Alevism as an Ethno-Religious Identity

Alevism as an Ethno-Religious Identity
Contested Boundaries

by Celia Jenkins,Suavi Aydin,Umit Cetin

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2019-10-23
  • Pages : 130
  • ISBN : 1351600990
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Until recently the importance of religion in the modern world has often been underestimated in Western societies, whereas its significance is absolutely crucial in the Middle East. Religion is critical to a sense of belonging for communities and nations, and can be a force for unity or division. This is the case for the Alevis, an ethnic and religious community that constitutes approximately 20% of the Turkish population – its second largest religious group. In the current crisis in the Middle East, the heightened religious tensions between Sunnis, Shias and Alawites raise questions about who the Alevis are and where they stand in this conflict. With an ambiguous relationship to Islam, historically Alevis have been treated as a ‘suspect community’ in Turkey and recently, whilst distinct from Alawites, have sympathised with the Assad regime’s secular orientation. The chapters in this book analyse different aspects of Alevi identity in relation to religion, politics, culture, education and national identity, drawing on specialist research in the field. The approach is interdisciplinary and contributes to wider debates concerning ethnicity, religion, migration and trans/national identity within and across ethno-religious boundaries. The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of the National Identities journal.

Alevis in Europe

Alevis in Europe
Voices of Migration, Culture and Identity

by Tözün Issa

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2016-07-22
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 1317182642
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Alevis are a significant minority in Turkey, and now also in the countries of Western Europe. Over the past century, many of them have migrated from rural enclaves on the Anatolian plateau to the great cities of Istanbul and Ankara, and from there to the countries of the European Union. This book asks who are they? How do they construct their identities – now and in the past; in Turkey and in Europe? A range of scholars, writing from sociological, historical, socio-psychological and political perspectives, present analysis and research that shows the Alevi communities grouping and regrouping, defining and redefining – sometimes as an ethnic minority, sometimes as religious groups, sometimes around a political philosophy - contingently responding to circumstances of the Turkish Republic’s political position and to the immigration policies of Western Europe. Contributors consider Alevi roots and cultural practices in their villages of origin; the changes in identity following the migration to the gecekondu shanty towns surrounding the cities of Turkey; the changes consequent on their second diaspora to Germany, the UK, Sweden and other European countries; and the implications of European citizenship for their identity. This collection offers a new and significant contribution to the study of migration and minorities in the wider European context.

Alevi Identity

Alevi Identity
Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives

by Tord Olsson,Elisabeth Ozdalga,Catharina Raudvere

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2005-09-30
  • Pages : 210
  • ISBN : 1135797242
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the rising momentum for new and reformulated cultural identities, the Turkish Alevi have also emerged on the scene, demanding due recognition. In this process a number of dramatic events have served as important milestones: the clashes between Sunni and Alevi in Kahramanmaras in 1979 and Corum in 1980, the incendiarism in Sivas in 1992, and the riots in Istanbul (Gaziosmanpasa) in 1995. Less evocative, but in the long run more significant, has been the rising interest in Alevi folklore and religious practices. Questions have also arisen as to what this branch of Islamic heterodoxy represents in terms of old and new identities. In this book, these questions are addressed by some of the most prominent scholars in the field.

The Alevis in Turkey and Europe

The Alevis in Turkey and Europe
Identity and Managing Territorial Diversity

by Elise Massicard

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 255
  • ISBN : 0415667968
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book examines the development of identity politics amongst the Alevis in Europe and Turkey, which simultaneously provided the movement access to different resources and challenged its unity of action. While some argue that Aleviness is a religious phenomenon, and others claim it is a cultural or a political trend, this book analyzes the various strategies of claim-making and reconstructions of Aleviness as well as responses to the movement by various Turkish and German actors. Drawing on intensive fieldwork, Elise Massicard suggests that because of activists' many different definitions of Aleviness, the movement is in this sense an "identity movement without an identity."

Kurdish Alevis and the Case of Dersim

Kurdish Alevis and the Case of Dersim
Historical and Contemporary Insights

by Erdal Gezik,Ahmet Kerim Gültekin

  • Publisher : Lexington Books
  • Release : 2019-01-22
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 1498575498
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Kurdish Alevis has only recently attracted the attention of the international world. This volume achieves an understanding of the history and the contemporary situation of the Kurdish Alevis and the particular conditions where it is associated with the Kurdish identity, Alevi religion, and the history of Turkey.

Ethnic Boundaries in Turkish Politics

Ethnic Boundaries in Turkish Politics
The Secular Kurdish Movement and Islam

by Zeki Sarigil

  • Publisher : NYU Press
  • Release : 2018-09-04
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 1479868280
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Kurdish Movement in Turkey’s growing alliance with Islam One of the fault lines of Turkish politics traditionally has been the divide between religious and secular movements. However, as Zeki Sarigil argues, the secular Kurdish movement in Turkey has increasingly become aligned with Islam. As a result, Islam has become part of the movement’s political discourse, strategies and actions. Ethnic Boundaries in Turkish Politics traces the evolving relations between the leftist, secular Kurdish movement and Islam, from an apathetic and/or antagonistic attitude in the 1970s and 1980s to an increasingly Islam-friendly approach in the 1990s to an attitude of accommodation and the rise of Kurdish-Islamic synthesis in the early 2000s. Based on 104 interviews in several provinces in Turkey (primarily Ankara, Diyarbakir, Istanbul, and Tunceli) between 2011 and 2015 as well as ethnographic data, public opinion surveys and statements from the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) and Kurdish leaders, Sarigil shows how the secular Kurdish movement increasingly has been endorsing Islam and Islamic actors. The reasons for this Islamic opening are global, national, and local; Sarigil demonstrates that a group of strategic and ideological factors have encouraged and/or forced Kurdish leaders to redraw symbolic and social boundaries of the movement. Namely, with the end of the Cold War support for Marxist ideas collapsed, creating increasingly more favorable responses towards religion. In addition, the movement’s need to expand its social basis and popularity; electoral politics; and legitimacy struggles against rival political actors were other major factors, which triggered the Kurdish movement’s boundary expansion (i.e. its Islamic opening). The study also shows that the Kurdish boundary making was not without any tension or contestation. The boundary expansion by Kurdish ethnopolitical elites triggered both internal and external boundary contestations. The movement’s embrace of Islam on a more widespread level has major ramifications for politics in Turkey and in the region. Ethnic Boundaries in Turkish Politics has important insight into the PKK, modern Turkish and Islamic societies and highlights the increasing role of Islam in global politics.

Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East

Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East
Collected Papers of the International Symposium “Alevism in Turkey and Comparable Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East in the Past and Present”, Berlin, 14-17 April 1995

by Kehl-Bodrogi,Otter-Beaujean,Barbara Kellner-Heikele

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2018-11-13
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9004378987
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This publication deals with contemporary Islamic sects such as the Alevis, Druzes, Alawis, Ahl-i Haqq, and Shabak, discussing various aspects of their beliefs and rituals, modes of recent religious and social transformations, and their involvement in national and ethnic politics.

Managing Invisibility

Managing Invisibility
Dissimulation and Identity Maintenance among Alevi Bulgarian Turks

by Hande Sözer

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2014-07-25
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 9004279199
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In Managing Invisibility, Hande Sözer examines complicated invisibilities of Alevi Bulgarian Turks as a double-minority which faces structural and societal discrimination in Bulgaria and Turkey. The data for the book was gathered during 18 months of fieldwork in both settings.

Diaspora, Identity and Religion

Diaspora, Identity and Religion
New Directions in Theory and Research

by Carolin Alfonso,Waltraud Kokot,Khachig Tölölyan

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2004-07-31
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 1134390351
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the last decade, concepts of diaspora and locality have gained complex new meanings in political discourse as well as in social and cultural studies. Diaspora, in particular, has acquired new meanings related to notions such as global deterritorialization, transnational migration and cultural hybridity. The authors discuss the key concepts and theory, focus on the meaning of religion both as a factor in forming diasporic social organisations, as well as shaping and maintaining diasporic identities, and the appropriation of space and place in history. It includes up to date research of the Caribbean, Irish, Armenian, African and Greek diasporas.

Writing Religion

Writing Religion
The Making of Turkish Alevi Islam

by Markus Dressler

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2015-04-10
  • Pages : 346
  • ISBN : 0190234091
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the late 1980s, the Alevis, at that time thought to be largely assimilated into the secular Turkish mainstream, began to assert their difference as they never had before. The question of Alevism's origins and its relation to Islam and to Turkish culture became a highly contested issue. According to the dominant understanding, Alevism is part of the Islamic tradition, although located on its margins. It is further assumed that Alevism is intrinsically related to Anatolian and Turkish culture, carrying an ancient Turkish heritage, leading back into pre-Islamic Central Asian Turkish pasts. Dressler argues that this knowledge about the Alevis-their demarcation as "heterodox" but Muslim and their status as carriers of Turkish culture-is in fact of rather recent origins. It was formulated within the complex historical dynamics of the late Ottoman Empire and the first years of the Turkish Republic in the context of Turkish nation-building and its goal of ethno-religious homogeneity.

Citizenship Education in Turkey

Citizenship Education in Turkey
From Militant-Secular to Islamic Nationalism

by Abdulkerim Sen,Hugh Starkey

  • Publisher : Lexington Books
  • Release : 2019-12-16
  • Pages : 146
  • ISBN : 1498594697
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book investigates the evolution of citizenship education curriculum in parallel with the ideological transition of the country in a crucial period in which political power switched from secular-militant to Islamic nationalism. It sheds light on the ways in which a combination of internal and external influences shaped the curriculum which include the power struggle between the two forms of nationalism and the role of the United Nations, the European Union and Council of Europe. In most countries, the national curriculum is modified when there is a change of government. In Turkey, the alignment of the national curriculum to the dominant ideology in power is to be expected. Therefore, the investigation offers more than a descriptive account of the transformation of citizenship education curriculum. Against the backdrop of the ideological transformation of the national education from 1995 to 2012, the book presents a nuanced and critical account of curriculum change in citizenship education.

The Alevis in Turkey

The Alevis in Turkey
The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition

by David Shankland

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2003-12-08
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 1135789614
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is the only volume dedicated to the Alevis available in English and based on sustained fieldwork in Turkey. The Alevis now have an increasingly high profile for those interested in the diverse cultures of contemporary Turkey, and in the role of Islam in the modern world. As a heterodox Islamic group, the Alevis have no established doctrine. This book reveals that as the Alevi move from rural to urban sites, they grow increasingly secular, and their religious life becomes more a guiding moral culture than a religious message to be followed literally. But the study shows that there is nothing inherently secular-proof within Islam, and that belief depends upon a range of contexts.

Kurdish Alevis and the Case of Dersim

Kurdish Alevis and the Case of Dersim
Historical and Contemporary Insights

by Erdal Gezik,Ahmet Kerim Gültekin

  • Publisher : Lexington Books
  • Release : 2019-01-22
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 1498575498
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Kurdish Alevis has only recently attracted the attention of the international world. This volume achieves an understanding of the history and the contemporary situation of the Kurdish Alevis and the particular conditions where it is associated with the Kurdish identity, Alevi religion, and the history of Turkey.

Islamic Political Identity in Turkey

Islamic Political Identity in Turkey
Movements, Agents, and Processes

by M. Hakan Yavuz

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 1144
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Religious Identity of Young Muslim Women in Berlin

The Religious Identity of Young Muslim Women in Berlin
An Ethnographic Study

by Synnøve Bendixsen

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2013-04-17
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 9004251316
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Religious Identity of Young Muslim Women in Berlin offers an in-depth ethnographic account of Muslim youth’s religious identity formation and their everyday life engagement with Islam. It deals with the reconstruction of selfhood and the collective content of identity formation in an urban and transnational setting.

The New Islamic Presence in Western Europe

The New Islamic Presence in Western Europe
A Book

by Tomas Gerholm,Yngve Georg Lithman

  • Publisher : Burns & Oates
  • Release : 1990
  • Pages : 293
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Stems from a conference that took place in June 1986 and organized by the Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnicity (CEIFO) at the University of Stockholm and the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities.

The Kurds and the Politics of Turkey

The Kurds and the Politics of Turkey
Agency, Territory and Religion

by Deniz Çifçi

  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release : 2019-08-08
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 178831638X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Kurds constitute the largest stateless nation in the world. Their position in Turkey attracts attention both within the country and internationally, particularly focusing on the demand for Kurdish independence. Yet since the 1990s, new Kurdish parties have formed within Turkey who have a variety of ideologies and demands that go beyond, and differ in opinion on, the question of independence. Much of the present literature on the topic looks at the Kurds of Turkey as a homogenous group with unified political demands, which over-simplifies their position within the political backdrop of Turkey. This book seeks to provide nuance and depth to the current debate on Kurdish political agency and presence in Turkey. Presently, the Kurds' political demands can be classified into four categories; democratic autonomy, their cultural rights to be granted, federalism (territorial autonomies) and independence (creation of a Kurdish nation-state). In a broad sense, these models can also be ordered into two categories; territorial political models (federalism and independence) and non-territorial political models (democratic autonomy and cultural rights). Considering the diversity within the Kurdish community - intertwinement of tribal, ethnic and national identity - and differences in their language, religion and ideology, there are several contributing factors for the emergence of the current varied political demands of Kurds. By explaining variation among the Kurds' political demands through close analysis of existing at emerging parties, this study challenges a deterministic approach to the Kurds which currently dominates the discourse.

Turkey's Alevi Enigma

Turkey's Alevi Enigma
A Comprehensive Overview

by Paul Joseph White,Joost Jongerden

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 243
  • ISBN : 9789004125384
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume, written by specialists, be they political scientists, historians or anthropologists, is a convenient handbook on the origins and history of Turkey's Alevis - an important group that is largely unknown in the West. It examined their ethnic identity, cultural representation, political life, and relations with the Turkish State, The Turkish Left and the Kurdish National Movement.

Immigrant Associations in Europe

Immigrant Associations in Europe
A Book

by John Rex,Danièle Joly,Czarina Wilpert

  • Publisher : Gower Publishing Company
  • Release : 1987
  • Pages : 247
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Collective and State Violence in Turkey

Collective and State Violence in Turkey
The Construction of a National Identity from Empire to Nation-State

by Stephan Astourian,Raymond Kévorkian

  • Publisher : Berghahn Books
  • Release : 2020-11-01
  • Pages : 750
  • ISBN : 1789204518
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Turkey has gone through significant transformations over the last century—from the Ottoman Empire and Young Turk era to the Republic of today—but throughout it has demonstrated troubling continuities in its encouragement and deployment of mass violence. In particular, the construction of a Muslim-Turkish identity has been achieved in part by designating “internal enemies” at whom public hatred can be directed. This volume provides a wide range of case studies and historiographical reflections on the alarming recurrence of such violence in Turkish history, as atrocities against varied ethnic-religious groups from the nineteenth century to today have propelled the nation’s very sense of itself.