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Bioactive Materials for Bone Regeneration

Bioactive Materials for Bone Regeneration
A Book

by Jiang Chang,Xingdong Zhang,Kerong Dai

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-02-28
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 0128135042
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioactive Materials for Bone Regeneration summarizes research advances on the topic, including sections on the characteristics of biomaterial-induced microenvironments, interactions of bioactive materials with stem cells and tissues, and the immunomodulatory microenvironment induced by biomaterials and its effects on osteogenesis. As the regeneration of large-size bone tissue defects represents a significant clinical challenge, this book demonstrates how new biomaterials with specific chemical and physical characteristics may interact with the host and create a unique micro-environment that actively facilitates stem cell differentiation along a specific lineage, thus stimulating tissue regeneration. Provides readers with the latest research developments in the fabrication techniques of bioactive materials for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering applications Presents the latest research advancements on how bioactive materials interact with the host and induce micro-environments for stem cell differentiation, immunomodulation and tissue regeneration Covers the methods, strategies, principle and mechanisms on constructing beneficial biomaterial microenvironments

Advanced Bioactive Inorganic Materials for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery

Advanced Bioactive Inorganic Materials for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery
A Book

by Chengtie Wu,Jiang Chang,Yin Xiao

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-03-22
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN : 146655200X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioceramics play an important role in repairing and regenerating defective or damaged bone. Annually, more than 500,000 bone graft procedures are performed in the United States and approximately 2.2 million are conducted worldwide. Advanced Bioactive Inorganic Materials for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery reviews the latest advances in the field of bioceramics. The book summarizes innovative concepts, bioceramic design, and methods for material synthesis and drug delivery. Offering guidance for biomedical engineering researchers and material scientists, the book explores: Novel mesoporous bioactive glasses and silicate-based ceramics for bone regeneration and drug delivery Bioactive silicate ceramics, including their mechanical properties, interaction with bone-forming cells, and in vivo osteogenesis and angiogenesis Silica nanospheres with a core-shell structure and their specific properties for controllable drug delivery The 3D-printing technique to prepare advanced bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications—including the preparation, mechanical strength, and biological properties of 3D-printed porous scaffolds of calcium phosphate cement and silicate bioceramics Biomimetic preparation and controllable crystal growth and biomineralization of bioceramics Inorganic and organic composite materials and their unique biological, electrical, and mechanical properties that enable the design of excellent bone regeneration and gene delivery systems A comprehensive survey of the research progress of bioceramics and their applications in bone repair and regeneration, this volume is designed to enhance study and career development for those in this field and to facilitate further research and opportunities for new solutions.

Biomaterials for Bone, Regenerative Medicine

Biomaterials for Bone, Regenerative Medicine
A Book

by Nandyala Sooraj Hussain,José D. Santos

  • Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
  • Release : 2010-03-01
  • Pages : 210
  • ISBN : 3038134422
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS). The aim of “Biomaterials for Bone Regenerative Medicine” is to review extensively the latest developments in Biomaterials and their application to bone regeneration in vivo. Indeed, research on biomaterials and their novel applications is essential because of the health issues related to the aging population. A wide range of worldwide investigations is being undertaken by eminent scholars in order to develop further innovative materials for next-generation applications. In future, it is expected that a tissue engineering approach, associating novel biomaterials with stem cells, will be available for all types of bone defect.

Biomaterials in Orthopaedics and Bone Regeneration

Biomaterials in Orthopaedics and Bone Regeneration
Design and Synthesis

by Preetkanwal Singh Bains,Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu,Marjan Bahraminasab,Chander Prakash

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-09-09
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 9811399778
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book focuses on the recent advances in the field of orthopaedic biomaterials, with a particular emphasis on their design and fabrication. Biomimetic materials, having similar properties and functions to that of the natural tissue, are becoming a popular choice for making customized orthopaedic implants and bone scaffolds. The acceptability of these materials in the human body depends on the right balance between their mechanical and biological properties. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research in this rapidly evolving field. The chapters cover different aspects of multi-functional biomaterials design, and cutting-edge methods for the synthesis and processing of these materials. Advanced manufacturing techniques, like additive manufacturing, used for developing new biomimetic materials are highlighted in the book. This book is a valuable reference for students and researchers interested in biomaterials for orthopaedic applications.

Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration
Novel Techniques and Applications

by P. Dubruel,S. Van Vlierberghe

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-06-09
  • Pages : 502
  • ISBN : 0857098101
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Novel Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration provides a comprehensive review of currently available biomaterials and how they can be applied in bone regeneration. In recent decades, there has been a shift from the idea of using biomaterials as passive substitutes for damaged bones towards the concept of biomaterials as aids for the regeneration of a host's own bone tissue. This has generated an important field of research and a range of technological developments. Part one of this book discusses a wide range of materials, including calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, biopolymers, synthetic polymers, and shape memory polymers. Part two then turns to the processing and surface modification of biomaterials, as well as how biomaterials can be evaluated both for their mechanical properties and for immunocompatibility with the host. Finally, part three covers a variety of cellular approaches, and production and delivery of biomaterials for bone regeneration. Chapters also consider the potential of electromagnetic and ultrasonic stimulation of biomaterials to aid in the regenerative process. Novel Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration represents an important resource for academics, clinicians, and industry professionals working in the area of biomedical materials, providing them with both an overview of the current state-of-the-art, and an indication of potential future developments. Provides comprehensive coverage of novel materials, techniques, and applications of biomaterials for bone regeneration Provides vital information on the various types of materials used in bone regeneration Discusses processing, modification, and evaluation techniques of biomaterials, and looks at cellular approaches and stimulation of biomaterials for bone regeneration

Biomimetic biomaterials

Biomimetic biomaterials
8. Biomimetic bone regeneration

by K.A. Hing

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 012808815X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter reviews basic bone biology and bone graft technology to give an insight into the increasingly biomimetic approach being pursued in this field. Many current synthetic bone graft substitute materials have calcium phosphate chemistries reflecting the composition of bone mineral, and hierarchical pore structures similar to cancellous bone. Significant research effort has been devoted to understanding how slight variations in chemistry and pore structure impact a graft material’s ability to support or stimulate bone healing. It appears that the best results are obtained when a graft chemistry or structure is designed to mimic the natural tissue.

Advanced Bioactive Inorganic Materials for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery

Advanced Bioactive Inorganic Materials for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery
A Book

by Chengtie Wu,Jiang Chang,Yin Xiao

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-03-22
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN : 1466551992
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioceramics play an important role in repairing and regenerating defective or damaged bone. Annually, more than 500,000 bone graft procedures are performed in the United States and approximately 2.2 million are conducted worldwide. Advanced Bioactive Inorganic Materials for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery reviews the latest advances in the field of bioceramics. The book summarizes innovative concepts, bioceramic design, and methods for material synthesis and drug delivery. Offering guidance for biomedical engineering researchers and material scientists, the book explores: Novel mesoporous bioactive glasses and silicate-based ceramics for bone regeneration and drug delivery Bioactive silicate ceramics, including their mechanical properties, interaction with bone-forming cells, and in vivo osteogenesis and angiogenesis Silica nanospheres with a core-shell structure and their specific properties for controllable drug delivery The 3D-printing technique to prepare advanced bioceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications—including the preparation, mechanical strength, and biological properties of 3D-printed porous scaffolds of calcium phosphate cement and silicate bioceramics Biomimetic preparation and controllable crystal growth and biomineralization of bioceramics Inorganic and organic composite materials and their unique biological, electrical, and mechanical properties that enable the design of excellent bone regeneration and gene delivery systems A comprehensive survey of the research progress of bioceramics and their applications in bone repair and regeneration, this volume is designed to enhance study and career development for those in this field and to facilitate further research and opportunities for new solutions.

Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Means of Bioresorbable and Bioactive Materials

Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Means of Bioresorbable and Bioactive Materials
A Book

by Blanca San Miguel Riva

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 189
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioactive Glasses

Bioactive Glasses
Potential Biomaterials for Future Therapy

by Gurbinder Kaur

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-01-02
  • Pages : 332
  • ISBN : 3319457160
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

Biomimicked Biomaterials

Biomimicked Biomaterials
Advances in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

by Heung Jae Chun,Rui L. Reis,Antonella Motta,Gilson Khang

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-06-29
  • Pages : 198
  • ISBN : 9811532621
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is the second of two volumes that together offer a comprehensive account of cutting-edge advances in the development of biomaterials for use within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this volume, which is devoted to biomimetic biomaterials, the opening section discusses bone regeneration by means of duck’s feet-derived collagen scaffold and the use of decellularized extracellular matrices. The role of various novel biomimetic hydrogels in regenerative medicine is then considered in detail. The third section focuses on the control of stem cell fate by biomimetic biomaterials, covering exosome-integrated biomaterials for bone regeneration, cellular responses to materials for biomedical engineering, and the regulation of stem cell functions by micropatterned structures. Finally, the use of nano-intelligent biocomposites in regenerative medicine is addressed, with discussion of, for example, recent advances in biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics and blood-contacting polymeric biomaterials. The authors are recognized experts in the interdisciplinary field of regenerative medicine and the book will be of value for all with an interest in regenerative medicine based on biomaterials.

Translating Biomaterials for Bone Graft

Translating Biomaterials for Bone Graft
Bench-top to Clinical Applications

by Joo L. Ong,Teja Guda

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-01-06
  • Pages : 263
  • ISBN : 1315363518
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Translating Biomaterials for Bone Graft: Bench-top to Clinical Applications brings together the current translational research in bone tissue engineering, from design to application – from materials, drugs and biologic delivery used for bone graft applications to pre-clinical and clinical considerations. The book also discusses the regulatory approval pathways, which involves consideration of the class of devices; whether they are similar to existing solutions, minimal manipulation of donor tissue or completely novel materials, drugs and biologics. These considerations drive the ability to successfully transition the latest generations of bone graft materials into the clinics. Chapters come from materials scientists, clinicians, researchers, and consultants and provide a holistic understanding of the field. As such, the book is a state-of-the-art reference to bone therapies and should appeal to clinicians, scientists, as well as students interested in the current research and/or practices in the field of bone regeneration and restoration.

Bioactive Glasses

Bioactive Glasses
Fundamentals, Technology and Applications

by Aldo R. Boccaccini,Delia S. Brauer,Leena Hupa

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2016-12-01
  • Pages : 549
  • ISBN : 1782629769
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The global ageing society has significantly increased the need for implant materials, which not only replace damaged or lost tissue but are also able to regenerate it. The field of bioactive glasses has been expanding continuously over recent years as they have been shown to bond with hard and soft tissue, release therapeutically active ions, and be capable of enhancing bone formation and regeneration. In addition, they are successfully being used to re-mineralise teeth, thereby making bioactive glasses highly attractive materials in both dentistry and medicine. Understanding the multidisciplinary requirements set by the human body s environment and the special characteristics of the different families of bioactive glasses is a key in developing new compositions to novel clinical applications. Bioactive Glasses aims to bridge the different scientific communities associated with the field of bioactive glasses with focus on the materials science point of view. Emerging applications covered include soft tissue regeneration, wound healing, vascularisation, cancer treatment and drug delivery devices. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest applications of bioactive glasses for material scientists. "

Advanced Biomaterials and Systems Releasing Bioactive Agents for Precise Tissue Regeneration

Advanced Biomaterials and Systems Releasing Bioactive Agents for Precise Tissue Regeneration
A Book

by Rui Guo,Zhengwei Mao,Gang Wu

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2021-10-22
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889715361
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Octacalcium Phosphate Biomaterials

Octacalcium Phosphate Biomaterials
Understanding of Bioactive Properties and Application

by Gerard Insley,Osamu Suzuki

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2019-11-20
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 0081025122
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Octacalcium Phosphate Biomaterials: Past, Present and Future is a comprehensive study of octacalcium phosphate (OCP), a next generation biomaterial for bone regeneration. By focusing both on fundamental research and the use of OCP as a scaffold material, this book explores its potential to deliver improved clinical results. Early chapters in the book discuss OCP's effects on bone cell activity, cellular interactions and their role in bone formation, repair and replacement. Later chapters cover topics such as drug delivery, synthesis methodologies and future analysis techniques. This will be an invaluable and unique resource for researchers, clinicians, students and industrialists in the area of orthopedics and dentistry. OCP is known to be a pre-cursor to hydroxyapatite in the human biomineralization process that forms bone and tooth enamel. Research studies that have emerged in recent years suggest OCP's tremendous potential as a bioactive material. Contains comprehensive, up-to-date information on the basic science, including physical, chemical and biological properties Presents the clinical potential of octacalcium phosphate biomaterials Provides a reference point for new research and increased activity in the area of next generation smarter biomaterials for hard tissue repair and regeneration

Osteogenic-peptide Functionalized Polymeric Materials for Bone Regeneration Applications

Osteogenic-peptide Functionalized Polymeric Materials for Bone Regeneration Applications
A Book

by Gina Policastro

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Both naturally occurring and synthetic polymeric materials are currently under investigation for use as tissue engineering constructs for bone defect repair. While, naturally occurring proteins and polysaccharides provide the inherent biochemical signaling necessary for proper bone regeneration, these constructs often lack mechanical and chemical properties suitable for this application. On the contrary, synthetic polymers, such as poly-¿-caprolactone (PCL) and polypropylene fumarate (PPF), are advantageous because of their tunable mechanical, degradation and chemical properties. However, these polymers tend to degrade into acidic byproducts that cause chronic inflammation in vivo and overall failure of the implant. Independently, both naturally occurring and synthetic materials fail to meet all of the necessary requirements for osteogenic tissue engineering. More recently, research has focused its attention on the synthesis of polymeric materials functionalized with bioactive peptides to overcome the previously mentioned limitations. Poly(ester urea)s are a high modulus, non-toxic, amino acid-based class of polymers that has been thoroughly investigated by the Becker group. Both its tunable properties and ease of functionality, makes this polymer ideal for bone tissue engineering applications. Phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (poly(PHE)) have been reported to have tensile moduli in a range comparable to healthy bone tissue (~7 GPa), as well as non-acidic degradation byproducts. Poly(PHE)s can be easily functionalized with bioactive peptides, such as osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) for enhancement of its osteoinductive potential. OGP[10-14] is the active subunit of the naturally occurring tetradecapeptide that is known to upregulate proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of osteoblast cell lines. In this dissertation, both OGP-tethered and OGP-crosslinked poly(PHE) materials were synthesized using efficient `click' chemistry techniques. These materials were tested in vitro and in vivo to reveal the enhanced osteoinductive ability of poly(PHE) materials for tissue engineering applications. With just 1% tethered OGP incorporation into the poly(PHE) network, osteogenic lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was enhanced at both 2 and 4 weeks. In vivo results confirmed the osteoinductive ability of OGP[10-14]-tethered poly(PHE). Crosslinking OGP[10-14] into the poly(PHE) network was intended to enhance mechanical and osteoinductive properties of the polymer construct, simultaneously. Results show that toughness of the polymeric constructs increased with OGP-crosslinking, however a decrease in tensile modulus was observed, possibly due to low crosslinking density. Early osteogenic differentiation of mouse preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) was also enhanced on these constructs. Osseointegration of metallic implants is also a major cause for concern in the medical world. Titanium is one of the most widely used implants for bone repair, however, it is not uncommon for these implants to fail due to a lack of tissue-metal integration in vivo. Here, the surface functionalization of titanium oxide (TiO2) substrates with catechol-bearing dendritic OGP[10-14] modular peptides is reported. Functionalized OGP[10-14] modular peptides were synthesized and non-covalently bound to the surface of TiO2. Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells was tested to result in enhanced expression of osteogenic genes compared to cells cultured without OGP-functionalization. Finally, to keep with the theme of enhancing osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering applications, several other well-known bioactive peptides were studied in this dissertation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a peptide fragment responsible for upregulation of osteogenic differentiation of multipotent cell lines via enhanced expression of bone specific genes. The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence is the well-known adhesion peptide found in extracellular matrix proteins such as vinculin and fibronectin. RGD has been shown in many studies, to influence cell lineage commitment through the promotion of focal adhesion and cell spreading on a surface. Here, the concentration-dependent synergistic effect of BMP-2 and RGD was studied on 2D gradient substrates. In nature, peptides do not exist and act as a single entity, therefore this study reveals a glimpse at what the future holds for studying concentration effects of multiple bioactive factors simultaneously for enhanced bone tissue regeneration. Each of these studies reveals the importance of blending synthetic materials with naturally occurring peptides for optimal tissue engineering constructs. There is a clear need for polymeric constructs with both the mechanical and biological properties necessary for bone tissue engineering, and this dissertation provides a solid foundation for the future of bone regeneration biomaterials in the Becker group.

Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018

Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018
A Book

by Emmanuel Stratakis

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2019-02-05
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN : 3038975435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018" that was published in IJMS

Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering
A Book

by Murugan Ramalingam,Ziyad Haidar,Seeram Ramakrishna,Hisatoshi Kobayashi,Youssef Haikel

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-04-02
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 1118371216
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book acts as a self-contained resource for understandingthe current technological advancement of biomaterials towardstissue engineering applications. It covers impact ofbiomaterials at different length scales such as macro/micro/nano/level and offers extensive discussion on cell-biomaterialinteractions with illustrative examples. This resource offer a multi-disciplinary approach for theadaptability of integrated biomaterials in tissue repair andreconstruction.

Racing for the Surface

Racing for the Surface
Antimicrobial and Interface Tissue Engineering

by Bingyun Li,Thomas Fintan Moriarty,Thomas Webster,Malcolm Xing

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-02-28
  • Pages : 809
  • ISBN : 3030344711
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers the key basics of tissue engineering as well as the latest advances in the integration of both antimicrobial and osteoinductive properties. Topics covered include osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterials (calcium phosphate, bone morphogenetic protein, peptides, antibodies, bioactive glasses, nanomaterials, etc.) and scaffolds. Research integrating both antimicrobial/biofilm-inhibiting and osteoinductive/osteoconductive properties and their co-delivery is detailed and their roles in clinical success are discussed. Combined with its companion volume, Racing for the Surface: Antimicrobial and Interface Tissue Engineering, this book bridges the gap between infection and tissue engineering, and is an ideal book for academic researchers, clinicians, industrial engineers and scientists, governmental representatives in national laboratories, and advanced undergraduate students and post-doctoral fellows who are interested in tissue engineering and regeneration, infection, and biomaterials and devices.

Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
From Basic Concepts to State of the Art Approaches

by Birru Bhaskar,Parcha Sreenivasa Rao,Naresh Kasoju,Vasagiri Nagarjuna,Rama Raju Baadhe

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-04-29
  • Pages : 589
  • ISBN : 9811600023
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book comprehensively explores the basic concepts and applications of biomaterials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The book is divided into four sections; the first section deals with the basic concepts and different types of biomaterials used in tissue engineering. The second section discusses the functional requirements and types of materials that are used in developing state-of-the-art of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The third section presents the applications of biomaterials for hard and soft tissue engineering, as well as for specialized tissue engineering. The last section addresses the future prospects of nanobiomaterials, intelligent biomaterials, and 3D bioprinting biomaterials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It also discusses various in vitro disease models for tissue bioengineering and regenerative medicine. As such, it offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, scientists, entrepreneurs, and medical/healthcare professionals.

Inorganic Biomaterials

Inorganic Biomaterials

by Wolfram Höland,Aldo R. Boccaccini

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-04-04
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889198014
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inorganic biomaterials include materials for e.g. dental restorations, biocompatible materials for orthopedic appliances and bioactive materials. However, inorganic biomaterials are also developed for use in tissue regeneration, e.g. wound healing. These products either consist of crystalline phases, such as Al2O3 or ZrO2, which makes them suitable for use in hip bone replacement or they are composed of tricalcium phosphate and used as resorbable biomaterials. Or, they contain glassy phases, such as BIOGLASS®, and are employed as bioactive biomaterials to bond to living bone. Inorganic biomaterials are also used to develop inorganic – organic composites which are suitable for use as bioactive products or to produce dental filling materials. In general, the development of composites is state of the art. However, it is also a future technology. Biomaterials for dental restorations consist of glassy or crystalline phases. Glass-ceramics represent a special group of inorganic biomaterials for dental restorations. Glass-ceramics are composed of at least one inorganic glassy phase and at least one crystalline phase. These products demonstrate a combination of properties, which include excellent aesthetics and the ability to mimic the optical properties of natural teeth, as well as high strength and toughness. They can be processed using special processing procedures, e.g. machining, moulding and sintering, to fabricate high quality products. Sintered oxide ceramics, such as Al2O3 or ZrO2, are also used for the fabrication of dental restorations. These products can be veneered with other biomaterials, or they can be polished to achieve the best possible surface quality. The manuscripts dealing with inorganic biomaterials should focus on the development of the products, especially on their chemical nature, the phase formation processes and all the details related to their processing. Very important are the mechanisms of phase formation. The reader of the manuscript should understand all of these reactions in detail. As far as application is concerned, it is important to describe the main properties of the developed products based on the valid standards, e.g. the ISO standards. The papers published should show that the products comply with these standards. It is very important to understand the relationship between biomass and biomaterials. This will help young scientists to follow the development of biomaterials with new, unexpected properties. He manuscripts published in "Frontiers" should also focus on the application of the biomaterials. Every manuscript should show the most important application of the material presented. There are different journals that deal with specific product categories, eg "Dental Materials". However, "Frontiers" should allow young scientists to publish their research results using all kinds of inorganic biomaterials. On the other hand, fundamental discussion and analysis of the findings should be encouraged and conclusions about possible applications in the field of medicine and dentistry should be drawn.