Fluoroelastomers Handbook

Fluoroelastomers Handbook
The Definitive User's Guide

by Jiri George Drobny

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2016-04-27
  • Pages : 584
  • ISBN : 0323396186
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fluoroelastomers Handbook: The Definitive User's Guide, Second Edition is a comprehensive reference on fluoroelastomer chemistry, processing technology, and applications. It is a must-have reference for materials scientists and engineers in the automotive, aerospace, chemical, chemical process, and power generation industries. Covering both physical and mechanical properties of fluoroelastomers, it is useful in addressing daily challenges in the use of these materials, as well as the challenges posed in long-term research and development programs. Since the publication of the previous edition in 2005, many new findings and developments in chemistry, technology, and applications of fluoroelastomers have taken place. This is the only book with updated information on the manufacturing process, cross-linking chemistry and the formulation of compounds, as well as mixing, processing, and curing methods. A fully revised chapter is included on applications and examples of fluoroelastomer compounds. Safety, hygiene, and disposal standards and guidelines have been updated, and a new chapter has been added to discuss new developments and current trends, helping engineers and materials scientists stay ahead of the curve. Presents the only definitive reference work on fluoroelastomer chemistry, processing technology, and applications Helps engineers and materials scientists with the day-to-day challenges of using fluoroelastomers, as well as long-term research and development programs Includes fully updated chapters on the chemistry, manufacture, and processing of fluoroelastomers, as well as information on properties, applications, disposal, and safety issues

Fluoroelastomers Handbook

Fluoroelastomers Handbook
The Definitive User's Guide and Databook

by Albert L. Moore,Jiri George Drobny

  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Release : 2006-01-14
  • Pages : 359
  • ISBN : 9780815515173
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is a must-have reference for materials scientists and engineers in the automotive, aerospace, chemical, chemical process, and power generation industries. Fluoroelastomers are growing as products of choice for critical components such as O-rings, hoses and seals in hostile fluid and temperature conditions.

Fluoroelastomers Handbook

Fluoroelastomers Handbook
The Definitive User's Guide and Databook

by Albert L. Moore

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005*
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Technology of Fluoropolymers, Second Edition

Technology of Fluoropolymers, Second Edition
A Book

by Jiri George Drobny

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2008-09-19
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 9781420063189
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fully revised and updated, this second edition continues to provide industrial chemists, technologists, and engineers with the most accurate, compact, and practical source on fluoropolymers (such as Teflon). Highlighting new industrial, military, medical, and consumer goods applications, this edition adds more detailed information on equipment and processing conditions. It explores breakthroughs in understanding property-structure relationships, new polymerization techniques, and the chemistry underlying novel polymers, such as melt-processable fluoroplastics. It also expands upon critical environmental aspects of fluoropolymers, including heat degradation, health effects, and recycling.

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook
The Definitive User's Guide

by Laurence W. McKeen

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2006-03-16
  • Pages : 395
  • ISBN : 0815517246
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Handbook of Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes: The Definitive User's Guide is both a reference and a tutorial for understanding fluoropolymer coatings. It discusses the basics of fluorocoating formulations, including ingredients and production processes. Also covered are the coating and curing processes, and defects and trouble-shooting solutions when things do not work as expected, testing performance, and sample commercial applications. It addresses important questions frequently posed by end-user design engineers, coaters, and coatings suppliers in their quest for superior product qualities and shorter product and process development time.

PEEK Biomaterials Handbook

PEEK Biomaterials Handbook
A Book

by Steven M. Kurtz

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2019-03-15
  • Pages : 465
  • ISBN : 012812525X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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PEEK biomaterials are currently used in hundreds of thousands of spinal fusion patients around the world every year. Durability, biocompatibility, and excellent resistance to aggressive sterilization procedures make PEEK a polymer of choice, replacing metal in orthopedic implants, from spinal implants and knee replacements to finger joints and dental implants. The new edition of this authoritative work sees the book expand from 17 chapters to 26 chapters to match the expansion in applications in PEEK—from spinal cages to spinal rods and disc replacements; hip and knee joint replacement; dental; trauma; and sports medicine. New PEEK formulations have been developed incorporating hydroxyapatite, additives to combat infection, and surface grafted polymers to improve lubrication. The book also covers additive manufacturing, which has made significant inroads with PEEK in the past 5 years as well by introducing the prospect of patient-specific implants. Like the 1st edition, the updated Handbook brings together experts in many different facets related to PEEK clinical performance as well as in the areas of materials science, tribology, and biology to provide a complete reference for specialists in the field of plastics, biomaterials, medical device design, and surgical applications. Useful for materials scientists and biomedical engineers, both in industry and academia, the book is a one-stop shop for information on PEEK as a biomaterial—including in-depth coverage of materials properties—while also providing cutting-edge information on applications and combinations of the material. Presents a complete reference work covering PEEK, the leading polymer for spinal implants and a range of other biomedical applications Covers a range of new formulations and applications, including in-depth coverage of the additive manufacturing of PEEK Provides a vital source of supporting information for materials selection decisions and regulatory submissions

Concise Handbook of Fluorocarbon Gases

Concise Handbook of Fluorocarbon Gases
Applications in Refrigeration and Other Industries

by Sina Ebnesajjad

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-03-09
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 1119323258
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book describes fluorocarbons gases’ preparation process, properties, applications and their evolution over time. The impact of fluorocarbons on the ozone layer and global and the development to mitigate those effects have been specially emphasized. The first major industrial fluorinated compound was developed in the 1920’s, to replace ammonia and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, at the General Motors Frigidaire Division by Thomas Midgley, Jr. and Albert Leon Henne. They developed a family of fluorocarbons trademarked Freon® for auto air conditioning units revolutionizing the auto industry. Other applications were developed over time including fire extinguishers, propellants, blowing agents, cleaners, anesthesia, artificial blood and others impacting every facet of life. In spite of being in broad global use for nearly a century, fluorocarbon gases have gone through great evolution during the last few decades. In the 1980s it was discovered chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases are harmful to the ozone layer, mainly because of their chlorine content. Chlorine was released in the upper atmosphere when chlorofluorocarbon molecules were broken down by the high energy cosmic radiation. CFCs were progressively banned following the Montreal Protocol of 1987. CFCs were replaced by fluorinated gases containing either less chlorine (hydrofluoro-chlorocarbons, or HCFCs), which are much less damaging (about 90% less) to the ozone layer or with fluorinated gases containing no chlorine, i.e. hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs. HFC have no impact on the ozone layer but impact global warming detrimentally. HFCs are usable without need for changes to the existing refrigeration or air conditioning installations. More recently hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), which have little or no negative impact on global warming, have been developed to replace or reduce the use of HFCs. HFOs are used as single compounds or in blends. Research and development continues to develop and replace the HCFCs and HFCs completely with environmentally friendly products. Concise Handbook of Fluorocarbon Gases presents a reference and text for the commercial fluorocarbon gases which have great many application in a wide range of industries such as refrigeration and air conditioning, as well as consumer products.

Multilayer Flexible Packaging

Multilayer Flexible Packaging
A Book

by John R. Wagner, Jr.

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2016-03-29
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN : 0323477186
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Multilayer Flexible Packaging, Second Edition, provides a thorough introduction to the manufacturing and applications of flexible plastic films, covering materials, hardware and processes, and multilayer film designs and applications. The book gives engineers and technicians a better understanding of the capability and limitations of multilayer flexible films and how to use them to make effective packaging. It includes contributions from world renowned experts and is fully updated to reflect the rapid advances made in the field since 2009, also including an entirely new chapter on the use of bio-based polymers in flexible packaging. The result is a practical, but detailed reference for polymeric flexible packaging professionals, including product developers, process engineers, and technical service representatives. The materials coverage includes detailed sections on polyethylene, polypropylene, and additives. The dies used to produce multilayer films are explored in the hardware section, and the process engineering of film manufacture is explained, with a particular focus on meeting specifications and targets. In addition, a new chapter has been added on regulations for food packaging – including both FDA and EU regulations. Provides a complete introduction to multilayer flexible packaging, assisting plastics practitioners with the development, design, and manufacture of flexible packaging for food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more Presents thorough, well-written, and up-to-date reviews of the current technology by experts in the field, making this an essential reference for any engineer or manager Includes discussion and analysis of the latest rules and regulations governing food packaging

Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications

Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications
A Book

by Bruno Ameduri,Sergey Fomin

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-06-17
  • Pages : 494
  • ISBN : 0128218746
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fluoropolymers are unique materials. Since the middle of the twentieth century fluropolymers have been used in applications where a wide temperature range, a high resistance to aggressive media, excellent tribological characteristics, and specific low adhesion are required. Today, researchers turn to fluoropolymers to solve new challenges and to develop materials with previously unattainable properties. Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications covers recent developments of fluoropolymer applications in energy, optical fibers, blood substitutes, textile coatings, membranes and other areas, written by experts in these fields. This volume in the Progress in Fluorine Science series is ideal for researchers and engineers who want to learn about the technology and applications of these special polymers, as well as industrial manufacturers who are interested in achieving new product characteristics in their respective industries. Written by a global team of fluoropolymer experts Includes use of fluoropolymer membranes for various applications in fuel cells, for gases separation, and more Covers fluoropolymer materials with shape memory, in cardiopulmonary bypass systems, in the production of textile materials, and in other areas

Brydson's Plastics Materials

Brydson's Plastics Materials
A Book

by Marianne Gilbert

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2016-09-27
  • Pages : 892
  • ISBN : 0323370225
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brydson's Plastics Materials, Eighth Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the commercially available plastics materials that bridge the gap between theory and practice. The book enables scientists to understand the commercial implications of their work and provides engineers with essential theory. Since the previous edition, many developments have taken place in plastics materials, such as the growth in the commercial use of sustainable bioplastics, so this book brings the user fully up-to-date with the latest materials, references, units, and figures that have all been thoroughly updated. The book remains the authoritiative resource for engineers, suppliers, researchers, materials scientists, and academics in the field of polymers, including current best practice, processing, and material selection information and health and safety guidance, along with discussions of sustainability and the commercial importance of various plastics and additives, including nanofillers and graphene as property modifiers. With a 50 year history as the principal reference in the field of plastics material, and fully updated by an expert team of polymer scientists and engineers, this book is essential reading for researchers and practitioners in this field. Presents a one-stop-shop for easily accessible information on plastics materials, now updated to include the latest biopolymers, high temperature engineering plastics, thermoplastic elastomers, and more Includes thoroughly revised and reorganised material as contributed by an expert team who make the book relevant to all plastics engineers, materials scientists, and students of polymers Includes the latest guidance on health, safety, and sustainability, including materials safety data sheets, local regulations, and a discussion of recycling issues

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules
A Book

by Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2019-04-15
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 0128115459
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers
A Book

by Laurence W. McKeen

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2020-08-20
  • Pages : 430
  • ISBN : 0128225998
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers examines the effects of radiation on plastics and elastomers. Polymers are required in products or parts for a range of cutting-edge applications that are exposed to radiation, in areas such as space, medicine, and radiation processing. This book focuses on the effects of radiation exposure within that environment, providing in-depth data coverage organized by category of polymer. Aspects such as radiation impact on mechanical and thermal properties, including glass transition and heat deflection temperatures, are described, demonstrating how changes in these properties affect the performance of plastic or elastomer parts. The effect of radiation on electrical properties is also included. Supporting introductory chapters explain the key concepts of radiation, including the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of plastics and elastomers. This is a vital resource for plastics engineers, product designers, and R&D professionals, working on products or parts for radioactive environments, as well as engineers and scientists in the medical, nuclear, and radiation processing industries. The book also supports researchers and scientists in plastics engineering, polymer processing and properties, polymer and coatings chemistry, materials science, and radiation. Brings together highly valuable data on the effect of radiation on the properties of polymers and elastomers Enables the reader to compare properties and to select the best possible materials for specific applications Supported by detailed explanations and analysis, ensuring that the reader understands how to interpret and utilize the data

Plasticizers Derived from Post-consumer PET

Plasticizers Derived from Post-consumer PET
Research Trends and Potential Applications

by Ewa Langer,Krzysztof Bortel,Marta Lenartowicz-Klik,Sylwia Waskiewicz

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2019-11-03
  • Pages : 228
  • ISBN : 0323461999
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plasticizers Derived from Postconsumer PET: Research Trends and Potential Applications presents a roadmap to the successful use of postconsumer PET to obtain plasticizers for later use, a proposal which presents both economic and sustainability advantages. Based on the results of the latest research into the development of chemical recycling techniques of PET waste, this book describes techniques where the plasticizer obtained can be utilized for value addition in PVC and other polymers. In addition, the book provides basic introductory information on the role of plasticizers in the modification of polymers, basic quality requirements, and the latest trends in the synthesis and use of plasticizers in industry, also presenting the available methods of PET recycling, with particular emphasis on chemical recycling, analysis of the PET market, the availability of postconsumer PET, and its value as a raw material for other products. Based on the authors’ research, the book discusses the use of postconsumer PET in the synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric plasticizers. Synthesis conditions are shown in detail, and the influence of the structure of synthesized softeners on their basic quality parameters are assessed and compared with selected commercially available products. In the final sections, the book covers the economic challenges and benefits of this process and its application to newly developed products. Presents a step-by-step introduction to the methods of recycling PET into usable plasticizers Provides a viable, actionable alternative to landfills for postconsumer PET, enabling the recycling of more waste polymer and reducing the carbon footprint of PET Analyzes the economic benefits and challenges of this process Compares the quality of the output to commercially available products

Effect of Temperature and other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers

Effect of Temperature and other Factors on Plastics and Elastomers
A Book

by Laurence W. McKeen

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2008-12-05
  • Pages : 824
  • ISBN : 0815516940
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is an update to the first edition compiled and published in 1990 by William Woishnis. A lot has changed in the field since 1990 and a lot has not changed. There are new plastic materials. There has been a huge turnover in ownership of plastics producing companies. There has been a lot of consolidation, which of course means discontinued products. Thus, this update is much more extensive than the usual "next edition." It has been reorganized from a chemistry point of view. Plastics of similar polymer types are grouped into nine chapters. Each of these chapters includes an introduction with a brief explanation of the chemistry of the polymers used in the plastics. An extensive first chapter has been added as an introduction that summarizes the chemistry of making polymers, the formulation of plastics, testing and test methods, and plastic selection. Most plastic products and parts are expected to be used in environments other than room temperature and standard humidity conditions. Chapters 2-10 are a databank that serves as an evaluation of plastics as they are exposed to varying operating conditions at different temperatures, humidity, and other factors. Over 900 graphs for more than 45 generic families of plastics are contained in these chapters. Chapter 11 contains extensive mechanical and electrical data in tabular form. The tables contain data on several thousand plastics. Similarly, Chapter 12 contains thermal data on several thousand plastics. Data from the first edition have only been removed if those products were discontinued, and many products were. Product names and manufacturers have been updated. • Detailed introductions of plastics properties, testing procedures, and principles of plastics design. • The only "databook" available on the effects of temperature and humidity conditions on plastics and elastomers. • More than 1,000 graphs and tables allow for easy comparison between products. • Covers more than 70 types of plastics, and summarizes the chemistry of each type.

Hydraulic Rubber Dam

Hydraulic Rubber Dam
An Effective Water Management Technology

by Sabu Thomas,Ajay Vasudeo Rane,Abitha VK,Krishnan Kanny,Aastha Dutta

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2018-11-30
  • Pages : 142
  • ISBN : 0128135115
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hydraulic Rubber Dam: An Effective Water Management Technology is the go-to source for information on the materials, manufacture, mechanics and functional benefit of rubber dams in water management. Readers will find a detailed background on water conservation and coverage, how inflatable rubber dam technology contributes to the picture, and information on the proper manufacture and use of rubber dams to increase water storage for release and delivery during drought. In addition, the book presents tactics on the even distribution of water across populations, how to increase water use efficiency, conservation, and how to prevent flooding. In particular, this book details specialist manufacturing techniques, including the development of rubber compounds and fabric, the bonding and anchoring systems which hold the rubber dam to the underlying concrete structure, and inflation and deflation mechanisms for rubber dams. The book provides a holistic lifecycle assessment of rubber dams to give additional insight to readers looking to deploy rubber dam technology. Demonstrates the proper use of rubber dams in water management, especially in flood prevention and water conservation during drought Includes guidance on the materials engineering of rubber and technical fabrics involved in the construction of dams, bonding and anchoring systems, and inflation and deflation mechanisms Presents thorough coverage of modelling and stress analysis, along with lifecycle assessment of inflatable rubber dams

Introduction to Plastics Engineering

Introduction to Plastics Engineering
A Book

by Anshuman Shrivastava

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2018-05-15
  • Pages : 262
  • ISBN : 0323396194
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. This book will be a beneficial guide to materials engineers developing new formulations, processing engineers producing those formulations, and design and product engineers seeking to understand the materials and methods for developing new applications. The book incorporates material properties, engineering, processing, design, applications and sustainable and bio based solutions. Ideal for those just entering the industry, or transitioning between sectors, this is a quick, relevant and informative reference guide to plastics engineering and processing for engineers and plastics practitioners. Provides a single unified reference covering plastics materials, properties, design, processing and applications Offers end-to-end coverage of the industry, from formulation to part design, processing, and the final product Serves as an ideal introductory book for new plastics engineers and students of plastics engineering Provides a convenient reference for more experienced practitioners

Fluoropolymer Additives

Fluoropolymer Additives
A Book

by Sina Ebnesajjad,Richard Morgan

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2019-04-15
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 0128137851
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fluoropolymer Additives, Second Edition provides practical information on this group of additives, along with their applications and proper and safe handling. Chapters cover how commercial additives have been updated, providing a starting point where readers can begin the process of selection of additives for their own applications. Fully updated sections on applications provide the readers with a step-by-step description of the techniques necessary to select and incorporate these additives in various products. This book is the only practical guide available on the selection and use of fluoropolymer additives. It will help readers optimize existing fluoropolymer applications and implement new initiatives. In recent years, the application of fluoropolymer additives has expanded significantly, with even the meaning of ‘fluoropolymer additives’ expanding from the relatively narrow definition of PTFE powder fillers to a wide variety of fluoropolymer elastomers used as processing aids for plastics processing techniques in extrusion, injection molding, and film blowing. In addition, fluropolymer additives are being increasingly used in inks, lubricants, and coatings. Includes essential information and data that enables engineers and materials scientists to realize the full benefits of fluoropolymer additives as processing aids Written by authors Ebnesajjad and Morgan who take a highly practical approach to the subject that is based on real-world experience and case studies Updated to include the latest commercial additives and applications information for practicing engineers

The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers
A Book

by Laurence W. McKeen

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2018-02-22
  • Pages : 468
  • ISBN : 0128145129
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Effect of Sterilization Methods on Plastics and Elastomers, Fourth Edition brings together a wide range of essential data on the sterilization of plastics and elastomers, thus enabling engineers to make optimal material choices and design decisions. The data tables in this book enable engineers and scientists to select the right materials and sterilization method for a given product or application. The book is a unique and essential reference for anybody working with plastic materials that are likely to be exposed to sterilization methods, be it in medical device or packaging development, food packaging or other applications. Presents essential data and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with plastics in applications that require sterile packaging and equipment Updated edition removes obsolete data, updates manufacturers, verifies data accuracy, and adds new plastics materials for comparison Provides essential information and guidance for FDA submissions required for new medical devices

Plastics to Energy

Plastics to Energy
Fuel, Chemicals, and Sustainability Implications

by Sultan Al-Salem

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2018-11-05
  • Pages : 562
  • ISBN : 0128131411
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics to Energy: Fuel, Chemicals, and Sustainability Implications covers important trends in the science and technology of polymer recovery, such as the thermo-chemical treatment of plastics, the impact of environmental degradation on mechanical recycling, incineration and thermal unit design, and new options in biodegradable plastics. The book also introduces product development opportunities from waste materials and discusses the main processes and pathways of the conversion of polymeric materials to energy, fuel and chemicals. A particular focus is placed on industrial case studies and academic reviews, providing a practical emphasis that enables plastics practitioners involved in end-of-life aspects to employ these processes. Final sections examine lifecycle and cost analysis of different plastic waste management processes, exploring the potential of various techniques in modelling, optimization and simulation of waste management options. Introduces new pathways for the end-of-life treatment of plastics and polymers, including conversion to energy, fuel and other chemicals Compares different options to assist materials scientists, engineers and waste management practitioners to choose the most effective and sustainable option Covers the latest trends in the science and technology of polymer energy recovery

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid
A Practical Guide for the Processing, Manufacturing, and Applications of PLA

by Lee Tin Sin,Bee Soo Tueen

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2019-06-15
  • Pages : 422
  • ISBN : 0128144734
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polylactic Acid: A Practical Guide for the Processing, Manufacturing, and Applications of PLA, Second Edition, provides a practical guide for engineers and scientists working in PLA and on the development of emerging new products. The current market situation for PLA and biodegradable polymers is described, along with applications across a range of market sectors. In addition, the mechanical, chemical, thermal, rheology and degradation properties are included. Updates include new chapters covering various processing methods, as well as recycling methods, and additives and processing aids. New applications cover a range of products (including 3D Printing), and an environmental assessment, including regulatory aspects. The book is not only a useful introduction to this topic, but also a practical, readily applicable reference book that will support decision-making in the plastics industry. Presents an essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers considering switching to a sustainable plastic Covers the properties, synthesis and polymerization of PLA, along with processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer Includes critical new chapters on processing, additives, recycling and environmental considerations relating to PLA