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Basic Equations of Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer

Basic Equations of Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer
A Book

by Endre Nagy

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2018-11-05
  • Pages : 594
  • ISBN : 0128137231
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Basic Equations of Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer, Second Edition, has been fully updated to deliver the latest research in the field. This volume covers the essentials of compound separation, product removal, concentration, and production in the chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. It outlines the various membrane processes and their applications, offering a detailed mathematical description of mass transport and defining basic mass transport and concentration distribution expressions. Additionally, this book discusses the process parameters and application of the expressions developed for a variety of industrial applications. Comprehensive explanations of convective/diffusive mass transport are provided, both with and without polarization layers, that help predict and process performance and facilitate improvements to operation conditions and efficiency. Basic Equations of Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer is an ideal resource for engineers and technologists in the chemical, biochemical, and pharmaceutical industries, as well as researchers, professors, and students in these areas at both an undergraduate and graduate level. Cites and analyzes mass transport equations developed for different membrane processes. Examines the effect of biochemical/chemical reactions in the presence of convective and diffusive flows in plane and cylindrical spaces. Defines the mass transfer rate for first- and zero-order reactions and analytical approaches are given for other-order reactions in closed mathematical forms. Analyzes the simultaneous convective and diffusive transports with same or different directions.

Basic Equations of the Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer

Basic Equations of the Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer
A Book

by Endre Nagy

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 0124160255
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With a detailed analysis of the mass transport through membrane layers and its effect on different separation processes, this book provides a comprehensive look at the theoretical and practical aspects of membrane transport properties and functions. Basic equations for every membrane are provided to predict the mass transfer rate, the concentration distribution, the convective velocity, the separation efficiency, and the effect of chemical or biochemical reaction taking into account the heterogeneity of the membrane layer to help better understand the mechanisms of the separation processes. The reader will be able to describe membrane separation processes and the membrane reactors as well as choose the most suitable membrane structure for separation and for membrane reactor. Containing detailed discussion of the latest results in transport processes and separation processes, this book is essential for chemistry students and practitioners of chemical engineering and process engineering. Detailed survey of the theoretical and practical aspects of every membrane process with specific equations Practical examples discussed in detail with clear steps Will assist in planning and preparation of more efficient membrane structure separation

Modelling and Simulation of Nanofiltration Membranes

Modelling and Simulation of Nanofiltration Membranes
A Book

by Gamze Artug

  • Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
  • Release : 2007-12-07
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 3736924461
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent membrane process and offers a plethora of application areas due to its selective removal for ions and removal of organic matter above 200 g/mol molar mass. Application fields enlarged substantially in the last 25 years. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for process design and optimisation tools. Therefore, current research studiesfocus on a better understanding of mass transport phenomenon as well as the application and enhancement of the existing models to the real process streams. In this thesis work, characterisation of NF membranes and investigations of their mass transport phenomenon through both experimental and modelling studies were of concern. For these purposes, flat sheet samples of four commercially available membranes were selected. Since the performance of a NF membrane is related to its structural and charge properties, membrane characterisation studies by microscopy, contact angle and electrokinetic measurements were conducted. A systematic experimental program was applied covering a wide spectrum of feed streams concerning both charged and uncharged solutes. Particularly charged streams regarding single salts and their mixtures were emphasised. Moreover, the effects of the operating conditions and the solution pH on membrane performances were investigated. Standard performance characterisation experiments, consisting of pure water permeability, organic and single salt rejection measurements, gave initial information on the membrane charge and performance characteristics. In mixture solutions of salts, distinctive behaviours of membranes to different ion types at different combinations were observed. Furthermore, artificial seawater experiments were conducted in order to determine the convenience of the considered NF membranes for this recently recognised process as an intensification step in the pre-treatment of seawater. A practical tool was developed for the performance description and prediction purposes. For this purpose, currently available models were scrutinized. A physical model, based on extended Nernst-Planck equation describing mass transport through membrane active layer in conjunction with different partition equations at membrane and bulk interfaces, was built. Some modelling parameters were obtained either directly from the characterisation data or by applying some other straightforward models using experimental data. For the latter purpose, Fortran 90 programming code was used. As the programming efforts increase with the number of components in the feed stream, an equation based software Comsol Multiphysics was utilised. Herewith, model could be applied straightforwardly to multicomponents streams. Simulations were conducted systematically started from single salts, extended to salt mixtures and finally for seawater. A good agreement between experimental and simulation results were obtained. Suggestions were made to improve both the predictive ability and the reliability of the model. Incorporating the predictive model with system economics in a case study indicated that such an approach enables determining the optimum operating conditions and selecting the most appropriate membrane characteristics for the regarding process.

Biomedical Mass Transport and Chemical Reaction

Biomedical Mass Transport and Chemical Reaction
Physicochemical Principles and Mathematical Modeling

by James S. Ultman,Harihara Baskaran,Gerald M. Saidel

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-04-29
  • Pages : 656
  • ISBN : 1119184657
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Teaches the fundamentals of mass transport with a unique approach emphasizing engineering principles in a biomedical environment Includes a basic review of physiology, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, mass transport, fluid mechanics and relevant mathematical methods Teaches engineering principles and mathematical modelling useful in the broad range of problems that students will encounter in their academic programs as well as later on in their careers Illustrates principles with examples taken from physiology and medicine or with design problems involving biomedical devices Stresses the simplification of problem formulations based on key geometric and functional features that permit practical analyses of biomedical applications Offers a web site of homework problems associated with each chapter and solutions available to instructors Homework problems related to each chapter are available from a supplementary website (

Mathematical Modeling of Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Mathematical Modeling of Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
A Book

by Colleen Spiegel

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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ABSTRACT: Fuel cells are predicted to be the power delivery devices of the future. They have many advantages such as the wide fuel selection, high energy density, high efficiency and an inherent safety which explains the immense interest in this power source. The need for advanced designs has been limited by the lack of understanding of the transport processes inside the fuel cell stack. The reactant gases undergo many processes in a fuel cell that cannot be observed. Some of these processes include convective and diffusional mass transport through various types of materials, phase change and chemical reaction. In order to optimize these variables, an accurate mathematical model can provide a valuable tool to gain insight into the processes that are occurring. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a mathematical model for polymer electrolyte-based fuel cells to help contribute to a better understanding of fuel cell mass, heat and charge transport phenomena, to ultimately design more efficient fuel cells. The model is a two-phase, transient mathematical model created with MATLAB. The model was created by using each fuel cell layer as a control volume. In addition, each fuel cell layer was further divided into the number of nodes that the user inputs into the model. Transient heat and mass transfer equations were created for each node. The catalyst layers were modeled using porous electrode equations and the Butler-Volmer equation. The membrane model used Fick's law of diffusion and a set of empirical relations for water uptake and conductivity. Additional work performed for this dissertation includes a mathematical model for predicting bolt torque, and the design and fabrication of four fuel cell stacks ranging in size from macro to micro scale for model validation. The work performed in this dissertation will help improve the designs of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and other polymer membrane-based fuel cells (such as direct methanol fuel cells) in the future.

Performance Analysis of Oxygen Transport Reactors

Performance Analysis of Oxygen Transport Reactors
Utilizing Ion Transport Membranes

by Hassan Badr,Azharuddin Farouqi

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2019-01-25
  • Pages : 196
  • ISBN : 9783659890017
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This study aims at investigating the performance of a cylindrical ion transport reactor designed for oxy-fuel combustion. The cylindrical reactor walls are made of dense, nonporous, mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that only allow oxygen permeation from the outside air into the combustion chamber. The sweep gas (CO2 and CH4) enters the reactor from one side, mixes with the oxygen permeate and the combustion products are discharged from the other side. The process of oxygen permeation through the reactor walls is influenced by the flow condition and composition of air at the feed side (inlet air side) and the gas mixture at the permeate side (sweep gas side). The modelling of the flow process is based on the numerical solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and species in the axi-symmetric flow domain. The membrane is modelled as a selective layer in which the oxygen permeation depends on the prevailing temperatures as well as the oxygen partial pressure at both sides of the membrane. The CFD calculations were carried out using FLUENT 12.1 while the mass transfer of oxygen through the membrane is modelled by a set of user defined functions.

Handbook of Membrane Separations

Handbook of Membrane Separations
Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Food, and Biotechnological Applications

by Anil K. Pabby,Syed S.H. Rizvi,Ana Maria Sastre Requena

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2008-07-07
  • Pages : 1184
  • ISBN : 0849395496
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Handbook of Membrane Separations: Chemical, Pharmaceutical, and Biotechnological Applications provides detailed information on membrane separation technologies as they have evolved over the past decades. To provide a basic understanding of membrane technology, this book documents the developments dealing with these technologies. It explores chemical, pharmaceutical, food processing and biotechnological applications of membrane processes ranging from selective separation to solvent and material recovery. This text also presents in-depth knowledge of membrane separation mechanisms, transport models, membrane permeability computations, membrane types and modules, as well as membrane reactors.

Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering

Comprehensive Membrane Science and Engineering
A Book

by Enrico Drioli,Lidietta Giorno

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2010-07-09
  • Pages : 1570
  • ISBN : 0080932509
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This multivolume work covers all aspects of membrane science and technology - from basic phenomena to the most advanced applications and future perspectives. Modern membrane engineering is critical to the development of process-intensification strategies and to the stimulation of industrial growth. The work presents researchers and industrial managers with an indispensable tool toward achieving these aims. Covers membrane science theory and economics, as well as applications ranging from chemical purification and natural gas enrichment to potable water Includes contributions and case studies from internationally recognized experts and from up-and-coming researchers working in this multi-billion dollar field Takes a unique, multidisciplinary approach that stimulates research in hybrid technologies for current (and future) life-saving applications (artificial organs, drug delivery)

Fundamental Modeling of Membrane Systems

Fundamental Modeling of Membrane Systems
Membrane and Process Performance

by Patricia Luis

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2018-06-29
  • Pages : 371
  • ISBN : 0128134844
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fundamental Modelling of Membrane Systems: Membrane and Process Performance summarizes the state-of-the-art modeling approaches for all significant membrane processes, from molecular transport, to process level, helping researchers and students who carry out experimental research save time and accurately interpret experimental data. The book provides an overview of the different membrane technologies, handling micro-, ultra-, and nanofiltration, reverse and forward osmosis, pervaporation, gas permeation, supported liquid membranes, membrane contactors, membrane bioreactors and ion-exchange membrane systems. Examples of hybrid membrane systems are also included. Presents an accessible reference on how to model membranes and membrane processes Provides a clear, mathematical description of mass transfer in membrane systems Written by well-known, prominent authors in the field of membrane science

Mass Transport and Acid-base Generation in Solution/membrane Systems

Mass Transport and Acid-base Generation in Solution/membrane Systems
Extension of Nernst-Planck Treatment to Electrolytic Multicomponent Systems

by Jacques Leibovitz

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 140
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Drinking Water Treatment

Drinking Water Treatment
An Introduction

by Eckhard Worch

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2019-10-08
  • Pages : 323
  • ISBN : 3110551551
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This publication provides the scientific fundamentals for understanding chemical, physical and biological processes that are used in drinking water treatment, such as filtration, coagulation, softening, deironing, demanganization and others. Written in a compact and easily accessible form, the book is focused on the objectives, the theoretical basics and the practical implementation of the treatment processes.

Journal of the Electrochemical Society

Journal of the Electrochemical Society
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1970
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lists citations with abstracts for aerospace related reports obtained from world wide sources and announces documents that have recently been entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database.

Russian Chemical Reviews

Russian Chemical Reviews
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced Models for Predicting Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Advanced Models for Predicting Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
A Book

by Sai K. Kamarajugadda

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 184
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to develop a multi-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to predict the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In particular, two critical factors affecting PEMFC performance, namely water and current transport through the polymer electrolyte membrane, and the effect of the cathode catalyst layer structure and composition are examined in detail. The implementation of phenomenological membrane models within CFD codes requires coupling of the conservation equation for the so-called water content within the membrane to the conservation equations for species mass outside the membrane. The first part of this dissertation investigates the accuracy and efficiency of various strategies for implementing phenomenological membrane models within the framework of a CFD code for prediction of the overall PEMFC performance. First, three popular phenomenological membrane models are investigated, and the accuracy of each model is assessed by comparing predicted results against experimental data. Results indicate that the Springer model and the Nguyen and White model over-predict the drying of the membrane, while the Fuller and Newman model provides the best match with experimental data. Following these studies, three strategies for implementation of the membrane model are investigated: (1) two-dimensional (2D) transport of water and current in membrane, (2) one-dimensional (1D) transport and (3) 1D transport with approximate transport properties. Fuller and Newman's membrane model is used for these studies. The results obtained using the three approaches are found to be within 4% of each other, while there is no significant difference in the computational time required by the three strategies, indicating that an analytical 1D transport model for the membrane that uses approximate properties is adequate for describing transport through it. In the second part of the dissertation, the effect of the cathode catalyst layer's structure and composition on the overall performance of a PEMFC is investigated. The starting point of this investigation is the well-known flooded agglomerate model, which is generalized to address the effects of ionomer (Nafion) loading, catalyst (platinum) loading, platinum/carbon ratio, cathode layer thickness, and agglomerate size and shape. Initially, spherical agglomerates are considered. This allows for an analytical solution of the governing equations. Following this, the model is generalized in order to account for arbitrary agglomerate shapes. The generalized flooded agglomerate model is first validated against previously published results, and then used to study the effect of the agglomerate shape (single sphere vs. intersecting spheres) and size on the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) rate at the agglomerate scale. Results from the agglomerate scale studies indicate that the current per unit volume generated by the agglomerates is proportional to the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the agglomerates. It shows that, for a given agglomerate volume, the ORR is more efficient for non-spherical agglomerates than for spherical agglomerates. The generalized flooded agglomerate model provides the current generated per unit volume at the agglomerate scale, which is much smaller than a typical control volume used in CFD calculations of the overall PEMFC, i.e., it is a sub-grid scale model. This sub-grid scale agglomerate model is then embedded within a 2D CFD code for the prediction of the overall performance of the fuel cell. In order to do so, lookup tables are first generated and logarithmic interpolation is used. The integrated model is used to explore a wide range of the compositional and structural parameter space, mentioned earlier. In each case, the model is able to correctly predict the trends observed by past experimental studies. It is found that the performance trends are often different at intermediate versus high current densities - the former being governed by agglomerate-scale (or local) losses, while the latter is governed by catalyst layer thickness-scale (or global) losses. The presence of an optimal performance with varying Nafion content in the cathode is more due to the local agglomerate-scale mass transport and conductivity losses in the polymer coating around the agglomerates than due to the amount of Nafion within the agglomerate. It is also found that platinum mass loading needs to be at a moderate level in order to optimize fuel cell performance, even if cost is to be disregarded. For agglomerates of small size, the shape of the agglomerate is found to have a smaller effect on overall PEMFC performance than for agglomerates of larger size. The results from this dissertation provide, for the first time, a quantitative confirmation of the assumption of 1D transport of water and current within the membrane. Second, the generalized flooded agglomerate model developed as part of this dissertation presents a new framework for incorporating cathode structure and composition into full-scale CFD models for predicting PEMFC performance.

New Insights into Membrane Science and Technology: Polymeric and Biofunctional Membranes

New Insights into Membrane Science and Technology: Polymeric and Biofunctional Membranes
A Book

by Dibakar Bhattacharyya,Allan DA Butterfield

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2003-05-23
  • Pages : 438
  • ISBN : 0080537537
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Membrane techniques provide a broad science and technology base. Although there are several books in the traditional membrane field, there is a great need for a highly comprehensive book. This refereed book covers materials from highly respected researchers. This title is highly multidisciplinary in nature and should be extremely valuable to scientists and engineers involved in a variety of activities. Students and faculty members around the world will find this title to be an excellent reference book. Invited contributions from leading researchers in the field Coverage of topic is of value to scientists/engineers working in a variety of related fields [separations/reactions, advanced biofunctional materials, contactor designs] Aims to fill market gap for a highly comprehensive book containing advances in both synthetic and biofunctional/bimimetic membranes

MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

by KAUSHIK NATH

  • Publisher : PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
  • Release : 2017-01-01
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 8120352912
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This concise and systematically organized text, now in its second edition, gives a clear insight into various membrane separation processes. It covers the fundamentals as well as the recent developments of different processes along with their industrial applications and the products. It includes the basic principles, operating parameters, membrane hardware, flux equation, transport mechanism, and applications of membrane-based technologies. Membrane separation processes are largely rate-controlled separations which require rate analysis for complete understanding. Moreover, a higher level of mathematical analysis, along with the understanding of mass transfer, is also required. These are amply treated in different chapters of the book to make the students comprehend the membrane separation principles with ease. This textbook is primarily designed for undergraduate students of chemical engineering, biochemical engineering and biotechnology for the course in membrane separation processes. Besides, the book will also be useful to process engineers and researchers. KEY FEATURES • Provides sufficient number of examples of industrial applications related to chemical, metallurgical, biochemical and food processing industries. • Focuses on important biomedical applications of membrane-based technologies such as blood oxygenator, controlled drug delivery, plasmapheresis, and bioartificial organs. • Includes chapter-end short questions and problems to test students’ comprehension of the subject. NEW TO THIS EDITION • A new section on membrane cleaning is included. Membrane fabrication methods are supplemented with additional information (Chapter 2). • Additional information on silt density index, forward osmosis and sea water desalination (Chapter 3). • Physicochemical parameters affecting nanofiltration, determination of various resistances using resistance in series model and few more industrial applications with additional short questions (Chapter 4). • Membrane cross-linking methods used in pervaporation, factors affecting pervaporation and few more applications (Chapter 9). • Membrane distillation, membrane reactor with different modules, types of membranes and reactions for membrane reactor (Chapter 13).

Bioelectrochemical Applications of Reactions Catalyzed by Immobilized Enzymes

Bioelectrochemical Applications of Reactions Catalyzed by Immobilized Enzymes
A Book

by Xiao-Jing Tang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 66
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water

Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water
A Book

by Talbert N. Eisenberg,E. Joe Middlebrooks

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 1986
  • Pages : 271
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reverse Osmosis and Synthetic Membranes

Reverse Osmosis and Synthetic Membranes
Theory, Technology, Engineering

by National Research Council Canada

  • Publisher : National Research Council of Canada
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 598
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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