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Automation and Its Macroeconomic Consequences

Automation and Its Macroeconomic Consequences
Theory, Evidence, and Social Impacts

by Klaus Prettner,David E. Bloom

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-06-19
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 0128180293
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Automation and Its Macroeconomic Consequences reveals new ways to understand the economic characteristics of our increasing dependence on machines. Illuminating technical and social elements, it describes economic policies that could counteract negative income distribution consequences of automation without hampering the adoption of new technologies. Arguing that modern automation cannot be compared to the Industrial Revolution, it considers consequences of automation such as spatial patterns, urbanization, and regional concerns. In touching upon labor, growth, demographic, and policy, Automation and its Macroeconomic Consequences stands at the intersection of technology and economics, offering a comprehensive portrait illustrated by empirical observations and examples. Introduces formal growth models that include automation and the empirical specifications on which the data-driven results rely Focuses on formal modeling, empirical analysis and derivation of evidence-based policy conclusions Considers consequences of automation, such as spatial patterns, urbanization and regional concerns

Handbook on Globalisation and Labour Standards

Handbook on Globalisation and Labour Standards
A Book

by Elliott, Kimberly A.

  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release : 2022-03-15
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1788977378
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This comprehensive Handbook explores the complex and volatile debate over globalisation and labour standards. It offers key insights into the impact of globalisation on workers, the obligations of corporations and international legal bodies in protecting workers’ rights and maximising the opportunities offered by international trade and investment.

Digitalization and the Future of Work

Digitalization and the Future of Work
Macroeconomic Consequences

by Melanie Arntz,Terry Gregory,Ulrich Zierahn

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Computing power continues to grow at an enormous rate. Simultaneously, more and better data is increasingly available and Machine Learning methods have seen significant breakthroughs in the recent past. All this pushes further the boundary of what machines can do. Nowadays increasingly complex tasks are automatable at a precision which seemed infeasible only few years ago. The examples range from voice and image recognition, playing Go, to self-driving vehicles. Machines are able to perform more and more manual and also cognitive tasks that previously only humans could do. As a result of these developments, some argue that large shares of jobs are "at risk of automation", spurring public fears of massive job-losses and technological unemployment. This chapter discusses how new digital technologies might affect the labor market in the near future. First, the chapter discusses estimates of automation potentials, showing that many estimates are severely upward biased because they ignore that workers in seemingly automatable occupations already take over hard-to-automate tasks. Secondly, it highlights that these numbers only refer to what theoretically could be automated and that this must not be equated with job-losses or employment effects - a mistake that is done often in the public debate. Thirdly, the chapter develops scenarios on how digitalization is likely to affect the German labor market in the next five years and derives implications for policy makers on how to shape the future of work. Germany is an interesting case to study, as it is a developed country at the technological frontier. In particular, the main challenge will not be the number, but the structure of jobs and the corresponding need for supply side adjustments to meet the shift in demand both within and between occupations and sectors.

Complexity Economics

Complexity Economics
Economic Governance, Science and Policy

by Olivér Kovács

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2022-07-15
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 1000610241
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Our socio-economic innovation ecosystem is riddled with ever-increasing complexity, as we are faced with more frequent and intense shocks, such as COVID-19. Unfortunately, addressing complexity requires a different kind of economic governance. There is increasing pressure on economics to not only going beyond its traditional mainstream boundaries but also to tackle real-world problems such as fostering structural change, enhancing sustained growth, promoting inclusive development in the era of the digital economy, and boosting green growth, while addressing the divide between the financial sector and the real economy. This book demonstrates how to apply complexity science to economics, in an effective and instructive way, in the interest of life-enhancing policies. The book revolves around the non-negligible problem of why economics, to date, seems to be insufficient in guiding economic governance to navigate through real and ever-intensifying complex socio-economic and environmental challenges. With its interdisciplinary approach, the book scans the nuanced nexus between complexity and economics by incorporating, as well as transcending the state-of-the-art literature. It identifies ways to trigger opportunities for behaviour change in the economic profession with respect to how to teach and what, introducing and developing further complexity economics thinking with the configuration of its main principles and outlining the silhouette of next-generation economic governance. The book deciphers recommendations both for economic theory, practice, and education and economic governance. It will be of interest to students, scholars, academics, think tank researchers and economic policy practitioners at the national and/or supranational level.

Education

Education
A Global Compact for a Time of Crisis

by Marcelo Suárez-Orozco,Carola Suárez-Orozco

  • Publisher : Columbia University Press
  • Release : 2022-05-24
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 0231555490
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In an age of catastrophes—unchecked climate change, extreme poverty, forced migrations, war, and terror, all compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic—how can schooling be reengineered and education reimagined? This book calls for a new global approach to education that responds to these overlapping crises in order to enrich and enhance the lives of children everywhere. Marcelo Suárez-Orozco and Carola Suárez-Orozco convene scholars and practitioners from a range of disciplines—including anthropology, neuroscience, demography, psychology, child development, sociology, and economics—who offer incisive essays on the global state of education. Contributors consider how educational policy and practice can foster social inclusion and improve outcomes for all children. They emphasize the centrality of education to social and environmental justice, as well as the philosophical foundations of education and its centrality to human flourishing, personal dignity, and sustainable development. Chapters examine topics such as the neuroscience of education; the uses of technology to engage children who are not reached by traditional schooling; education for climate change; the education of immigrants, refugees, and the forcibly displaced; and how to address and mitigate the effects of inequality and xenophobia in the classroom. Global and interdisciplinary, Education speaks directly to urgent contemporary challenges. Contributors include Stefania Giannini, the director of education for UNESCO; development economist Jeffrey Sachs; cognitive psychologist Howard Gardner; Carla Rinaldi, president of the Reggio Children Foundation; and academics from leading global universities. The book features a foreword by Pope Francis.

Technological Systems and Economic Performance: The Case of Factory Automation

Technological Systems and Economic Performance: The Case of Factory Automation
A Book

by B. Carlsson

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1995-07-31
  • Pages : 495
  • ISBN : 9780792335122
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In 1987 the Swedish National Board for Technical Development (STU, later becoming the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK) initiated a study of Sweden's Technological Systems and Future Development Potential. A comprehensive, interdisciplinary study was envisioned, yielding not only useful insight but also a permanent competence base for future analyses of technological systems and technology policy in Sweden. Three leading Swedish research institutes were invited to participate: the Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research in Stockholm, the Department ofIndustrial Management and Economics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, and the Research Policy Institute at the University of Lund. I was invited to direct the project. The project group decided to focus initially on a particular technological system, namely factory automation, to be followed by similar studies of other systems. Numerous publications have resulted from the project thus far. The current volume represents a summary of our work on factory automation. It consists of several original essays and of some previously published papers which have been edited, in some cases substantially, in order to form a comprehensive and coherent picture of a technological system. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth analysis of a technological system designed as a component of a systematic study of technological systems more generally. At the time of this writing, three further studies on electronics and computers, pharmaceuticals, and powder technology are under way, to be published in a later volume.

Energy and Organization

Energy and Organization
Growth and Distribution Reexamined

by Bernard C. Beaudreau

  • Publisher : Greenwood Publishing Group
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 189
  • ISBN : 9780313305801
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The author incorporates energy into the corpus of economic analysis and develops a new empirical model of production.

The Macroeconomic Impacts of Digitalization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Submarine Cables

The Macroeconomic Impacts of Digitalization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Submarine Cables
A Book

by Felix F. Simione,Yiruo Li

  • Publisher : International Monetary Fund
  • Release : 2021-04-29
  • Pages : 37
  • ISBN : 1513582542
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Macroeconomic Impacts of Digitalization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Submarine Cables

Japan

Japan
Selected Issues

by International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

  • Publisher : International Monetary Fund
  • Release : 2018-11-27
  • Pages : 79
  • ISBN : 1484386809
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This Selected Issues explores Japan’s experiences with past valued added tax (VAT) rate increases and discusses potential policy options to mitigate the economic impact of a third-rate increase. It assesses the impact on the Japanese economy and, where possible, provides some international context. Alongside possible mitigating policies, it also discusses the importance of policy commitment and credibility, and how they can influence the macroeconomic impact of tax rate changes. Carefully designing policy measures and communicating them clearly to the public are paramount to attenuate any negative outcomes in the short term. A simple, single-rate VAT would efficiently raise tax revenues and support the government’s objective of achieving fiscal consolidation in the medium term. Assuming underlying macroeconomic conditions are favorable, the October 2019 VAT rate increase could potentially have a smaller impact on the economy relative to that of 2014 for several reasons. In order to reduce policy uncertainty and alleviate any adverse impacts from the 2019 VAT rate increase, the authorities should clearly communicate the timing and content of associated mitigating measures.

Decision Economics: Complexity of Decisions and Decisions for Complexity

Decision Economics: Complexity of Decisions and Decisions for Complexity
A Book

by Edgardo Bucciarelli,Shu-Heng Chen,Juan Manuel Corchado

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-02-07
  • Pages : 315
  • ISBN : 3030382273
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is based on the International Conference on Decision Economics (DECON 2019). Highlighting the fact that important decision-making takes place in a range of critical subject areas and research fields, including economics, finance, information systems, psychology, small and international business, management, operations, and production, the book focuses on analytics as an emerging synthesis of sophisticated methodology and large data systems used to guide economic decision-making in an increasingly complex business environment. DECON 2019 was organised by the University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), the National Chengchi University of Taipei (Taiwan), and the University of Salamanca (Spain), and was held at the Escuela politécnica Superior de Ávila, Spain, from 26th to 28th June, 2019. Sponsored by IEEE Systems Man and Cybernetics Society, Spain Section Chapter, and IEEE Spain Section (Technical Co-Sponsor), IBM, Indra, Viewnext, Global Exchange, AEPIA-and-APPIA, with the funding supporting of the Junta de Castilla y León, Spain (ID: SA267P18-Project co-financed with FEDER funds)

Education and Technological Unemployment

Education and Technological Unemployment
A Book

by Michael A. Peters,Petar Jandrić,Alexander J. Means

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-04-29
  • Pages : 354
  • ISBN : 9811362254
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book examines the challenge of accelerating automation, and argues that countering and adapting to this challenge requires new methodological, philosophical, scientific, sociological, economic, ethical, and political perspectives that fundamentally rethink the categories of work and education. What is required is political will and social vision to respond to the question: What is the role of education in a digital age characterized by potential mass technological unemployment? Today’s technologies are beginning to cost more jobs than they create – and this trend will continue. There have been many proposed solutions to this problem, and they invariably involve an educational vision. Yet, in a world that simply doesn’t offer enough work for everyone, education is clearly not a panacea for technological unemployment. This collection presents responses to this question from a wide spectrum of disciplines, including but not limited to education studies, philosophy, history, politics, sociology, psychology, and economics.

Research Anthology on Cross-Disciplinary Designs and Applications of Automation

Research Anthology on Cross-Disciplinary Designs and Applications of Automation
A Book

by Management Association, Information Resources

  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release : 2021-10-29
  • Pages : 1054
  • ISBN : 1668436957
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Throughout human history, technological advancements have been made for the ease of human labor. With our most recent advancements, it has been the work of scholars to discover ways for machines to take over a large part of this labor and reduce human intervention. These advancements may become essential processes to nearly every industry. It is essential to be knowledgeable about automation so that it may be applied. Research Anthology on Cross-Disciplinary Designs and Applications of Automation is a comprehensive resource on the emerging designs and application of automation. This collection features a number of authors spanning multiple disciplines such as home automation, healthcare automation, government automation, and more. Covering topics such as human-machine interaction, trust calibration, and sensors, this research anthology is an excellent resource for technologists, IT specialists, computer engineers, systems and software engineers, manufacturers, engineers, government officials, professors, students, healthcare administration, managers, CEOs, researchers, and academicians.

For a meaningful artificial intelligence

For a meaningful artificial intelligence
towards a french and european strategy

by Cédric Villani,Yann Bonnet,marc schoenauer,charly berthet,francois levin,anne charlotte cornut,Bertrand Rondepierre

  • Publisher : Conseil national du numérique
  • Release : 2018-03-28
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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IUI 40 Years, 1939-1979

IUI 40 Years, 1939-1979
The Firms in the Market Economy

by Industriens Utredningsinstitut (Stockholm).,Industriens utredningsinstitut (Sweden)

  • Publisher : Stockholm : The Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research
  • Release : 1980
  • Pages : 150
  • ISBN : 9789172041325
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Technological Systems and Industrial Dynamics

Technological Systems and Industrial Dynamics
A Book

by B. Carlsson

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-12-01
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 1461561337
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume consitutes a summary of several years' multi-disciplinary research by a group of Swedish researchers. The project 'Sweden's Technological Systems and Future Development Potential' was initiated by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK) and has been carried out at the Department of Industrial Management and Economics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, the Research Policy Institute at the University of Lund, the Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research (lUI) in Stockholm, and the Department of Industrial Economics and Management at the Royal Insitute of Technology, Stockholm, under the direction of Bo Carlsson, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. The project group decided early on to focus fIrst on the technological system for factory automation - a relatively mature system of great importance to Swedish industry and in which Sweden has reached a leading position internationally - and then to shift the attention to other systems in various stages of development and with varying Swedish strength. The work on factory automation resulted in numerous papers and publications, summarized in a volume published in 1995 (Technological Systems and Economic Performance: The Case of Factory Automation, ed. Bo Carlsson. Dordrecht.

The Last Technological Innovations and Its Effects on Growth Process, Labor Market and Society

The Last Technological Innovations and Its Effects on Growth Process, Labor Market and Society
A Book

by Gül Ekinci,Burhan Akyılmaz

  • Publisher : Livre de Lyon
  • Release : 2020-12-17
  • Pages : 196
  • ISBN : 2382360437
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Innovation, generally based on curiosity and intuition, is defined as a discovery, invention and an R&D process that brings solutions to a social, environmental and technological problem and also that creates value and meets communal needs in product, process, market, organizational and socialfields. All over the world, investments are based on capital accumulation; the idea of having more output with less input is based on production info; and technologies, production volume, the rise of motivation are based on labor force and therefore, they are all accepted as indicators of economic growth. Capital accumulation, technological developments and increase in labor force constitute the main dynamics of growth of the global world economy. Technological progress doesn’t only provide high output and productivity but it also creates economic growth. Since growth in economic sense corresponds to the rise in tools and products that are used to meet human needs, innovations create new employment and business lines at this point. On the other hand; innovations, in social sense, fight against poverty, inequality and also exclusion being related to them. Innovations offer technological, effective, productive and sustainable solutions to these problems in social sense. While developed countries that are more advanced in technology and economic growth, constitute only one fifth of the world population, they use four of five of the world resources and therefore, the gap between developing countries and them is increasing everyday. This situation is seen as an obstacle in front of the aim of a sustainable world. Since the direction of technological innovation is determined by social and economic needs, innovation types such as radical (disruptive), incremental, contrary, operational and marketing innovations create an effect of leverage with its niche role in sustainable development. Many problems, which are untouched in economic, social and technological senses and also which are seen desperate to solve, can only be solved through paradigm-shifting and disruptive (radical) innovations that should be applied in a way that will break the existing taboos. Disruptive innovations create new business lines by bringing radical solutions for the problems that seem unsolvable and stepwise (incremental, staggered) innovations strenghten the sub-innovations in these new businesslines. At this point; opening the way for innovations, attaching importance to creative ideas to increase efficiency, evaluating the contribution of innovation and also managing the processes well are quite important in innovation management. The authors in this book consider innovations in different fields by evaluating the effects of innovations on labor market, society and economy in order to manage the process well and contribute to it

Exploring Machine Learning: A Beginners Perspective

Exploring Machine Learning: A Beginners Perspective
A Book

by Dr. Raghuram Bhukya

  • Publisher : Horizon Books ( A Division of Ignited Minds Edutech P Ltd)
  • Release : 2021-04-20
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9391150012
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Machine learning is a field of Artificial intelligence that provides algorithms those can learn and improve from experiences. Machine learning algorithms are turned as integral parts of today’s digital life. Its applications include recommender systems, targeted campaigns, text categorization, computer vision and auto security systems etc. Machine learning also considered as essential part of data science due to its capability of providing predictive analytics, capability in handling variety of data and suitability for big data applications. Its capability for predictive analytics resulted of its general structure that is building statistical models out of training data. In other hand easy scalability advantage of machine learning algorithms is making them to be suitable for big data applications. The different types of learning algorithms includes supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning, feature learning, rule based learning, Robot or expert system learning, sparse dictionary and anomaly detection. These learning algorithms can be realized by computing models artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines, regression analysis, Bayesian networks, Genetic algorithms and soft computing. The familiar tools to implement machine learning algorithms include Python, R, Matlab, Scala, Clojure and Ruby. Involving of such open source programming languages, tools and social network communities makes the machine learning most progressing filed of computer science. The machine learning life cycle includes defining project objectives, explore the types and format, modeling data to fit for machine learning algorithms, deciding suitable machine learning model and implement and decide best result from data for decision making. These days, machine learning is observing great interest by the society and it has turned as one of the significant responsibility of top level managers to transform their business in the profitable means by exploring its basic functionalities. The world is at the sheer of realizing a situation where machines will work in agreement with human being to work together, operation, and advertise their services in a novel way which is targeted, valuable, and well-versed. In order to achieve this, they can influence machine learning distinctiveness. Dr. Raghuram Bhukya

Contemporary Human Resource Management

Contemporary Human Resource Management
Text and Cases

by Tony Dundon,Adrian Wilkinson

  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release : 2021-05-05
  • Pages : 632
  • ISBN : 1529760259
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Written by experts in the field, this well-established book covers the core fundamentals of HRM and examines contemporary issues such as work-place bullying, flexibility and emotion at work.

Demand, Complexity, and Long-Run Economic Evolution

Demand, Complexity, and Long-Run Economic Evolution
A Book

by Andreas Chai,Chad M. Baum

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-05-11
  • Pages : 189
  • ISBN : 3030024237
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of this contributed volume is to consider how global consumption patterns will develop in the next few decades, and what the consequences of that development will be for the economy, policymakers, and society at large. In the long run, the extent to which economic growth translates into better living conditions strongly depends on how rising affluence and new technologies shape consumer preferences. The ongoing rise in household income in developing countries raises some important questions: Will consumption patterns always continue to expand in the same manner as we have witnessed in the previous two centuries? If not, how might things evolve differently? And what implications would such changes hold for not only our understanding of consumption behavior but also our pursuit of more sustainable societies?

2018 Interim Surveillance Review

2018 Interim Surveillance Review
A Book

by International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department

  • Publisher : International Monetary Fund
  • Release : 2018-04-17
  • Pages : 58
  • ISBN : 149830740X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Fund surveillance has become better adapted to the global conjuncture, and more integrated and risk-based. The recommendations of the 2014 Triennial Surveillance Review (TSR) focused on helping members navigate the post crisis challenges. Bilateral and multilateral surveillance discussions are underpinned by a shared and deeper understanding of global interconnectedness and linkages across sectors. There has also been progress in core areas such as risk work, fiscal and external sector analysis, and in integration of macrofinancial analysis and of macrostructural policy work that aims to reinvigorate productivity and growth, and promote inclusiveness. The ongoing efforts to align surveillance inputs with risks is also enhancing the Fund’s ability to support members more effectively. Continuing efforts along several dimensions will be needed to further advance surveillance ahead of the 2019 Comprehensive Surveillance Review (CSR). These include planned refinements to external sector assessments, sustaining progress on macrofinancial surveillance, addressing data gaps, and incorporating lessons from pilot efforts including on macrofinancial, macrostructural and emerging issues. Efforts to meet surveillance challenges in low income countries also will continue. Outward spillover work, particularly from the largest economies, should receive greater prominence in Article IV reports. Further work is also needed to make policy advice more persuasive by better leveraging cross-country policy experiences and integrating technical assistance. Lessons from implementing the TSR recommendations should help ensure further progress. A major investment has been made to deepen the analysis that supports surveillance. With a dramatic increase in the range of analytical approaches and tools available, selectivity and tailoring are ever more crucial. The Fund’s internal processes have proven flexible enough to deliver on key areas, but will require continual adaptation to keep pace with evolving challenges. Strategies for human resources, capacity development, knowledge management, and data and statistics should further reinforce surveillance priorities. Looking ahead, the 2019 CSR will further anchor the Fund’s surveillance in a world of rapid technological change. The increased pace of technological progress could have far-reaching implications for the global economy, finance, and policy making, possibly fundamentally altering the surveillance landscape. Coupled with rising inequality and possible adoption of inward-looking policies, the impact on the membership could be profound. Engagement with members, stakeholders, and experts will be central in determining how the 2019 CSR will address these challenges."