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Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
11. Materials for absorbable and nonabsorbable surgical sutures

by C.C. Chu

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091568
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Catgut and collagen are the two most well-known natural materials for absorbable sutures; however collagen-based absorbable sutures have largely been replaced by synthetic materials made from one of five basic building blocks. The chemical structures of a variety of commercial absorbable sutures are reviewed. The characteristics, chemistry and manufacture of some nonabsorbable equivalents are also considered. A number of newly available materials, in particular the group of amino-acid based biodegradable poly(ester amide) fibers, are considered, together with the results of trials.

Biotextiles as Medical Implants

Biotextiles as Medical Implants
A Book

by M W King,B S Gupta,R Guidoin

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0857095609
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Textiles play a vital role in the manufacture of various medical devices, including the replacement of diseased, injured or non-functioning organs within the body. Biotextiles as medical implants provides an invaluable single source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants. The first part of the book focuses on polymers, fibers and textile technologies, and these chapters discuss the manufacture, sterilization, properties and types of biotextiles used for medical applications, including nanofibers, resorbable polymers and shaped biotextiles. The chapters in part two provide a comprehensive discussion of a range of different clinical applications of biotextiles, including surgical sutures, arterial prostheses, stent grafts, percutaneous heart valves and drug delivery systems. This book provides a concise review of the technologies, properties and types of biotextiles used as medical devices. In addition, it addresses the biological dimension of how to design devices for different clinical applications, providing an invaluable reference for biomedical engineers of medical textiles, quality control and risk assessment specialists, as well as managers of regulatory affairs. The subject matter will also be of interest to professionals within the healthcare system including surgeons, nurses, therapists, sourcing and purchasing agents, researchers and students in different disciplines. Provides an invaluable single source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants Addresses the technologies used and discusses the manufacture, properties and types of biotextiles Examines applications of biotextiles as medical implants, including drug delivery systems and stent grafts and percutaneous heart valves

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
4. Shaped biotextiles for medical implants

by B.S. Gupta

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091495
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The available implants can be classified as either the one- dimensional, two-dimensional or three-dimensional structures. Among these, the most researched is the arterial prosthesis, which involves a novel process and many steps to make. All aspects of the manufacture and finishing of different types of vascular grafts (straight, tapered, multilimbed) are discussed: construction of the basic tube, setting and annealing of the tube in corrugated and resilient circular configurations, and the designs to resist fraying, improve flow and enhance healing. Advantages of using tubular fabrics to construct other (nonvascular) prostheses are examined, as is the technology used to produce more complex, nontubular, three-dimensional products. Key criteria for selection of implant material and physical principles to optimize implant performance are also considered.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
7. Regulation of biotextiles for medical use

by E. Duncan

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091525
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter describes the regulatory framework applicable to medical devices, and specifically to biotextiles, principally in the United States, but also in the European Union. With the emergence of new technologies and materials, new forms of regulation have become necessary, and some of the traditional classifications no longer match present-day applications. Problems encountered by manufacturers with regard to premarket approval clearance and material supply quality standards assurance are discussed, as well as issues increasingly arising when one biotextile-based medical device is evolved into another for a different use.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
2. Nanofiber structures for medical biotextiles

by B.S. Gupta,A.K. Moghe

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091479
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Three-dimensional nanofiber structures are desirable as scaffolds for tissue development since they mimic the natural environment of the cells. Various techniques have evolved to fabricate such structures using desired materials. Among these, electrospinning provides an advantage due to the ease of use and better control of the resulting structure. A detailed account of the factors influencing the process is presented along with the current status of the technology to produce novel structures at nano level. Case studies are also included to further demonstrate the suitability of the process to develop structures for biomedical applications.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
6. Sterilization techniques for biotextiles for medical applications

by S.W. Shalaby,S.D. Nagatomi,E.F. Powell

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091517
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biotextile sterilization presents unique challenges. The chapter describes the principles of sterilization and the way in which sterility assurance levels are defined and demonstrated. Traditional thermal, chemical and radiation sterilization methods are described, as well as newer methods such as plasma and microwave sterilization, and applications for which each is suitable. The advantages of the emerging technology of radiochemical sterilization are described, together with some of its successful applications, such as surgical sutures and tissue adhesive and the results of recent comparative studies of radiochemical and other sterilization methods for absorbable materials. Projected future trends in sterilization technology are also outlined.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
1. Manufacture, types and properties of biotextiles for medical applications

by B.S. Gupta

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091460
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Textiles are known to have unique properties that lend themselves to use in many different types of technical products, among which perhaps the best known are medical materials. Presented in this chapter are aspects of polymer, fiber and textile science that should serve as useful background knowledge of the materials used in constructing products and whose in vitro and in vivo physical and mechanical performances are discussed in this book.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
13. Barbed suture technology

by N.P. Ingle,H. Cong,M.W. King

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091584
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This review summarizes barbed suture technology. It discusses their development, materials used, design and manufacture, testing and properties as well as applications.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
10. Types and properties of surgical sutures

by C.C. Chu

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 012809155X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter describes properties of materials used for sutures that may be: absorbable or nonabsorbable; of varying size; made from monofilament, multifilament, twisted or braided threads. The characteristics of a large number of synthetic suture materials are described, together with essential suture properties such as tensile strength, knot strength, elasticity, tissue reaction and biodegradability. The interrelated nature of the essential physical and mechanical, handling, biological and biodegradation properties is emphasized. The use of dyes and coatings to improve suture identification and properties is also covered.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
5. Surface modification of biotextiles for medical applications

by D. Tessier

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091509
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Surface properties are a critical aspect of textiles for medical applications. This chapter discusses some popular surface modification techniques: plasma activation, plasma polymerization, chemical grafting, and polymer encapsulation of nanoparticles.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
15. Vascular prostheses for open surgery

by R. Guidoin,M.W. King,L. Wang,Z. Zhang,R. Guzman,G. Marinov,Y. Douville

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091606
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter discusses the advantages and limitations of arterial prostheses (or vascular grafts) in terms of their biocompatibility, biofunctionality and biostability. Criteria for biomaterials selection and prosthesis design that have enabled patients to recover more rapidly without any device-related complications are reviewed, and developments are considered that may lead to future improvements in healing and clinical outcomes for the next generation of vascular prostheses.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
3. Resorbable polymers for medical applications

by S.H. Kim,Y. Jung

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091487
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter discusses the characteristics of resorbable polymers used for medical applications, in particular in cardiovascular systems, in terms of their biocompatibility, resorbability, mechanical and degradation properties, manufacturing feasibility, sterilizability and shelf life. Polymers currently in use for biotextile applications are surveyed, together with recent advances in mechano-active engineering of tissues, especially for blood vessel regeneration, using fibrous elastic degradable polymer scaffolds.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
12. Surgical knot performance in sutures

by B.S. Gupta

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091576
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapter describes procedures and materials used and results obtained from several important studies of the mechanical performance of surgical sutures and the clinical factors that influence their behavior. Key features of successful suture assembly are the material used, structure of the thread, surface treatment, knot strength, and security, the in vivo environment and compatibility of the tensile properties of the thread with those of the tissues approximated during and after surgery. To improve suture success in terms, particularly, of knot performance, coupling of thermal and chemical energies in conjunction with mechanical interlacing have been experimented with.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
14. Small-diameter arterial grafts using biotextiles

by B.S. Gupta

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091592
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Arterial grafts first appeared in the early 1950s, since when they have attracted much attention and undergone significant changes in structure and treatment. Arterial prostheses are now routinely used to correct arterial flow disorders. The success of large-diameter synthetic arteries has not been experienced in with small-caliber vessels. A major reason is the lack of transverse compliance, leading to mismatch in elastic stretch at the anastomoses and to failure. The chapter discusses the factors affecting compliance and methods of measuring and modeling it. Case studies involving prototyping of small diameter grafts and evaluation of their mechanical properties are described. Design principles for small-diameter grafts with desired specifications and performance characteristics, including compliance, are summarized.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
9. Drug delivery systems using biotextiles

by L.-M. Zhu,D.G. Yu

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091541
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Developing novel drug delivery systems (DDSs) from drugloaded fibers is a useful and attractive medical applications of biotextiles. This chapter reviews relevant textile technologies, types of polymers and active pharmaceutical ingredients for preparing drug-loaded fibers. Different types of DDS derived from novel drug-loaded fibers are summarized. Future trends and areas for intensive biotextiles research with reference to DDSs are discussed.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
19. Hemostatic wound dressings

by C.R. Gajjar,M.G. McCord,M.W. King

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091649
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hemorrhage is uncontrolled bleeding from a wound. Various studies indicate that hemorrhage is a major cause of ‘potentially preventable’ deaths in combat as well as civilian trauma. New methods and products for hemorrhage control are therefore a research priority to avoid potentially survivable deaths. A better understanding of the correlation between surface properties and their hemostatic potential (i.e. ability to form a blood clot) would result in an effective hemostatic wound dressing. This chapter describes the blood clotting mechanism and the effect of foreign surfaces on the coagulation cascade. Finally, a review of the various approaches to develop an ideal hemostatic material is presented.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
16. Biotextiles as percutaneous heart valves

by F. Heim,B. Durand,N. ChakfÉ

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091614
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter discusses the potential of textiles used as heart valve leaflet replacement material. The chapter first reviews the anatomy of the aortic valve, before describing the diseases the valve may undergo and the limits of the noninvasive technologies available to replace the faulty valve. It then presents textile valve manufacture, and the performance that can be obtained in vitro in both the short and long term. Early animal in vivo results are presented in the last section.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
20. Anterior cruciate ligament prostheses using biotextiles

by M. Laflamme,J. Lamontagne,R. Guidoin

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091657
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Trends in ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) management have included primary repair, allograft, augmentation and prosthetic devices, autograft and, recently, tissue engineering and xenograft, but the primary goals remain restoring knee function, stability and normal kinematics to allow patients to return to a preinjury level of activity as early as possible. Autografts, either with hamstring or bone–patellar tendon–bone, remain the treatment of choice in ACL reconstructive surgery, with allograft attracting renewed interest in recent years. The chapter discusses the low popularity of ACL prosthesis and considers alternative solutions from the emerging field of tissue engineering.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
17. Biotextiles as vena cava filters

by H.-I. Yoon,H. Cong,M.W. King

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Implantation of a permanent or retrievable filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is becoming an increasingly popular option for patients at risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This chapter discusses the size and shaping parameters for IVC filters, and considers materials that are suitable. Complications and adverse incidents are also reviewed. The chapter concludes with specifications for an ‘ideal’ IVC filter and a look at a recent new design that has recently completed clinical trials.

Biotextiles as medical implants

Biotextiles as medical implants
18. Biotextiles for atrial septal defect repair

by L.A. Eadie,M.W. King

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-10-31
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN : 0128091630
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An atrial septal defect (ASD) is the third most common form of congenital heart disease and is often only diagnosed in adulthood. The chapter describes different forms of ASD with their symptoms and diagnoses and methods that have historically been used to repair them. Transcatheter ASD repair technology is explained and the construction and functioning of a variety of devices is described, with particular reference to the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of textile components. The chapter concludes with an overview of recent developments.