Polish Orphans of Tengeru

Polish Orphans of Tengeru
The Dramatic Story of Their Long Journey to Canada, 1941-49

by Lynne Taylor

  • Publisher : Dundurn
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN : 1554880041
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In 1949, about 123 Polish Displaced Persons orphans were brought to Canada from East Africa as part of the settlement of the postwar DP crisis. The situation became an international incident when Warsaw protested that the International Refugee Organization was kidnapping these children to use as slave labour on Canadian farms and factories.

Polish Orphans of Tengeru The Dramatic Story of Their Long Journey to Canada 1941-49

Polish Orphans of Tengeru The Dramatic Story of Their Long Journey to Canada 1941-49
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polish Orphans of Tengeru is the story of 123 Polish Catholic Displaced Person (DP) orphans who were brought to Canada from East Africa in 1949 as part of the settlement of the postwar DP crisis. They arrived in East Africa in a mass exodus of Poles out of the gulags of Siberia in 1942 and 1943. As they were being moved from Tanganyika in 1949, through Italy and Germany to Canada, the situation became an international incident. Warsaw protested that Canada and the International Refugee Organisation, with the active collaboration of the American and British governments, were kidnapping the children to use as slave labour on Canadian farms and in Canadian factories, tearing them from their families in Poland. The incident even reached the floor of the General Assembly of the United Nations, and dragged the Italian, British, and American governments before all was said and done.

Stolen Childhood

Stolen Childhood
A Saga of Polish War Children

by Lucjan Krolikowski

  • Publisher : iUniverse
  • Release : 2001-02-01
  • Pages : 348
  • ISBN : 0595168639
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Stolen Childhood is the story of what happened to some 380,000 Polish children who, with their families, were rounded up by Stalin's orders in 1939 and deported into Asiatic Russia. Lucjan Krolikowski, a young seminarian also deported there, shared and witnessed the suffering of his fellow Poles. Freed by an "amnesty," he joined the Polish Army, and when it moved to the Middle East, Lucjan resumed his theology studies, pronounced his vows, and became a chaplain to a Polish military hospital in Egypt. Reassigned to refugee camps in East Africa, Fr. Lucjan and the wandering Polish children met again in 1947 — a meeting that began a long and loving relationship. In 1949 when the Warsaw Communists claimed guardianship of the Polish orphans in Africa and demanded their repatriation, Fr. Lucjan was forced into a world of international intrigue. Called by the Communists "a kidnapper on an international scale," to his orphans, he was the good shepherd who led them to Canada, where he helped his charges overcome the theft of their childhood and become secure adults in a new world. Stolen Childhood is the book of memories he wrote for them, and a cautionary history for people of good will.

Healing Historical Trauma in South Korean Film and Literature

Healing Historical Trauma in South Korean Film and Literature
A Book

by Chungmoo Choi

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2020-12-21
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN : 0429017332
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Through South Korean filmic and literary texts, this book explores affect and ethics in the healing of historical trauma, as alternatives to the measures of transitional justice in want of national unity. Historians and legal practitioners who deal with transitional justice agree that the relationship between historiography and justice seeking is contested: this book reckons with this question of how much truth-telling from a violent past will lead to healing, forgiving, forgetting and finally overcoming resentment. Nuanced interpretations of South Korean filmic and literary texts are featured, including Park Chan-wook’s Oldboy, Bong Joon-ho’s Mother and literary texts of Han Kang and Ch’oe Yun, whilst also engaging the ethical and political philosophy of Levinas, Hannah Arendt, and others. Also offered is new and extensive research into the hitherto hidden history of thousands of North Korean war orphans who were sent to Eastern European countries for care. Grappling with the evils of history, the films and novels examined herein find their ultimate themes in compassion, hospitality, humility and solidarity of the wounded. Healing Historical Trauma in South Korean Film and Literature will appeal to students and scholars of film, comparative literature, cultural studies and Korean studies more broadly.

The Lost Children

The Lost Children
Reconstructing Europe's Families after World War II

by Tara Zahra

  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Release : 2015-03-23
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0674268458
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During the Second World War, an unprecedented number of families were torn apart. As the Nazi empire crumbled, millions roamed the continent in search of their loved ones. The Lost Children tells the story of these families, and of the struggle to determine their fate. We see how the reconstruction of families quickly became synonymous with the survival of European civilization itself. Even as Allied officials and humanitarian organizations proclaimed a new era of individualist and internationalist values, Tara Zahra demonstrates that they defined the “best interests” of children in nationalist terms. Sovereign nations and families were seen as the key to the psychological rehabilitation of traumatized individuals and the peace and stability of Europe. Based on original research in German, French, Czech, Polish, and American archives, The Lost Children is a heartbreaking and mesmerizing story. It brings together the histories of eastern and western Europe, and traces the efforts of everyone—from Jewish Holocaust survivors to German refugees, from Communist officials to American social workers—to rebuild the lives of displaced children. It reveals that many seemingly timeless ideals of the family were actually conceived in the concentration camps, orphanages, and refugee camps of the Second World War, and shows how the process of reconstruction shaped Cold War ideologies and ideas about childhood and national identity. This riveting tale of families destroyed by war reverberates in the lost children of today’s wars and in the compelling issues of international adoption, human rights and humanitarianism, and refugee policies.

Hurrah Revolutionaries

Hurrah Revolutionaries
The Polish Canadian Communist Movement, 1918-1948

by Patryk Polec

  • Publisher : McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
  • Release : 2015-04-01
  • Pages : 301
  • ISBN : 0773582088
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polish Canadians typically identify themselves as stringent anti-Communists, a label solidified by the legacies of the 1980s Solidarity movement, its founder Lech Walesa, and the widespread anti-Communist riots that helped topple the Communist regime in 1989. Hurrah Revolutionaries challenges this common perception by examining the Polish immigrant community in Canada and the development of radical and traditionally "deviant" ideologies during the interwar period until the end of the Second World War. Patryk Polec unveils a versatile, well-funded, and influential Polish pro-Communist movement with a talented leadership that worked tirelessly to persuade traditionally conservative and religious immigrants to adopt an ideology that was anti-nationalist and atheist. He traces the roots of socialist support in Poland, its transplantation to Canada where the movement enjoyed its greatest support, the challenges the movement faced within an ethnic community influenced by Catholicism, and the complications caused by its links to the Communist International. Polec offers a deeper understanding of the ways in which the Communist Party was able to appeal to certain ethnic groups through cultural outreach as well as its complicated and often counter-productive relationship with the Soviet Union. Grounded in recently declassified Polish consular documents and RCMP surveillance reports, Hurrah Revolutionaries is the first full-length study of Polish Communists in Canada, a group that constituted a substantial portion of the country’s socialist left in the twentieth century.

East Central Europe in Exile Volume 1

East Central Europe in Exile Volume 1
Transatlantic Migrations

by Anna Mazurkiewicz

  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Release : 2014-10-16
  • Pages : 380
  • ISBN : 1443868914
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The East Central Europe in Exile series consists of two volumes which contain chapters written by both esteemed and renowned scholars, as well as young, aspiring researchers whose work brings a fresh, innovative approach to the study of migration. Altogether, there are thirty-eight chapters in both volumes focusing on the East Central European émigré experience in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The first volume, Transatlantic Migrations, focuses on the reasons for emigration from the lands of East Central Europe; from the Baltic to the Adriatic, the intercontinental journey, as well as on the initial adaptation and assimilation processes. The second volume is slightly different in scope, for it focuses on the aspect of negotiating new identities acquired in the adopted homeland. The authors contributing to Transatlantic Identities focus on the preservation of the East Central European identity, maintenance of contacts with the “old country”, and activities pursued on behalf of, and for the sake of, the abandoned homeland. Combined, both volumes describe the transnational processes affecting East Central European migrants.

Child Migration and Biopolitics

Child Migration and Biopolitics
Old and New Experiences in Europe

by Beatrice Scutaru,Simone Paoli

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2020-07-28
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 0429756542
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a fresh interdisciplinary analysis into the lives of migrant children and youth over the course of the twentieth century and up to the present day. Adopting biopolitics as a theoretical framework, the authors examine the complex interplay of structures, contexts and relations of power which influence the evolution of child migration across national borders. The volume also investigates children’s experiences, views, priorities and expectations and their roles as active agents in their own migration. Using a great variety of methodologies (archival research, ethnographic observation, interviews) and sources (drawings, documents produced by governments and experts, films and press), the authors provide richly documented case studies which cover a wide geographical area within Europe, both West (Belgium, France, Germany) and East (Romania, Russia, Ukraine), South (Italy, Portugal, Turkey) and North (Sweden), enabling a deep understanding of the diversity of migrant childhoods in the European context.

Trail of Hope

Trail of Hope
The Anders Army, An Odyssey Across Three Continents

by Norman Davies

  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release : 2016-02-25
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 1472816056
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Following the conquest of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939, hundreds of thousands of Polish families were torn from their homes and sent eastwards to the arctic wastes of Siberia. Prisoners of war, refugees, those regarded as 'social criminals' by Stalin's regime, and those rounded up by sheer chance were all sent 'to see the Great White Bear'. However, with Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa just two years later, Russia and the Allied powers found themselves on the same side once more. Turning to those that it had previously deemed 'undesirable', Russia sought to raise a Polish army from the men, women and children that it had imprisoned within its labour camps. In this remarkable work, renowned historian Professor Norman Davies draws from years of meticulous research to recount the compelling story of this unit, the Polish II Corps or 'Anders Army', and their exceptional journey from the Gulag of Siberia through Iran, the Middle East and North Africa to the battlefields of Italy to fight shoulder-to-shoulder with Allied forces. Complete with previously unpublished photographs and first-hand accounts from the men and women who lived through it, this is a unique visual and written record of one of the most fascinating episodes of World War II.

In the Children’s Best Interests

In the Children’s Best Interests
Unaccompanied Children in American-Occupied Germany, 1945-1952

by Lynne Taylor

  • Publisher : University of Toronto Press
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 467
  • ISBN : 1487521944
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Among the hundreds of thousands of displaced persons in Germany at the end of World War II, approximately 40,000 were unaccompanied children. These children, of every age and nationality, were without parents or legal guardians and many were without clear identities. This situation posed serious practical, legal, ethical, and political problems for the agencies responsible for their care. In the Children's Best Interests, by Lynne Taylor, is the first work to delve deeply into the records of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and the International Refugee Organization (IRO) and reveal the heated battles that erupted amongst the various entities (military, governments, and NGOs) responsible for their care and disposition. The bitter debates focused on such issues as whether a child could be adopted, what to do with illegitimate and abandoned children, and who could assume the role of guardian. The inconclusive nationality of these children meant they became pawns in the battle between East and West during the Cold War. Taylor's exploration and insight into the debates around national identity and the privilege of citizenship challenges our understanding of nationality in the postwar period.

The Stowaway

The Stowaway
A Young Man's Extraordinary Adventure to Antarctica

by Laurie Gwen Shapiro

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2018-01-16
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 1476753881
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The spectacular, true story of a scrappy teenager from New York’s Lower East Side who stowed away on the most remarkable feat of science and daring of the Jazz Age, The Stowaway is “a thrilling adventure that captures not only the making of a man but of a nation” (David Grann, bestselling author of Killers of the Flower Moon). It was 1928: a time of illicit booze, of Gatsby and Babe Ruth, of freewheeling fun. The Great War was over and American optimism was higher than the stock market. What better moment to launch an expedition to Antarctica, the planet’s final frontier? Everyone wanted in on the adventure. Rockefellers and Vanderbilts begged to be taken along as mess boys, and newspapers across the globe covered the planning’s every stage. And then, the night before the expedition’s flagship set off, Billy Gawronski—a mischievous, first-generation New York City high schooler, desperate to escape a dreary future in the family upholstery business—jumped into the Hudson River and snuck aboard. Could he get away with it? From the soda shops of New York’s Lower East Side to the dance halls of sultry Francophone Tahiti, all the way to Antarctica’s blinding white and deadly freeze, author Laurie Gwen Shapiro “narrates this period piece with gusto” (Los Angeles Times), taking readers on the “novelistic” (The New Yorker) and unforgettable voyage of a plucky young stowaway who became a Roaring Twenties celebrity, a mascot for an up-by-your bootstraps era.

From Intercountry Adoption to Global Surrogacy

From Intercountry Adoption to Global Surrogacy
A Human Rights History and New Fertility Frontiers

by Karen Smith Rotabi,Nicole F. Bromfield

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2016-12-12
  • Pages : 178
  • ISBN : 1317132181
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Intercountry adoption has undergone a radical decline since 2004 when it reached a peak of approximately 45,000 children adopted globally. Its practice had been linked to conflict, poverty, gender inequality, and claims of human trafficking, ultimately leading to the establishment of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption (HCIA). This international private law along with the Convention on the Rights of the Child affirm the best interests of the child as paramount in making decisions on behalf of children and families with obligations specifically oriented to safeguards in adoption practices. In 2004, as intercountry adoption peaked and then began a dramatic decline, commercial global surrogacy contracts began to take off in India. Global surrogacy gained in popularity owing, in part, to improved assisted reproductive technology methods, the ease with which people can make global surrogacy arrangements, and same-sex couples seeking the option to have their own genetically-related children. Yet regulation remains an issue, so much so that the Hague Conference on Private International Law has undertaken research and assessed the many dilemmas as an expert group considers drafting a new law, with some similarities to the HCIA and a strong emphasis on parentage. This ground-breaking book presents a detailed history and applies policy and human rights issues with an emphasis on the best interests of the child within intercountry adoption and the new conceptions of protection necessary in global surrogacy. To meet this end, voices of surrogate mothers in the US and India ground discourse as authors consider the human rights concerns and policy implications. For both intercountry adoption and global surrogacy, the complexity of the social context anchors the discourse inclusive of the intersections of poverty and privilege. This examination of the inevitable problems is presented at a time in which the pathways to global surrogacy appear to be shifting as the Supreme Court of India weighs in on the future of the industry there while Thailand, Cambodia and other countries have banned the practice all together. There is speculation that countries in Africa and possibly Central America appear poised to pick up the multi-million dollar industry as the demand for healthy infants continues on.

On the Edges of Whiteness

On the Edges of Whiteness
Polish Refugees in British Colonial Africa during and after the Second World War

by Jochen Lingelbach

  • Publisher : Berghahn Books
  • Release : 2020-05-01
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN : 178920447X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From 1942 to 1950, nearly twenty thousand Poles found refuge from the horrors of war-torn Europe in camps within Britain’s African colonies, including Uganda, Tanganyika, Kenya and Northern and Southern Rhodesia. On the Edges of Whiteness tells their improbable story, tracing the manifold, complex relationships that developed among refugees, their British administrators, and their African neighbors. While intervening in key historical debates across academic disciplines, this book also gives an accessible and memorable account of survival and dramatic cultural dislocation against the backdrop of global conflict.

The Polish Deportees of World War II

The Polish Deportees of World War II
Recollections of Removal to the Soviet Union and Dispersal Throughout the World

by Tadeusz Piotrowski

  • Publisher : McFarland
  • Release : 2015-09-17
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 9780786455362
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Among the great tragedies that befell Poland during World War II was the forced deportation of its citizens by the Soviet Union during the first Soviet occupation of that country between 1939 and 1941. This is the story of that brutal Soviet ethnic cleansing campaign told in the words of some of the survivors. It is an unforgettable human drama of excruciating martyrdom in the Gulag. For example, one witness reports: “A young woman who had given birth on the train threw herself and her newborn under the wheels of an approaching train.” Survivors also tell the story of events after the “amnesty.” “Our suffering is simply indescribable. We have spent weeks now sleeping in lice-infested dirty rags in train stations,” wrote the Milewski family. Details are also given on the non-European countries that extended a helping hand to the exiles in their hour of need.

A Franciscan Odyssey: Autobiography of WW II Prisoner, Soldier, Priest and Foster Parent

A Franciscan Odyssey: Autobiography of WW II Prisoner, Soldier, Priest and Foster Parent
A Book

by Fr Lucjan Krolikowski,Łucjan Zbigniew Królikowski,Gosia Brykczynska

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Pub
  • Release : 2012-09-01
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9781479309856
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Incredible true story! Arrested by the NKVD (Soviet Secret Police) along with thousands of Polish citizens, the author, Father ucjan Królikowski, was deported with them in box cars to labor camps. After the War he adopted 150 orphaned children whose parents had died in the labor camps.This English edition is published by William R. Parks - www.wrparks.com The printer is CreateSpace.This book is available from the publisher at quantity discounts to bookstores, libraries, schools, book club discussion groups and Internet book sellers at 40% discount when ordering 10 or more copies - the discount price is $8.97 per copy. Email: WParksPublishing@aol.com "A Franciscan Odyssey" is a new version of the popular memoir in Polish by Franciscan friar, Father Lucjan Krolikowski, of Chicopee, MA. It was translated from Polish to English by Dr. Gosia Brykczynska of London, England. Father Lucjan was encouraged to write his autobiography by 150 WW II orphans whom he adopted as their foster parent and guardian after the war.Father Lucjan was arrested at the outbreak of WW II and deported to Siberia with one and a half million other Poles (officers, statesmen, intellectuals, policemen, clergy and civilians) by the Stalin regime. Eventually freed because of an agreement between the Polish Government in Exile (in London, England) and Stalin, Lucjan became a soldier in the Free Polish Army established to fight the Nazis.After the war, Father Lucjan was ordained a Franciscan priest and became foster parent to the 150 war orphans who lost their parents in the Siberian Gulag.Following an arduous journey, Fr. Lucjan cared for the orphans in Tanzania, East Africa where they recuperated. In spite of attempts by the Polish Communist police to intercept the children, they went with Father Lucjan to Canada.Later, Father took on new responsibilities in nearby Buffalo, NY as producer of the Father Justin Rosary Hour radio program and he continued to provide guidance to his foster chidlren and grandchildren.Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski commented on the writing ability of Rev. Krolikowski, concerning a previous book the author wrote, "Stolen Childhood" which covers some of the same historical events as found in this book. Dr. Brzezinski stated, "A compelling and moving account of World War II: the saga of 380,000 Polish children deported to the Soviet Union during the years 1939-41 ... of great value to historians of World War II, but also of more general interest as a document of love and courage."Topics covered in the book: Life in Poland before WW II, Krotoszyn, Niepokalanow, Novitiate, Saint Maximilian Kolbe, Franciscan Religious Order, Seminary, Scouting, Prison Camps in Siberia, Gulag Archipelago, World War II, Polish Army, Chkalov, Buzuluk, NKVD, Kazakhstan, artillery training, Karkin Batash, Uzbekistan, Jozef Janus, Stalin, Soviet Empire, Red Army, German Army, Gestapo, Polish orphans, communism, Bierut Lebanon, Polish Dragoon Regiment, Contacts with Muslims, General Wladyslaw Sikorski, General Kazimierz Sosnowski, Egypt, Ordination to Priesthood, Jerusalem, Holy Land, Africa, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Tengeru Settlement, East Africa, Stolen Childhood, Missionaries, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tengeru Orhanage, refuge camps, Europe, Italy, Germany, England, Canada, Quebec, Montreal, Paul-Emile Cardinal Leger, Father Justyn Holy Rosary Hour, Father Kornelian Dende, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, Blessed Pope John Paul II, Cardinal Krol, Juliusz Slowacki, Third Secret of Fatima, Blessed Virgin Mary, Black Madonna, Jasna Gora, Our Lady of Czestochowa, Blessed Father Jerzy Popieluszko, Solidarity, Taize, President Jimmy Carter, Chicopee Massachusetts, President Lech Kaczynski.

Anxieties, Fear and Panic in Colonial Settings

Anxieties, Fear and Panic in Colonial Settings
Empires on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown

by Harald Fischer-Tiné

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-01-23
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 3319451367
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book argues that the history of colonial empires has been shaped to a considerable extent by negative emotions such as anxiety, fear and embarrassment as well as by the regular occurrence of panics. The case studies it assembles examine the various ways in which panics and anxieties were generated in imperial situations and how they shook up the dynamics between seemingly all-powerful colonizers and the apparently defenceless colonized. Drawing from examples of the British, Dutch and German colonial experience, the volume sketches out some of the main areas (such as disease, native ‘savagery’ or sexual transgression) that generated panics or created anxieties in colonial settings and analyses the most common varieties of practical, discursive and epistemic strategies adopted by the colonisers to curb the perceived threats.

na

na
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Xulon Press
  • Release : 2022
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1612157335
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For Whom There is No Room

For Whom There is No Room
Scenes from the Refugee World

by Eileen Egan

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1995
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Working with the United Nations and a few conscientious states, a number of private relief organizations have been in the forefront of the effort to comfort and resettle refugees. Among these is Catholic Relief Services, the overseas aid and development agency of the Catholic community in the United States. For Whom There Is No Room is an eyewitness account of this work by Catholic Relief Services. Eileen Egan has been involved in the work of CRS since its inception, both as a participant and as an observer. Here she tells the story of how Polish children, expelled from their homeland in the early days of World War II, were settled and flourished in Mexico. Other Poles trekked by foot through the Soviet Union to Iran where they were rescued by CRS and resettled in Africa and the New World. This book also tells the story of Jews escaping from occupied France into Spain during the same period. Egan directed a CRS office in Barcelona and worked closely with Jewish and Quaker agencies to assist Jews fleeing from the holocaust. After the war CRS ministered to persons displaced from eastern Europe. In our day there have been new tides of homeless people in Africa, the Balkans and the Caribbean. Catholic Relief Services goes on, but so does cruel history and its new generation of refugees.

American by Choice

American by Choice
A Book

by Henryk Szostak

  • Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
  • Release : 2013-07-17
  • Pages : 347
  • ISBN : 1483665895
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book American by Choice is the true story of Henryk Szostak and his familys odyssey from Poland to Siberia, Africa, England and finally, the United States of America. It chronicles how Henryk, as a seven-year-old boy in Africa, learned of the United States of America from an unlikely source: newspaper comics. He was highly moved by the tale of an honest black American shoeshine boy and for fifteen years, Henryk nurtured the dream of becoming a citizen of the land of the free. The book, written in narrative form in Henryks own words, is an autobiography of his familys journey, but also serves as a testament to what humans can endure and overcome by sheer survival instinct, faith and a little luck. The hardships they endured at a guarded labor camp in Siberia, and the difficulties, starvation and suffering they experienced during their passage through Russia and Uzbekistan need to be shared with all future generations. Henryks story begins in the area southeast of Warsaw, where his ancestors had lived for centuries on a small land estate. In addition to Henryks obvious Polish heritage, some Dutch ancestors crept into the family tree during the 1800s. In the late 1920s, Henryks parents moved east to Belarus territory, to an area that was deeded to Poland by the Versailles Treaty after the First World War. His parents bought land in the village of Dabrowa where they worked hard as pioneers creating a small, thriving estate. The future looked promising for the young family of five, but everything came to a sudden halt when Hitlers Nazis invaded Poland in September of 1939 and World War II began. Local Belarusians rebelled against the Poles and ruthlessly massacred many. Russian communists arrived in the spring of 1940 and ended the atrocities, but forcibly deported the Szostaks and multitudes of other Eastern European families to Siberia. Their only crime was that they owned land, were educated, or were leaders in their communities. On the night the Szostaks were driven from their home, the Bolshevik Russians gave the family two hours to gather some basic possessions, but did not tell the family where they were being sent. Henryks mother was pregnant at that time, so when one of the young Bolsheviks, moved by her condition, pointed to a down quilt, she surmised that the journey would be to the north. No money or jewelry was allowed, just the basic necessities and whatever food they were able to gather. The family was then loaded onto a horse-drawn sleigh and taken to a rail depot. Completely traumatized, they were forced onto a cattle train bound for northern Russia. During the slow and tortuous journey north, with no heat in the primitive rail cars and minimal food, many succumbed to sicknesses and died along the way. After weeks of travel, the deportees were delivered to a guarded stockade at Archangelsk, a labor camp where people, as virtual prisoners, endured unthinkable hardships, bitter Siberian winters and mosquito-infested summers. The conditions were horrible. Overcrowding, primitive living facilities, lack of food and rampant diseases all contributed to misery and death in the camp. In this dreadful environment, Henryks sister Mary was born. People just existed, with no hope for the future. In mid-June of 1942, a miraculous thing happened when Hitlers Nazis attacked Russia. Soviet Russia became allied with the west, and the exile Polish government in London negotiated a deal with the Russian dictator Stalin to free the deportees. A major turnaround occurred when the Poles offered to form an army in Uzbekistan, as long as it was under British command. Stalin reluctantly agreed to the plan, and declared an amnesty that allowed the dependants of Polish soldiers to leave the country. Euphoria erupted among the Polish deportees throughout Siberia. Men flocked to Archangelsk from the surrounding areas, as this was one of the major rallying points for t

Pier 21

Pier 21
A History

by Steven Schwinghamer,Jan Raska

  • Publisher : University of Ottawa Press
  • Release : 2020-08-26
  • Pages : 200
  • ISBN : 0776631373
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Between 1928 and 1971, nearly one million immigrants landed in Canada at Pier 21 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. During those years, it was one of the main ocean immigration facilities in Canada, including when it welcomed home nearly 400,000 Canadians after service overseas during the Second World War. In the immediate postwar period, Pier 21 became the busiest ocean port of entry in the country. Today, people across Canada still enjoy connections to Pier 21 through family history and stories of arrival at the site. Since 1998, researchers at the Pier 21 Interpretive Centre and now the Canadian Museum of Immigration have been conducting interviews, reviewing archival materials, gathering written stories, and acquiring photographs, documents, and other objects reflecting the history of Pier 21. This book builds upon the resulting collection. It presents a history of this important Canadian ocean immigration facility during its years of operation and later emergence as a site of public commemoration. Published in English.