our planet. I want to devote this brief foreword to thanking several people who worked especially hard to make the conference a success and who helped to produce this volume as a record of the event. Paul Crutzen, Amram Golombek, Pamela Matson and Henning Rodhe did sterling service on the conference organizing committee. Special thanks go to Amram Golombek and Dr. Cohen, the Director of IIBR, who hosted the event in Israel. Anne Slinn did an excellent job in producing the Abstract book and helping with administrative matters. Alex Pszenny helped capably to critically review the Abstracts.

Chemistry and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment

Chemistry and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Environment
A Book

by H.J. Bloemen,J. Burn

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 290
  • ISBN : 9401121524
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Interest in the occurrence and behaviour of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is increasing due to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is essential that information is made available on the various aspects of research on VOCs to enable better understanding and control of the various environmental and human health threats. The information in this book will be used to improve communication and understanding of the various approaches. In particular the potential and limitations of the described analytical methods will be essential in defining environmental studies and interpreting the results.

Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles

Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles
A Book

by Peter S. Liss,Martin T. Johnson

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2013-12-18
  • Pages : 315
  • ISBN : 3642256430
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The oceans and atmosphere interact through various processes, including the transfer of momentum, heat, gases and particles. In this book leading international experts come together to provide a state-of-the-art account of these exchanges and their role in the Earth-system, with particular focus on gases and particles. Chapters in the book cover: i) the ocean-atmosphere exchange of short-lived trace gases; ii) mechanisms and models of interfacial exchange (including transfer velocity parameterisations); iii) ocean-atmosphere exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide; iv) ocean atmosphere exchange of particles and v) current and future data collection and synthesis efforts. The scope of the book extends to the biogeochemical responses to emitted / deposited material and interactions and feedbacks in the wider Earth-system context. This work constitutes a highly detailed synthesis and reference; of interest to higher-level university students (Masters, PhD) and researchers in ocean-atmosphere interactions and related fields (Earth-system science, marine / atmospheric biogeochemistry / climate). Production of this book was supported and funded by the EU COST Action 735 and coordinated by the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean- Lower Atmosphere Study) project office.

Global Atmospheric Chemical Change

Global Atmospheric Chemical Change
A Book

by C.N. Hewitt,W.T. Sturges

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 470
  • ISBN : 9401537143
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Air pollution has historically been viewed as a local or regional scale problem with attention focused on acute episodes such as the sulphur dioxide and smoke smogs of London in the 1950s and 1960s and the photochemical smogs of southern California first recognized by Haagen Smit in the early 1950s. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that human activity has, and still is, changing the chemical composition of the atmosphere on a global scale. The composition of the atmosphere has seen enormous changes due to natural processes since the formation of the planet. Data obtained from air bubbles trapped in polar ice are beginning to reveal information about these changes over the last tens of thousands of years and geochemical models of the evolution of the Earth give us insights into the changes over much longer periods of time. Perhaps the crucial differences between these natural changes and those now being induced by man are their rel ative rates of change. The magnitude of present day fluxes of some com pounds released as air pollutants is in some cases much larger than those arising naturally. In other cases, for example carbon dioxide, the an thropogenic emission rates are small compared with that of the natural cycle, but the kinetics of the system are such that the steady state concent rations of the compounds in the atmosphere are now being perturbed.

Advances In Atmospheric Chemistry

Advances In Atmospheric Chemistry
A Book

by Barker John R,Steiner Allison L,Wallington Timothy J

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2016-12-15
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN : 9813147369
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The human race has altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere, as evidenced by the notorious London smog, photochemical air pollution, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. The aim of this book series is to present invited summaries of important current research on atmospheric chemistry in a changing world. The summaries range from comprehensive scholarly reviews of major subject areas to more narrowly focused accounts of recent advances by individual research groups. The topics are tied to the important societal issues of air quality, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid deposition, the environmental fate of toxics, and climate change. By gathering these new Advances in one series, we aim to catalyze communication among the many researchers who are studying our changing, contemporary atmosphere.

Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes
A Book

by Ian Barnes,Krzysztof J. Rudzinski

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2006-04-23
  • Pages : 458
  • ISBN : 1402042329
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.

Principles of Air Quality Management

Principles of Air Quality Management
A Book

by Roger D. Griffin

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 334
  • ISBN : 1420006541
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Blending information from popular mainstream articles, highly technical publications, and research journals, the second edition of Principles of Air Quality Management features new sections on air toxics, new information on chronic and acute health effects, and new approaches to the assessment of those impacts on sensitive populations. It em

Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor Air Pollution
Part F

by Peter Pluschke

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2004-09-27
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 9783540210986
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Indoor Air Pollution has become a major topic in environmental research and health. Most people spend more than 80% of their time in buildings and are exposed to a broad range of pollutants from indoor sources such as building materials, furniture, carpets and textiles, heating and cooking, household and consumer products, etc. The volume provides a comprehensive review of the major indoor air pollutants: volatile organic compounds, biocides, indoor particles and fibres, combustion products and micro-organisms and their metabolites. Sources and sinks of air pollutants in indoor environments and their chemistry are distinctly different from ambient air pollution, even though the latter may influence indoor air quality. Adsorption and desorption processes, the pollutant source dynamics, gas phase reactions and kinetics - including the fate and final chemical destiny of chemically unstable intermediate compounds - are topics of scientific research as well as the evaluation of their sensory impact and irritation potential. Guidelines for assessing indoor pollution and a broad range of analytical methods have been recently developed and are reviewed by internationally renowned scientists. The specific characteristics of indoor air pollution in developing countries due to the widespread use of open fires for cooking, heating and lighting are analysed as well as the Chinese strategies to address the growing pollution problems by air pollution in its modern building stock.

World Atlas of Atmospheric Pollution

World Atlas of Atmospheric Pollution
A Book

by Ranjeet S. Sokhi

  • Publisher : Anthem Press
  • Release : 2011-08-01
  • Pages : 144
  • ISBN : 9780857288592
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Air pollution affects us all in a number of crucial ways, causing lasting damage to our health and our environment. While primary pollution can result from local activities, the extent of the impact can be felt at spatial scales from the individual up to the whole planet and temporal scales from minutes to decades. Consequently, pollution of our atmosphere remains a critical concern, warranting continued scientific investigation and the development of effective local and global solutions. ‘The World Atlas of Atmospheric Pollution’ clearly and engagingly summarises current understanding of the state of air pollution on city to global scales.