Download Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury Ebook PDF

Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury
A Book

by Svetlana Dambinova,Ronald L. Hayes,Kevin K. W. Wang

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 226
  • ISBN : 1849733899
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Examines current and prospective biomarkers for assessment of traumatic brain injury using a multidisciplinary approach involving biochemistry, molecular biology and clinical chemistry.

Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury

Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury
A Book

by Alan H.B. Wu,W. Frank Peacock

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-07-10
  • Pages : 486
  • ISBN : 0128167300
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Biomarkers for Traumatic Brain Injury provides a comprehensive overview on the selection and implementation of serum-based and saliva-based biomarkers for traumatic brain injury. The book presents an economic analysis for implementing TBI biomarkers into clinical practice. In addition, it discusses the analytical tools needed to implement TBI biomarkers, including specifications for testing instruments and interpretative software. Neurologists, emergency department physicians, intensivists, and clinical laboratorians will find this book a great resource from which to familiarize themselves with the issues and processes regarding TBI biomarkers. Approximately 2 million people in the U.S. sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year with over 250,000 hospitalizations and 50,000 deaths. There has been a significant rise in interest in diagnosing mild concussions, particularly in the sports world. While imaging has been the gold standard, these procedures are costly and not always available. There is great potential in using serum-based biomarkers, hence the book seeks to enlighten readers on new possibilities. Offers strategies for the selection and implementation of traumatic brain injury biomarkers Discusses the importance of autoantibodies and post translational modifications for TBI Covers the analytical tools needed to implement TBI biomarkers, including the specifications for testing instruments and interpretative software

Biomarkers of Brain Damage – A Complex Challenge with Great Potential

Biomarkers of Brain Damage – A Complex Challenge with Great Potential
A Book

by Olli Tenovuo,Jean-charles Sanchez,Damir Janigro,Johan Undén

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2021-05-10
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889667545
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Olli Tenovuo is consultant and member of SAB for NeuroTrauma Sciences LLC (Georgia, USA) and ABCDx SA (Geneva, Switzerland). Jean-Charles Sanchez has a research grant to disclose from ABCDx SA, (Geneva, Switzerland). Damir Janigro is the CEO of FloTBI Inc. (Cleveland, USA), a company interested in biomarkers of neurological diseases.

Biomarkers of Brain Injury and Neurological Disorders

Biomarkers of Brain Injury and Neurological Disorders
A Book

by Kevin K. W. Wang,Zhiqun Zhang,Firas H. Kobeissy

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2014-10-28
  • Pages : 650
  • ISBN : 1482239825
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book explores the recent advances in the techniques and platforms used in biomarker research that have revolutionized the way we study, diagnose, and treat brain injury conditions. The contributors describe different biomarker studies pertaining to brain injury and other neurological disorders and analyze the different models and technologies used to identify these biological markers. The book includes findings from "Omics research" that have been utilized to decipher and identify such biomarkers. It discusses protein, microRNA, and altered gene profiles and reviews neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and prion and Alzheimer’s disease.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury
Studies on Serum Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Predict Outcome

by Anada Raj Poovindran

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 364
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Neuroproteomics

Neuroproteomics
Methods and Protocols

by Andrew K. Ottens,Kevin K.W. Wang

  • Publisher : Humana
  • Release : 2009-08-05
  • Pages : 321
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

With the development of polypeptide ionization processes for mass spectrometry and the rapid processing of large-scale datasets with bioinformatics, researchers now have the tools necessary to propel neuroproteomics research to new levels. In Neuroproteomics: Methods and Protocols, experts in the neurological and analytical sciences present experimental details for applying proteomics to the study of the central nervous system (CNS) and its dysfunction through trauma and disease. Divided into four convenient sections, this collection covers CNS animal models used for neuroproteomics research, methods for separating and analyzing discrete subcomponents of the neuroproteome, large-scale approaches for CNS proteome characterization and quantification, as well as methods that evaluate biofluids and translate neuroproteomic results into clinical platforms. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, chapters include brief introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Neuroproteomics: Methods and Protocols includes the clear "how-to" information needed to critically assess what can be accomplished in the field and how to best perform and evaluate neuroproteomic experiments in one’s own research.

Urinary and Blood-derived Biomarkers Indicative of Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury

Urinary and Blood-derived Biomarkers Indicative of Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury
A Book

by Elani Ann Bykowski

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Background: This study aims to determine if a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based quantitative metabolic profiling approach can identify novel biomarkers in clinically accessible biofluids that are indicative of both the repair processes and treatment efficacy during recovery from traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. The main hypotheses of this study are (a) that changes in the metabolic profiles following injury can be correlated to the extent of recovery of patients and (b) that biological pathway analysis will provide an insight into the mechanisms behind the repair process. Methods: Patients with spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury were recruited through the Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary, Alberta. Urine and blood samples were collected from patients initially and again at 6 months post-injury for NMR spectral acquisition. Impact: Metabolomic analysis provides a window into the pathophysiological processes that underlie the recovery process, with insight for clinical application.

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
New Frontiers in Clinical and Translational Research

by Vicki Anderson,Keith Owen Yeates

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2010-02-04
  • Pages : 235
  • ISBN : 0521763320
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

"This book, New Frontiers in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury, aims to evaluate what we have learned about TBI in childhood to date and, perhaps more importantly to articulate the challenges we face and how we should go forward in the future"--Provided by publisher.

Neurotrauma

Neurotrauma
A Comprehensive Textbook on Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury

by Kevin Wang

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2018-12-05
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 0190279435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Neurotrauma: A Comprehensive Textbook on Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury aims to bring together the latest clinical practice and research in the filed of two forms of trauma to the central nervous system: namely traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Nationally, more 1.9 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury annually. In parallel, there are an estimate of 12,000 new cases of SCI in the United States annually. In addition, approximately 1.2 million people live with paralysis due to SCI. In recent years, dramatic advancements in the field have resulted in much improved outcomes for patients and higher standards of care. This volume details the latest research and clinical practice in the treatment of neurotrauma, in a comprehensive but easy-to-follow format. Neurotrauma is a valuable resource for any clinician involved in caring for TBI and SCI patients, clinical research professionals, researchers, medical and graduate students, and nurse specialists.

Current Therapy of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care

Current Therapy of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care
A Book

by Juan A. Asensio,Donald D. Trunkey

  • Publisher : Mosby
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 785
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Provides a unified evidence-based approach to problems encountered in trauma and critical care surgical situations, with expert practical and up-to-date guidance on ventilator management, damage control, noninvasive techniques, imaging, infection control, dealing with mass casualties, treating injuries induced by chemical and biological agents, and much more.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury
Neurobiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

by Yongxia Zhou

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2019-09-11
  • Pages : 166
  • ISBN : 1789842956
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem. There are several advanced techniques available for the investigation of disease neurobiology, diagnosis, and treatment. This book covers many topics in the active TBI research field such as cumulative mild head injury review, brain changes, and risk factors, as well as post-concussion syndrome (PCS) definition, classification, and association with brain dysfunction. Brain changes, including blood flow, intracranial pressure, and neuroinflammation, the neurobiological basis of neuroprotective activation, as well as correlation with PCS, including sleep, are illustrated further. Furthermore, multiple biomarkers, including S-100?, UCH-L1, and GFAP for blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal injury, are reviewed thoroughly. Lastly, well-evaluated neuroprotective agents, hypothermia as a neuroprotective effect in TBI, and effects investigation, as well as sedation in TBI as a neurocritical and therapeutic strategy with different assessments, are reported. This book introduces readers to a number of perspectives, including TBI disease pathophysiology and post-concussion syndrome classification, associated brain changes, imaging diagnosis, and several useful biomarkers with high sensitivities, as well as multiple therapeutic strategies. Various advanced technical developments, upfront neuroimaging, and clinical data are presented together with comprehensive, up-to-date, and interesting examples. Detailed reviews and accurate illustrations together with objective and informative discussions of several challenging problems such as PCS and neuroprotective treatments are the advantages of this book. Finally, this book will hopefully convey the clinical aspects of TBI and help guide diagnosis and therapeutic research in this field.

Characterizing Neurotrauma and Astroglial Injury Biomarkers by Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry

Characterizing Neurotrauma and Astroglial Injury Biomarkers by Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry
A Book

by Sean Shen

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 372
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Neurotraumatic injury has long been a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Recently, the debilitating long term effects of chronic, mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have gained increased public attention. In order to protect individuals most at risk (e.g. military personnel and athletes) from such injuries, improved diagnostics in the form of a biomarker panel capable of rapidly and sensitively detecting mild TBIs are needed. Despite the large number of TBI biomarker studies in the literature, the development of a clinically relevant protein signature remains elusive. In contrast to diseases with singular mechanistic dysfunction, neurotrauma is characterized by the disruption to multiple cellular pathways that contribute to the sequelae of secondary pathophysiology that determines patient outcome and recovery. This complexity has been a confounding factor in the identification of effective biomarkers. In an effort to circumvent this hurdle, our group implemented a central nervous system (CNS) specific cell injury model to examine preferentially released injury related proteins as candidate diagnostics. Comparative analysis of a TBI CSF proteome and preferentially released proteins from our injury model revealed a panel of astroglial injury related candidate biomarkers including aldolase C (ALDOC), brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), glutamine synthetase (GS), astrocytic phosphoprotein PEA15 (PEA15), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its trauma-generated breakdown products (BDPs). Immediate and robust release of ALDOC, BLBP, and PEA15 were associated more with acute cell wounding than cell death observed after biomechanical injury. In contrast, GFAP release correlated primarily with cell death. The sensitivity and selectivity of our biomarkers for neurotrauma were evaluated in human TBI and Yucatan swine spinal cord injury (SCI) CSF samples. Verification studies demonstrated the ability of our astroglial biomarker panel to differentiate injury from non-injury with elevated signals detectable an hour after injury. Additionally, differential CSF concentration kinetics were observed over a 1-week period post-injury indicative of a long diagnostic window. CSF concentration of biomarkers GFAP, ALDOC, and BLBP correlated strongly with the extent of tissue loss after SCI at 7 days. Taken together, our data demonstrates the successful application of proteomics to the identification and verification of new neurotrauma biomarkers that exhibit potential for not only detecting but defining injury severity.

Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury

Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury
A Book

by Jonathan M. Silver,Thomas W. McAllister,David B. Arciniegas

  • Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
  • Release : 2018-12-13
  • Pages : 985
  • ISBN : 1615372474
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Despite the increased public awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the complexities of the neuropsychiatric, neuropsychological, neurological, and other physical consequences of TBI of all severities across the lifespan remain incompletely understood by patients, their families, healthcare providers, and the media. Keeping pace with advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and science of TBI, the Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, Third Edition, comprehensively fills this gap in knowledge. Nearly all 50 chapters feature new authors, all of them experts in their field. Chapters new to this edition include biomechanical forces, biomarkers, neurodegenerative dementias, suicide, endocrine disorders, chronic disease management, and social cognition. An entirely new section is devoted to the evaluation and treatment of mild TBI, including injuries in athletes, military service members and veterans, and children and adolescents. These chapters join newly updated sections on the assessment and treatment of the cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and other physical sequelae of TBI. The Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury is a must-read for all of those working in any of the multitude of disciplines that contribute to the care and rehabilitation of persons with brain injury. This new volume is also a potentially useful reference for policymakers in both the public and private sectors.

Leveraging Biomedical and Healthcare Data

Leveraging Biomedical and Healthcare Data
Semantics, Analytics and Knowledge

by Firas Kobeissy,Kevin Wang,Fadi A. Zaraket,Ali Alawieh

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-11-23
  • Pages : 225
  • ISBN : 012809561X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Leveraging Biomedical and Healthcare Data: Semantics, Analytics and Knowledge provides an overview of the approaches used in semantic systems biology, introduces novel areas of its application, and describes step-wise protocols for transforming heterogeneous data into useful knowledge that can influence healthcare and biomedical research. Given the astronomical increase in the number of published reports, papers, and datasets over the last few decades, the ability to curate this data has become a new field of biomedical and healthcare research. This book discusses big data text-based mining to better understand the molecular architecture of diseases and to guide health care decision. It will be a valuable resource for bioinformaticians and members of several areas of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding more about how to process and apply great amounts of data to improve their research. Includes at each section resource pages containing a list of available curated raw and processed data that can be used by researchers in the field Provides demonstrative and relevant examples that serve as a general tutorial Presents a list of algorithm names and computational tools available for basic and clinical researchers

Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease
A Book

by Daniela Galimberti,Elio Scarpani

  • Publisher : Nova Science Publishers
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 307
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition into the brain of amyloid peptide, which originates a cascade of inflammatory events leading eventually to neuronal death. These pathological events likely occur several years before the clinical manifestation of the disease, implying that potential therapeutical interventions are currently started too late to give beneficial results. Recently, growing attention has been paid to the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), considered the prodromal phase of AD, as 80% of subjects with MCI have been shown to develop AD within 5 years. Several studies aimed to identify biological markers to differentiate between normal aging and incipient AD have been carried out, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and neuroimaging. In particular, the evaluation of CSF Amyloid beta (1-42) levels, together with tau and phospotau, are of help for recognizing early AD. Besides, a number of additional molecules are altered in CSF. Other early modifications have been observed in peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and leukocytes, as well as in serum from patients. Biomarkers for AD represent important tools supporting the clinical diagnosis and the choice of potential therapeutic options. Moreover, they would be of great help for the selection of cohorts of homogeneous patients for clinical trials with new disease-modifying compounds. This book is aimed to give an update about MCI as prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD), to discuss the main known pathological mechanisms at the basis of AD and to describe the possible biomarkers to be used for an early diagnosis of the disease.

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System
Workshop Summary

by Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2011-08-05
  • Pages : 74
  • ISBN : 0309212219
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Glutamate is the most pervasive neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this fact, no validated biological markers, or biomarkers, currently exist for measuring glutamate pathology in CNS disorders or injuries. Glutamate dysfunction has been associated with an extensive range of nervous system diseases and disorders. Problems with how the neurotransmitter glutamate functions in the brain have been linked to a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury. These conditions are widespread, affecting a large portion of the United States population, and remain difficult to treat. Efforts to understand, treat, and prevent glutamate-related disorders can be aided by the identification of valid biomarkers. The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop on June 21-22, 2010, to explore ways to accelerate the development, validation, and implementation of such biomarkers. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary investigates promising current and emerging technologies, and outlines strategies to procure resources and tools to advance drug development for associated nervous system disorders. Moreover, this report highlights presentations by expert panelists, and the open panel discussions that occurred during the workshop.

Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Brain

Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Brain
A Book

by Jack Jallo,Christopher M. Loftus

  • Publisher : Thieme
  • Release : 2011-01-01
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 1604060921
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

In Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Brain, leading clinicians present widely accepted guidelines and evidence-based practices for the management of patients with traumatic brain injury. Divided into five main sections, the book guides the clinician through the science, management, critical care, outcomes, and important socioeconomic issues relevant to patient care.Special Features: Offers the valuable team approach and recommendations of renowned surgeons, clinicians, rehabilitation specialists, and researchers Includes guidelines for injuries ranging from mild to moderate, severe, and penetrating, and for treating brain injury in children Covers the related intensive care issues of neurologic, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and infection management and nutrition and fluid control Reviews fundamental science concepts, including pathophysiology, monitoring and imaging, biomarkers and classification systems for brain injury Provides hundreds of concise summary tables and illustrations to help digest complex information Discusses ethics and important end-of-life issues With an integrated management approach to injury and rehabilitation that goes well beyond initial surgery, Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Brain will enable neurosurgeons, neurologists, physicians in trauma, critical care, and rehabilitation medicine, and residents in these specialties to optimize patient care and outcomes. It is also useful as a guide for board exam preparation.The companion volume to this book is Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Spine.

Concussions in Athletics

Concussions in Athletics
From Brain to Behavior

by Semyon M. Slobounov,Wayne J. Sebastianelli

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2014-02-20
  • Pages : 419
  • ISBN : 1493902954
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Concussions in Athletics: From Brain to Behavior is a timely and major contribution to the literature that comprehensively addresses the neuromechanisms, predispositions, and latest developments in the evaluation and management of concussive injuries. Also known as mild traumatic brain injury, concussion in athletics is a growing public health concern with increased attention focusing on treatment and management of this puzzling epidemic. Despite the increasing occurrence and prevalence of concussions in athletics, there is no universally accepted definition, or “gold standard,” for its assessment. Concussion in Athletics: From Brain to Behavior provides a range of major findings that may shed important light on current controversy within the field. The book is organized in five parts: Evaluation of Concussion and Current Development; Biomechanical Mechanisms of Concussion and Helmets; Neural Substrates, Biomarkers and Brain Imaging of Concussion Research; Pediatric Sport-related Concussions; and Clinical Management and Rehabilitation of Concussions. An invaluable contribution to the literature, Concussions in Athletics: From Brain to Behavior is a state-of-the-art reference that will be of significant interest to a wide range of clinicians, researchers, administrators, and policy makers.

Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Neurodevelopmental Disabilities
Clinical and Scientific Foundations

by Michael Shevell,International Child Neurology Association

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 492
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

"Neurodevelopmental disabilities are a common problem in child health. This book takes a comprehensive approach to addressing these often challenging clinical diagnoses. In particular, it focuses on the two most common of childhood neurodevelopmental disabilities: global developmental delay and developmental language impairment. It seeks to put forward our present conceptualization of these entities as well as their proper evaluation and assessment and diagnosis from a variety of perspectives. It also provides details on our current understanding of the scientific basis of these disorders and their underlying causes. Issues related to medical management, rehabilitation, and eventual outcomes are also addressed in a detailed way. The book has wide appeal to those in paediatrics, developmental paediatrics, child neurology, and paediatric rehabilitation. Its geographic appeal includes both developed and developing nations as some chapters are devoted to the particular issues faced in underdeveloped countries. The book's focus on both clinical and scientific aspects is invaluable in this field. It also provides extensive information in a single source relating to often-overlooked areas such as medical management, rehabilitation, public policy, and ethics."--Publisher's website.

Identifying Potential Biomarkers of Posttraumatic Epilepsy

Identifying Potential Biomarkers of Posttraumatic Epilepsy
A Book

by Jenny Szu

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 162
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a long-term negative consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which recurrent spontaneous seizures occur after the initial head injury. PTE develops over an undefined period where circuitry reorganization in the brain causes permanent hyperexcitability. Unfortunately, current existing antiepileptogenic drugs (AEDs) have all failed at treating PTE, and thus, there is a critical need to identify biomarkers of PTE to ultimately develop new therapeutic strategies. The pathophysiology by which trauma leads to spontaneous seizures is unknown and clinically relevant models of PTE are key to understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the development of PTE. Current animal studies of PTE are limited and comprehensive in vivo electrophysiological approaches remain absent. In the present study, I aimed to identify optical and electrographic biomarkers of PTE with correlation to hippocampal histopathology at 14, 30, 60, and 90 days post injury (dpi). Here, adult male CD1 wildtype (WT) and aquaporin-4 knockout (AQP4 KO) mice were subjected to a moderate-severe TBI in the right frontal cortex using the well-established controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model. Additionally, mice underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, in vivo video-electroencephalographic (vEEG) recordings, and immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis for the key epileptogenic astrocytic channels AQP4 and Kir4.1. The main findings from these studies are: 1) successful implementation of CCI-based PTE in mice with chronic vEEG generated, for the first time,17% and 27% of WT and AQP4 KO mice with PTE, respectively (the highest yield of PTE reported); 2) AQP4 KO mice had a greater incidence of spontaneous seizures and PTE compared with WT mice; 3) AQP4 KO mice had longer spontaneous seizure duration compared with WT mice; 4) EEG power patterns are different between mice with and without PTE; and 5) AQP4, but not Kir4.1, is significantly upregulated in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of mice with PTE. Collectively, these findings identified specific PTE EEG phenotypes that may be modulated by AQP4 and carry significant implications for epileptogenesis after TBI which may serve as the first steps to developing surrogate biomarkers for PTE.