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Autophagy in Immune Response: Impact on Cancer Immunotherapy

Autophagy in Immune Response: Impact on Cancer Immunotherapy
A Book

by Salem Chouaib

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-05
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0128196092
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Autophagy in Immune Response: Impact on Cancer Immunotherapy focuses on the status and future directions of autophagy with respect to different aspects of its interaction with the immune system and immunotherapy. The book takes scientific research in autophagy a step further by presenting reputable information on the topic and offering integrated content with advancements in autophagy, from cell biology and biochemical research, to clinical treatments. This book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students and several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more on the relationship between autophagy and immunotherapies.

Systems Biology in Cancer Immunotherapy

Systems Biology in Cancer Immunotherapy
A Book

by Mahbuba Rahman

  • Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
  • Release : 2016-06-07
  • Pages : 165
  • ISBN : 1681083078
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the past decades, systems biology approaches have been applied in different areas of life science research including oncology. Researchers now understand the hallmarks of cancer cells such as abnormal cell growth, inflammation, dysregulated metabolic pathways and drug resistance properties at a molecular level. Systems biology approaches have enabled researchers to investigate cancer immunology by identifying cancer related biomarkers on immune cells, and to study the effect of different therapies in tissue cultures and mouse models. Systems Biology in Cancer Immunotherapy explains the scope of systems biology in understanding the immune response to neoplasms. The book introduces readers to the concepts crucial to cancer immunology before delving into the applied systems biology topics such as the metabolic pathways in cancer cells, the biomolecular roles of signal transduction molecules and their respective biochemical pathways ad cancer immunotherapy. A brief conclusion at the end also provides some information from a clinical and commercial perspective on cancer immunotherapy. This volume is intended as an introductory reference for life science and medical students, researchers and academics interested in the application of systems biology to the immune system in oncology research and chemotherapy practice.

Autophagy Regulation of the Tumor Immunity - An Old Machinery for a New Function

Autophagy Regulation of the Tumor Immunity - An Old Machinery for a New Function
A Book

by Tsolere Arakelian

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer was initially thought to be just a disease of cells with deregulated gene expression. It may be more accurate to consider cancer as a disease of the microenvironment. Despite the remarkable and fairly rapid progress over the past two decades regarding the role of the microenvironment in cancer biology and treatment, our understanding of its actual contribution to cancer resistance is still poor and fragmented. Nevertheless, the microenvironment is now considered to be of critical importance during the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis since it is involved in shaping and remodeling stroma reactivity and in reprogramming phenotypic and functional plasticity. Therefore, the tumor microenvironment represents an important hallmark of cancer, and the challenge now is to better understand how the tumor microenvironment participates in the emergence of immune-resistant tumor cell variants, which appears to be the greatest impediment to successful immunotherapy. In this context, autophagy has recently emerged as a new player in regulating the antitumor immune response under hostile tumor microenvironment. In this review, we will summarize recent data describing how autophagy activation under hypoxic stress impairs the antitumor immune response. In addition, we will discuss how tumor manages to hide from the immune attack and either mounts a "counterattack" or develops resistance to immune cells. In particular, we will focus on the effect of hypoxia-induced autophagy in allowing tumor cells to outmaneuver an effective immune response and escape from immunosurveillance. It is our belief that autophagy may represent a conceptual realm for new immunotherapeutic strategies aiming to block immune escape and therefore providing rational approach to future tumor immunotherapy design.

Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer: From Benchside Research to Bedside Reality

Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer: From Benchside Research to Bedside Reality

by Abhishek D Garg,Patrizia Agostinis

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-04-29
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889198383
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Classically, anti-cancer therapies have always been applied with the primary aim of tumor debulking achieved through widespread induction of cancer cell death. While the role of host immune system is frequently considered as host protective in various (antigen-bearing) pathologies or infections yet in case of cancer overtime it was proposed that the host immune system either plays no role in therapeutic efficacy or plays a limited role that is therapeutically unemployable. The concept that the immune system is dispensable for the efficacy of anticancer therapies lingered on for a substantial amount of time; not only because evidence supporting the claim that anti-cancer immunity played a role were mainly contradictory, but also largely because it was considered acceptable (and sometimes still is) to test anticancer therapies in immunodeficient mice (i.e. SCID/athymic mice lacking adaptive immune system). This latter practice played a detrimental role in appreciating the role of anticancer immunity in cancer therapy. This scenario is epitomized by the fact that for a long time the very existence of cancer-associated antigens or cancer-associated ‘danger signaling’ remained controversial. However, over last several years this dogmatic view has been considerably modified. The existence of cancer-associated antigens and ‘danger signaling’ has been proven to be incontrovertible. These developments have together paved way for the establishment of the attractive concept of “immunogenic cell death” (ICD). It has been established that a restricted class of chemotherapeutics/targeted therapeutics, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy and certain oncolytic viruses can induce a form of cancer cell death called ICD which is accompanied by spatiotemporally defined emission of danger signals. These danger signals along with other factors help cancer cells undergoing ICD to activate host innate immune cells, which in turn activate T cell-based immunity that helps eradicate live (or residual) surviving cancer cells. The emergence of ICD has been marred by some controversy. ICD has been criticized to be either experimental model or setting-specific or mostly a concept based on rodent studies that may have very limited implications for clinical application. However, in recent times it has emerged (through mainly retrospective or prognostic studies) that ICD can work in various human clinical settings hinting towards clinical applicability of ICD. However a widespread consensus on this issue is still transitional. In the current Research Topic we aimed to organize and intensify a discussion that strives to bring together the academic and clinical research community in order to provide a background to the current state-of-the-art in ICD associated bench-side research and to initiate fruitful discussions on present and future prospects of ICD translating towards the clinical, bedside reality.

Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment for a More Effective and Efficient Cancer Immunotherapy

Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment for a More Effective and Efficient Cancer Immunotherapy
A Book

by Salem Chouaib,James Lorens

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-07-02
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889638170
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Harnessing Oncolytic Virus-mediated Antitumor Immunity

Harnessing Oncolytic Virus-mediated Antitumor Immunity

by Philippe Fournier,Volker Schirrmacher

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-03-02
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889194507
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as a promising anticancer treatment. OVs selectively infect, replicate in, and kill tumor cells. Oncolytic viral therapy occurs in two phases: an initial phase where the virus mediates direct oncolysis of tumor cells, and a second phase where an induced post-oncolytic immune response continues to mediate tumor destruction and retards progression of the disease. For a long time, the therapeutic efficacy was thought to depend mainly on the direct viral oncolysis based on their tumor selective replication and killing activities. But the post-oncolytic anti-tumor activity induced by the OV therapy is also a key factor for an efficient therapeutic activity. The topic adresses various strategies how to optimize OVs anti-tumor activity.

Autophagy in tumor and tumor microenvironment

Autophagy in tumor and tumor microenvironment
A Book

by Sujit Kumar Bhutia

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-10-24
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 9811569304
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book deals with the paradoxical role of autophagy in tumor suppression and tumor promotion in cancer cells. Autophagy plays opposing, context-dependent roles in tumors; accordingly, strategies based on inhibiting or stimulating autophagy could offer as potential cancer therapies. The book elucidates the physiological role of autophagy in modulating cancer metastasis, which is the primary cause of cancer-associated mortality. Further, it reviews its role in the differentiation, development, and activation of multiple immune cells, and its potential applications in tumor immunotherapy. In addition, it examines the effect of epigenetic modifications of autophagy-associated genes in regulating tumor growth and therapeutic response and summarizes autophagy’s role in the development of resistance to a variety of anti-cancer drugs in cancer cells. In closing, it assesses autophagy as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for all oncologists and researchers who wish to understand the potential role of autophagy in tumor biology.

TAM Receptors in Health and Disease

TAM Receptors in Health and Disease
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-11-21
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 0128218231
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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TAM Receptors in Health and Disease, Volume 357 in the International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, reviews the role of TAM receptors in health and diseases. Chapters in this new release include TAM receptors and its Role in Efferocytosis: Clearance of Dead Cells, TAM family receptors and their ligands: Role in thrombosis, TAM receptors and its ligand mediated activation: Role in Atherosclerosis, Post-translational modifications of the Ligands: Requirement for TAM receptor activation, Immunogenic role of TAM receptors in the cancer microenvironment: Implications in cancer immunotherapy, TAM receptors: A Phosphatidylserine Receptor family and its implications in Viral infections, and much more. Provides a comprehensive collection of articles on the relatively late evolved and highly conserved TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family Describes TAM receptor biology in great details Presents invited, timely review articles authored by well-established TAM receptor biologists

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives
A Book

by Jorge Morales Montor,Mariana Segovia

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-10-01
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 0128220295
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives provides high level knowledge on detailed mechanisms of actions and biological interactions of different immune drugs, with an aim of offering researchers and clinicians cutting-edge therapies to overcome drug resistance. The book explains the latest immunotherapies for different types of cancer, helping users carry out research projects or create alternatives for drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. Topics discussed include the relationship between immunotherapy and macrophages, immune checkpoints in different types of cancer, immune cocktails in solid tumors, and immune-phenotyping. Additionally, the book presents basic and clinical data on immunoresistance and glycosylation. This book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, medical doctors, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who must understand certain mechanisms to fight cancer that is resistant to immunotherapy. Provides basic and clinical evidence based on molecular interactions and clinical studies to address the risks and benefits of cancer immunotherapy Presents the results of new immunotherapy trials, discussing the state-of-the-art in different types of cancer Discusses targeted therapies approved by the FDA, along with therapies with clinical potential used in basic studies

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
Volume 3 - Role in Specific Diseases

by M. A. Hayat

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2013-12-26
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0124055346
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book offers a valuable guide to these cellular processes whilst encouraging researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Volume 3 explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn’s Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington’s Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury. A full section is devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer. Finally, the work explores the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis, with attention to the ways in which autophagy regulates apoptosis, and the ways in which autophagy has been explored in Lepidoptera, elucidating the use of larval midgut as a model for such exploration. From these well-developed foundations, researchers, translational scientists, and practitioners may work to better implement more effective therapies against some of the most devastating human diseases. Volumes in the Series

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma
A Book

by Christopher Jackson,Michael Lim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-09-10
  • Pages : 190
  • ISBN : 0128197560
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma provides a review of the current state of immunotherapy for primary brain tumors. The topic is of interest to patients, clinicians, and researchers alike, particularly given the recent failure of large clinical trials. This book serves as an overview of the most promising approaches in the field and provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward. The book discusses several types of immunotherapies for glioma, such as peptide, dendritic cell and heat shock protein vaccines; immune checkpoint blockade; myeloid cells as target; oncolytic viruses; and CAR T cell therapy. Additionally, it discusses the mechanisms of immune suppression in patients and immunogenomics. This volume is a valuable source for cancer researchers, oncologists and several members of biomedical field who are interested in novel strategies to fight glioblastoma. Summarizes the work in immunotherapy for glioma to-date, including the available evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials Reviews the challenges and successes of the most promising strategies for brain tumor immunotherapy Provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging
Volume 8- Human Diseases

by M. A. Hayat

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2015-12-17
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN : 0128029528
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and forward-thinking, these books offer a valuable guide to both cellular processes while inciting researchers to explore their potentially important connections. Volume 8 Autophagy and Human Diseases, concentrates on the role of Autophagy in human diseases, including tumorigenesis. The diseases discussed include melanoma, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration (Alzheimers disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkin’s disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). Melanoma is one of the most serious diseases in humans. Autophagy plays a key role in the anticancer response to Chemotherapy. However, autophagy can increase or decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The reasons for these contradictory effects are explained. Autophagy also plays a role in idiopathic inflammatory diseases, infection, and immunity. An explanation is given how autophagy is closely linked to control of innate and adaptive immune responses in host defense in part by regulating cytokine production. The role of autophagy in cutaneous malignant melanoma is discussed in detail and expression of Beclin 1 and LC3 autophagic genes in melanoma is included to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying this very serious disease, which tends to metastasize to the brain. The effect of the treatment of this disease using Terfenadine through the induction of autophagy and apoptosis is also included. Autophagy and apoptosis are two main mechanisms involved in programmed cell death. Considering that autophagy is associated with numerous biological processes including cellular development and differentiation, cancer (both antitumor and protumor functions), immunity, infectious diseases, inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, response to cellular stress, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases, there is a great need to understanding its role. Cell homeostasis is achieved by balancing biosynthesis and cellular turnover. In spite of the increasing importance of autophagy in various pathophysiological situations (conditions) mentioned above, this process remains underestimated and overlooked. As a consequence, its role in the initiation, stability, maintenance, and progression of these and other diseases (e.g., autoimmune disease) remains poorly understood. Volumes in the Series

Autophagy - A Double-Edged Sword

Autophagy - A Double-Edged Sword
Cell Survival or Death?

by Yannick Bailly

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2013-04-17
  • Pages : 524
  • ISBN : 9535110624
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapters in this book review the latest advances in the molecular mechanisms of autophagy, highlighting some of the most challenging research topics. The focus is mainly on how this basic cell defense mechanism comes into play in various pathologies, including liver diseases, myopathies, infectious diseases, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. In these diseases, the contradictory autophagy roles of cell survival versus cell death emphasize the necessity of taking into account this double-edged nature in future development of already promising, autophagy- modulating, therapies.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Integrated Methods Part B

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Integrated Methods Part B
A Book

by Nils-Petter Rudqvist

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-04
  • Pages : 412
  • ISBN : 0128206675
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Integrated Methods Part B, Volume 636 in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Chapters in this update include Quantification methods of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF˗β) activity in the setting of cancer immunotherapy, Decoding cancer cell death-driven immune cell recruitment: An in vivo method for site-of-vaccination analyses, Tracking and interrogating tissue-resident and recruited microglia in brain tumors, Metabolomics and lipidomics of the tumor microenvironment, Monitoring abscopal responses to radiation in mice, and much more.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Integrated Methods Part A

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Integrated Methods Part A
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-02-28
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 0128188758
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Integrated Methods - Part A, Volume 635 in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Specific chapters to this release include Deconvolution of the immunological contexture of mouse tumors with multiplexed immunohistochemistry, High-dimensional multiplexed immunohistochemical characterization of immune contexture in human cancers, Multiplex assay by IHC for melanoma tumor microenvironment evaluation, Characterization of the tumor immune microenvironment by multispectral image analysis of multiplex immunofluorescence images, Phenotyping of immune cells in situ using multispectral imaging quantification, and much more. Authored by leaders in the field of enzymology Provides a comprehensiveness level of discussion on the field Presents a highly specialized group of topics that delve deep into new updates and future prospects

Autophagy and Senescence in Cancer Therapy

Autophagy and Senescence in Cancer Therapy
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-04-13
  • Pages : 382
  • ISBN : 0128241594
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 150, the latest release in this ongoing series, covers the relationship(s) between autophagy and senescence, how they are defined, and the influence of these cellular responses on tumor dormancy and disease recurrence. Specific sections in this new release include Autophagy and senescence, converging roles in pathophysiology, Cellular senescence and tumor promotion: role of the unfolded protein response, autophagy and senescence in cancer stem cells, Targeting the stress support network regulated by autophagy and senescence for cancer treatment, Autophagy and PTEN in DNA damage-induced senescence, mTOR as a senescence manipulation target: A forked road, and more. Addresses the relationship between autophagy and senescence in cancer therapy Covers autophagy and senescence in tumor dormancy Explores autophagy and senescence in disease recurrence

Immunomodulatory Effects of Drugs for Treatment of Immune-Related Diseases

Immunomodulatory Effects of Drugs for Treatment of Immune-Related Diseases

by Azzam A. Maghazachi

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2017-09-18
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889452883
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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More than 90% of diseases possess immunological abnormalities. Disorders such as inflammation, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are simple examples of how the immune system misinterprets its surroundings and goes awry. Multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, among many others are manifestations of immune cells attacking normal tissues. On the other hand, damping the immune system leads to diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and severe combined immunodeficiency. The last ten years witnessed an explosion in developing drugs that target the immune system. Several novel monoclonal antibodies have been approved for treatment of various diseases confirming that personalized medicine approach is robust in combating diseases. Hence, the future holds great promise for using personalized and targeted medicine rather than generalized medications that, in most circumstances, proven to be ineffective and characteristically exert side effects. Approaches such as generating novel adjuvants that can stimulate the immune system without harmful side effects, targeting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, harnessing and activating innate immune cells such as natural killer cells or dendritic cells, are examples of future approaches to treat autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and various forms of cancer resulting from chronic inflammation. More recently, targeting immune checkpoint molecules have shown therapeutic response against lung cancer and melanoma. Identifying molecules involved in autophagy is another example of how personalized medicine might help treat patients with refractory asthma and autoimmune diseases. This topic introduces the reader to these novel approaches of manipulating the immune system and developing targeted therapeutic strategies for treatment of various diseases.

Immunology

Immunology
Volume 1: Immunotoxicology, Immunopathology, and Immunotherapy

by M. A. Hayat

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-10-31
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 012809897X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunology, Volume 1: Immunotoxicology, Immunopathology, and Immunotherapy discusses the investment of time, effort and finance that go into making progress in preventing and/or curing serious diseases by using standard treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and hormone therapy). The use of these treatments is accompanied by unavoidable, devastating side effects. At the cost of being repetitious, it has to be emphasized that an improved understanding of the immune system, avoidance of unhealthy habits (e.g., smoking, intake of alcohol, perpetual stress, and lack of exercise) and early detection (using biomarkers) are the only three friends we have to at least delay the onset of serious diseases. Presents the most advanced information regarding the role of autophagy and immunity Introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death Edited work with chapters authored by leaders from around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice, Second Edition

Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice, Second Edition
A Book

by Lisa H. Butterfield, PhD,Howard L. Kaufman, MD, FACS,Francesco M. Marincola, MD, FACS

  • Publisher : Springer Publishing Company
  • Release : 2021-08-25
  • Pages : 1000
  • ISBN : 0826137431
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thoroughly updated to reflect major advances in the field of immuno-oncology, this second edition of Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice, from the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), remains the definitive resource for information on tumor immunology and cancer immunotherapy treatments. An essential reference for both novice and experienced cancer researchers, oncologists, and related practitioners alike, the book not only guides readers through the fundamental scientific principles of the field all the way to translational and practical clinical applications for treating and managing oncologic disease, but also provides a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory processes that support the safe and effective delivery of immunotherapy to patients with cancer. The expanded and updated second edition now spans 68 chapters, including 12 new chapters, covering major topics and innovations that have shaped the rapid development of immunotherapy and its ascension into the standard of care as first-line treatment for a growing number of disease settings. New to this edition are chapters with deeper insight into our understanding of cancer genomics and determinants of response, immunogenic cell death, cancer and stromal cell-intrinsic pathways of immune resistance, cancer immune exclusion, adoptive cell therapy, metabolomics, tumor mutation burden, immunotherapy in combination with radiation therapy, synthetic biology, and more. Complete with detailed illustrations, tables, and key points for targeted reference, Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice, Second Edition is the most comprehensive and authoritative resource for scientists and clinicians looking to expand their knowledge base of this dynamic field. Key Features: Offers key insights and perspectives on cancer immunology and immunotherapy treatments from renowned experts in the field Covers the basic principles and science behind cancer immunotherapy and tumor immunology Includes treatment strategies for a vast array of available immunotherapy classes and agents, such as cytokine therapies, oncolytic viruses, cancer vaccines, CAR T therapies, and combination immunotherapies Provides essential information on FDA-approved immunotherapies, including clinical management and outcome data related to response rates, risks, and toxicities Discusses special considerations for immunotherapy in the context of specific disease settings, including skin cancers, genitourinary cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, hepatocellular carcinomas, gynecologic malignancies, breast cancers, lung cancers, head and neck cancers, brain tumors, sarcomas, pediatric cancers, and treatments combined with radiation therapy Clarifies the complex regulatory aspects behind the development and approval of immunotherapy drugs

Radiation and the Immune System: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

Radiation and the Immune System: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
A Book

by Katalin Lumniczky,Serge M. Candéias,Udo S. Gaipl,Benjamin Frey

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2018-05-03
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889454746
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For long, high dose ionizing radiation was considered as a net immune suppressing agent, as shown, among others, by the exquisite radiosensitivity of the lymphoid system to radiation-induced cell killing. However, recent advances in radiobiology and immunology have made this picture more complex. For example, the recognition that radiation-induced bystander effects, share common mediators with various immunological signalling processes, suggests that they are at least partly immune mediated. Another milestone was the finding, in the field of onco-immunology, that local tumor irradiation can modulate the immunogenicity of tumor cells and the anti-tumor immune responsiveness both locally, in the tumor microenvironment, and at systemic level. These observations paved the way for studies exploring optimal combinations of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in order to achieve a synergistic effect to eradicate tumors. However, not all interactions between radiation and the immune system are beneficial, as it was recognized that many of radiation-induced late side effects are also of immune and inflammatory nature. Currently perhaps the most studied field of research in radiation biology is focused around the biological effects of low doses, where many of the observed pathophysiological endpoints are due to mechanisms other than direct radiation-induced cell killing and are immune-related. Finally, it must not be forgotten that the interactions between the ionizing radiations and the immune system are bi-directional, and activation of the immune system also influences the outcome of radiation exposure. This Research Topic brings together 23 articles and aims to give an overview of the complex and very often contradictory nature of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the immune system. Due to its increasing penetrance in the population both through medical diagnostic or environmental sources or during cosmic travel low dose ionizing radiation exposure is becoming a major epidemiological concern world-wide. Several of the articles within the Research Topic specifically address potential long-term health consequences and the underlying mechanisms of low dose radiation exposure. A major intention of the Editors was also to draw the attention of the non-radiobiological scientific community on the fact that ionizing radiation is by far more than purely an immune suppressing agent.