Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources

Thanatia: The Destiny of the Earth's Mineral Resources
A Thermodynamic Cradle-to-Cradle Assessment

by Antonio Valero Capilla,Alicia Valero Delgado

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2014-08-18
  • Pages : 672
  • ISBN : 9814602493
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today. This book presents a cradle-to-cradle view of the Earth's abiotic resources through a novel and rigorous approach based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics: heat dissipates and materials deteriorate and disperse. Quality is irreversibly lost. This allows for the assessment of such depletion and can be used to estimate the year where production of the main mineral commodities could reach its zenith. By postulating Thanatia, one acquires a sense of destiny and a concern for a unified global management of the planet's abiotic resource endowment. The book covers the core aspects of geology, geochemistry, mining, metallurgy, economics, the environment, thermodynamics and thermochemistry. It is supported by comprehensive databases related to mineral resources, including detailed compositions of the Earth's layers, thermochemical properties of over 300 substances, historical energy and mineral resource inventories, energy consumption and environmental impacts in the mining and metallurgical sector and world recycling rates of commodities. Contents:The Threads: Minerals, Economy and Thermodynamics:The Depletion of Non-Renewable Abiotic ResourcesEconomic versus Thermodynamic AccountingFrom Thermodynamics to Economics and EcologyPhysical Geonomics: A Cradle-Grave-Cradle Approach for Mineral Depletion AssessmentOver the Rainbow: From Nature to Industry:The Geochemistry of the EarthThe Resources of the EarthAn Introduction to Mining and MetallurgyMetallurgy of Key MineralsDown the Rainbow: From Grave to Cradle:Thermodynamics of Mineral ResourcesThanatia and the Crepuscular Earth ModelThe Exergy of the Earth and Its Mineral ResourcesThe Exergy Replacement Costs of Mineral WealthThe Exergy Evolution of Mineral WealthTying the Rainbows: Towards a Rational Management of Resources:Recycling SolutionsThe Challenge of Resource DepletionThe Principles of Resource EfficiencyEpilogue Readership: Thermodynamicists, geologists, economists, policy makers, and mining, environmental and chemical engineers. Keywords:Exergy;Mineral Resources;Depletion;Hubbert Peak;Gibbs Free Energy;Mineralogical Composition of the Earth;ThermodynamicsReviews: "This is an exhaustive treatment of the subject with numerous tables of the baseline date and discussions going from basic thermodynamics to economics and social sciences. It is an essential read for any scientist who is concerned with resource evaluation and how we can best manage these assets and continue to live on an Earth in which we appreciate the service provided by the resource and thus avoid Thanatia in defence of Gaia." John Ludden Executive Director, British Geological Survey “'Thanatia' presents a refreshing way of analysing the run-down of our mineral inheritance … To serious students of the resource problem the numerous tables in 'Thanatia' are useful because they are thought-provoking as much as for the numerical data. 'Thanatia' is a big book, with a wealth of data and background material on the minerals industry, representing many years of intensive investigation and analysis.” Jane H Hodgkinson & Frank D Stacey CSIRO, Australia Authors of The Earth as a Cradle for Life “The unusual title of the book Thanatia (death in Greek) leads its readers to understand what sustainability really means and to quantify the problem of mineral depletion using both disciplines thermodynamics and economics. ” Ph. Vieillard Director of Research C.N.R.S., Poitiers, France

Gödel, Escher, Bach

Gödel, Escher, Bach
An Eternal Golden Braid

by Douglas R. Hofstadter

  • Publisher : Penguin Group(CA)
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 832
  • ISBN : 9780140289206
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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'What is a self and how can a self come out of inanimate matter?' This is the riddle that drove Douglas Hofstadter to write this extraordinary book. In order to impart his original and personal view on the core mystery of human existence - our intangible sensation of 'I'-ness - Hofstadter defines the playful yet seemingly paradoxical notion of 'strange loop', and explicates this idea using analogies from many disciplines.

Essential Guides for Early Career Teachers: Understanding and Developing Positive Behaviour in Schools

Essential Guides for Early Career Teachers: Understanding and Developing Positive Behaviour in Schools
A Book

by Patrick Garton

  • Publisher : Critical Publishing
  • Release : 2020-11-16
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 191345312X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Behaviour is the number one concern for most early career teachers so this accessible book provides a range of research informed and road-tested strategies to support the development of positive classroom systems and structures. It offers key psychological insights into the factors that lie behind different behaviours, helping you understand and manage your own behaviours as well as those of the children and young people you teach. Chapters cover understanding individuals, the classroom environment and the wider school context, as well as working with parents and carers. Ultimately the book enables you to successfully work with groups of children and young people so that they can learn effectively and make progress. The Essential Guides for Early Career Teachers series provides accessible, carefully researched, quick reads for early career teachers, covering the key topics you will encounter during your training year and first two years of teaching. They complement and are fully in line with the new Early Career Framework and are intended to assist ongoing professional development by bringing together current information and thinking on each area in one convenient place.

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation
Bellingham, Washington, 14-19 July 2002

by Dale E. Chimenti,Donald O. Thompson

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Poetic Inquiry

Poetic Inquiry
Vibrant Voices in the Social Sciences

by Anonim

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2009-01-01
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9087909519
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Poetic Inquiry: Vibrant Voices in the Social Sciences, co-edited by Monica Prendergast, Carl Leggo and Pauline Sameshima, features many of the foremost scholars working worldwide in aesthetic ways through poetry.

The Combinatory Systems Theory

The Combinatory Systems Theory
Understanding, Modeling and Simulating Collective Phenomena

by Piero Mella

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-05-11
  • Pages : 287
  • ISBN : 3319548050
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This study adopts the logic of Systems Thinking and Control Systems, presenting a simple but complete theory called the Theory of Combinatory Systems. This new theory is able to describe, interpret, explain, simulate and control collective phenomena and their observable effects. Despite specific differences among these phenomena – many of which are “one way", non-repeatable or reproducible – they can all be described or explained, and thus understood, using the model, as simple as it is general, of combinatory systems; that is, systems formed by collectivities, or populations of non-connected and unorganized individuals of some species, which appear to be directed by an invisible hand that guides the analogous actions of similar individuals in order to produce an emerging collective phenomenon. Combinatory Systems function due to the presence of micro control systems which, operating at the individual level, lead to uniform micro behavior by individuals in order to eliminate the (gap) with respect to the objective that is represented – or revealed – by the global information (macro behavior or effect). The book also examines Combinatory Automata, which represent a powerful tool for simulating the most relevant combinatory systems. In stochastic combinatory automata, when both probabilities and periods of transition of state are agent/time/state sensitive, the probabilistic micro behaviors are conditioned by the macro behavior of the entire system, which makes the micro-macro feedback more evident. The Combinatory Systems Theory: Understanding, Modeling and Simulating Collective Phenomena is composed of four main chapters. Chapter 1 presents the basic ideas behind the theory, which are analysed in some detail. Chapter 2 describes the heuristic models of several relevant combinatory systems observable in different environments. Chapter 3, while not making particular use of sophisticated mathematical and statistical tools, presents the Theory of Combinatory Automata and builds models for simulating the operative logic of combinatory systems. Chapter 4 tries to answer three questions: are combinatory systems “systems” in the true sense of the term? Why is this theory able to explain so many and so varied a number of phenomena, even though it is based on a very simple modus operandi? Are combinatory systems different than complex systems? The book has been written with no prerequisite required to read and understand it, in particular math, statistics and computer knowledge.

I Am a Strange Loop

I Am a Strange Loop
A Book

by Douglas R. Hofstadter

  • Publisher : Basic Books
  • Release : 2008-07-08
  • Pages : 436
  • ISBN : 9780465030798
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Can thought arise out of matter? Can self, soul, consciousness, “I” arise out of mere matter? If it cannot, then how can you or I be here? I Am a Strange Loop argues that the key to understanding selves and consciousness is the “strange loop”—a special kind of abstract feedback loop inhabiting our brains. The most central and complex symbol in your brain is the one called “I.” The “I” is the nexus in our brain, one of many symbols seeming to have free will and to have gained the paradoxical ability to push particles around, rather than the reverse. How can a mysterious abstraction be real—or is our “I” merely a convenient fiction? Does an “I” exert genuine power over the particles in our brain, or is it helplessly pushed around by the laws of physics? These are the mysteries tackled in I Am a Strange Loop, Douglas Hofstadter's first book-length journey into philosophy since Gödel, Escher, Bach. Compulsively readable and endlessly thought-provoking, this is a moving and profound inquiry into the nature of mind.

Radical Human Ecology

Radical Human Ecology
Intercultural and Indigenous Approaches

by Rose Roberts

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2016-04-08
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN : 1317071913
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Human ecology - the study and practice of relationships between the natural and the social environment - has gained prominence as scholars seek more effectively to engage with pressing global concerns. In the past seventy years most human ecology has skirted the fringes of geography, sociology and biology. This volume pioneers radical new directions. In particular, it explores the power of indigenous and traditional peoples' epistemologies both to critique and to complement insights from modernity and postmodernity. Aimed at an international readership, its contributors show that an inter-cultural and transdisciplinary approach is required. The demands of our era require a scholarship of ontological depth: an approach that can not just debate issues, but also address questions of practice and meaning. Organized into three sections - Head, Heart and Hand - this volume covers the following key research areas: Theories of Human Ecology Indigenous and Wisdom Traditions Eco-spiritual Epistemologies and Ontology Research practice in Human Ecology The researcher-researched relationship Research priorities for a holistic world With the study of human ecology becoming increasingly imperative, this comprehensive volume will be a valuable addition for classroom use.

Metamagical Themas

Metamagical Themas
Questing For The Essence Of Mind And Pattern

by Douglas Hofstadter

  • Publisher : Basic Books
  • Release : 1996-04-05
  • Pages : 880
  • ISBN : 9780465045662
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hofstadter's collection of quirky essays is unified by its primary concern: to examine the way people perceive and think.

Machine Design

Machine Design
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Elementary Linear Algebra

Elementary Linear Algebra
A Book

by Stephen Francis Andrilli,Stephen Andrilli,David Hecker

  • Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Release : 2003-11-14
  • Pages : 644
  • ISBN : 9780120586219
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The transition to upper-level math courses is often difficult because of the shift in emphasis from computation (in calculus) to abstraction and proof (in junior/senior courses). This book provides guidance with the reading and writing of short proofs, and incorporates a gradual increase in abstraction as the chapters progress. This helps students prepare to meet the challenges of future courses such as abstract algebra and elementary analysis. * Clearly explains principles and guides students through the effective transition to higher-level math * Includes a wide variety of applications, technology tips, and exercises, including new true/false exercises in every section * Provides an early introduction to eigenvalues/eigenvectors * Accompanying Instructor's Manual and Student Solutions Manual (ISBN: 0-12-058622-3)

A Profile of Mathematical Logic

A Profile of Mathematical Logic
A Book

by Howard DeLong

  • Publisher : Courier Corporation
  • Release : 2012-09-26
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0486139158
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This introduction to mathematical logic explores philosophical issues and Gödel's Theorem. Its widespread influence extends to the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, whose Pulitzer Prize–winning book was inspired by this work.

Elementary Linear Algebra

Elementary Linear Algebra
A Book

by Stephen Andrilli,David Hecker

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2010-02-04
  • Pages : 768
  • ISBN : 9780080886251
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Elementary Linear Algebra develops and explains in careful detail the computational techniques and fundamental theoretical results central to a first course in linear algebra. This highly acclaimed text focuses on developing the abstract thinking essential for further mathematical study The authors give early, intensive attention to the skills necessary to make students comfortable with mathematical proofs. The text builds a gradual and smooth transition from computational results to general theory of abstract vector spaces. It also provides flexbile coverage of practical applications, exploring a comprehensive range of topics. Ancillary list: * Maple Algorithmic testing- Maple TA- www.maplesoft.com Includes a wide variety of applications, technology tips and exercises, organized in chart format for easy reference More than 310 numbered examples in the text at least one for each new concept or application Exercise sets ordered by increasing difficulty, many with multiple parts for a total of more than 2135 questions Provides an early introduction to eigenvalues/eigenvectors A Student solutions manual, containing fully worked out solutions and instructors manual available

The Future of Post-human Mathematical Logic

The Future of Post-human Mathematical Logic
A Book

by Peter Baofu

  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Pub
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Why should mathematical logic be grounded on the basis of some formal requirements in the way that it has been developed since its classical emergence as a hybrid field of mathematics and logic in the 19th century or earlier? Contrary to conventional wisdom, the foundation of mathematic logic has been grounded on some false (or dogmatic) assumptions which have much impoverished the pursuit of knowledge. This is not to say that mathematical logic has been useless. Quite on the contrary, it has been quite influential in shaping the way that reality is to be understood in numerous fields of knowledgeby learning from the mathematical study of logic and its reverse, the logical study of mathematics. In the final analysis, the future of mathematical logic will depend on how its foundational crisis is to be resolved, and "the contrastive theory of rationality" (in this book) is to precisely show how and why it can be done by taking a contrastive turn, subject to the constraints imposed upon by "existential dialectic principles" at the ontological level (to avoid any reductionistic fallacy) and other ones (like the perspectives of culture, society, nature, and the mind). The contrastive theory of rationality thus shows a better way to ground mathematical logic (beyond both classical and non-classical logics) for the future advancement of knowledge and, if true, will alter the way of how mathematical logic is to be understood, with its enormous implications for the future of knowledge and its "post-human" fate.

Solving for Project Risk Management: Understanding the Critical Role of Uncertainty in Project Management

Solving for Project Risk Management: Understanding the Critical Role of Uncertainty in Project Management
A Book

by Christian Smart

  • Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
  • Release : 2020-11-23
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 1260473848
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Risk is real—but you can manage it with this hard-hitting guide to reducing risk on any project, in any industry All projects, large and small, are subject to various risks. But the failure to manage inherent risk with diligence and know-how can lead to devastating consequences for an organization. In this comprehensive hands-on guide, a renowned expert in the field provides everything organizations need to conduct project risk management the right way. Why do so many projects come in over schedule and over budget? How do projected expenditures and schedules line up with reality? How can you accurately assess risk to mitigate financial disaster? Through a methodical, statistics-based approach, Christian B. Smart reveals: The enduring problem of cost and schedule growth How rigorous project risk management can reduce the impact of uncertainty The systematic tendency to underestimate risk—and how to avoid it Ways to accurately assess confidence levels in project risk management The need for proper risk management at the portfolio level The author lays out common problems and explains how to effectively solve them. And while he employs a wealth of illustrative charts, graphs, and statistics, he presents the material in an accessible style, and peppers the text with powerful personal anecdotes. Ideal for project managers, business analysts, and senior decision makers in both the public and private sectors, Solving for Project Risk Management offers everything you need to ensure your projects run smoothly, on budget, and deliver the expected outcomes.

The Mind's I

The Mind's I
Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul

by Douglas R. Hofstadter,Daniel Clement Dennett

  • Publisher : Basic Books (AZ)
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 501
  • ISBN : 9780465030910
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Essays from some of the 20th century's greatest thinkers explore topics as diverse as artificial intelligence, evolution, science fiction, philosophy, reductionism, and consciousness, presenting a variety of conflicting visions of the self and the soul. Illustrations.

Surfaces and Essences

Surfaces and Essences
Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking

by Douglas Hofstadter,Emmanuel Sander

  • Publisher : Basic Books
  • Release : 2013-04-23
  • Pages : 592
  • ISBN : 0465018475
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Shows how analogy-making pervades human thought at all levels, influencing the choice of words and phrases in speech, providing guidance in unfamiliar situations, and giving rise to great acts of imagination.

The Fabric of Reality

The Fabric of Reality
The Science of Parallel Universes-- and Its Implications

by David Deutsch

  • Publisher : Penguin Group USA
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 390
  • ISBN : 9780140275414
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Outlines the quantum physics theory of multiple parallel universes, and describes how this theory, along with theories of evolution, computation, and knowledge, explain much of reality

The Beginning of Infinity

The Beginning of Infinity
Explanations That Transform the World

by David Deutsch

  • Publisher : Penguin Group USA
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 487
  • ISBN : 9780143121350
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A pioneer in the field of quantum computation explores the nature and progress of knowledge in the universe, arguing that humans are subject to the laws of physics but unlimited by what can be understood, controlled, and achieved.