The Specter of Munich

The Specter of Munich
Reconsidering the Lessons of Appeasing Hitler

by Jeffrey Record

  • Publisher : Potomac Books, Inc.
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN : 1597970395
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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No historical event has exerted more influence on America’s post–World War II use of military force than the Anglo-French appeasement of Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Informed by the supposed grand lesson of Munich–namely, that capitulating to the demands of aggressive dictatorships invites further aggression and makes inevitable a larger war–American presidents from Harry Truman through George W. Bush have relied on the Munich analogy not only to interpret perceived security threats but also to mobilize public opinion for military action. In The Specter of Munich, noted defense analyst Jeffrey Record takes an unconventional look at a disastrous chapter in Western diplomatic history. After identifying the complex considerations behind the Anglo-French appeasement of Hitler and the reasons for the policy’s failure, Record disputes the stock thesis that unchecked aggression always invites further aggression. He proceeds to identify other lessons of the 1930s more relevant to meeting today’s U.S. foreign policy and security challenges. Among those lessons are the severe penalties that foreign policy miscalculation can incur, the constraints of public opinion in a modern democracy, and the virtue of consistency in threatening and using force. The Specter of Munichconcludes that though today’s global political, military, and economic environment differs considerably from that of the 1930s, the United States is making some of the same strategic mistakes in its war on terrorism that the British and French made in their attempts to protect themselves against Nazi Germany. Not the least of these mistakes is the continued reliance on the specter of Adolf Hitler to interpret today's foreign security threats.

The Spectre of Munich

The Spectre of Munich
Reconsidering the Lessons of Appeasing Hitler

by Jeffrey Record

  • Publisher : Potomac Books, Inc.
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN : 1597974498
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An iconoclastic analysis of appeasement's failure in the 1930s and the misuse of the Munich analogy in contemporary American foreign policy

Killing the Enemy

Killing the Enemy
Assassination Operations During World War II

by Adam Leong Kok Wey

  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release : 2015-09-28
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0857729705
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During World War II, the British formed a secret division, the 'SOE' or Special Operations Executive, in order to support resistance organisations in occupied Europe. It also engaged in 'targeted killing' - the assassination of enemy political and military leaders. The unit is famous for equipping its agents with tools for use behind enemy lines, such as folding motorbikes, miniature submarines and suicide pills disguised as coat buttons. But its activities are now also gaining attention as a forerunner to today's 'extra-legal' killings of wartime enemies in foreign territory, for example through the use of unmanned drones. Adam Leong's work evaluates the effectiveness of political assassination in wartime using four examples: Heydrich's assassination in Prague (Operation Anthropoid); the daring kidnap of Major General Kreipe in Crete by Patrick Leigh Fermor; the failed attempt to assassinate Rommel, known as Operation Flipper; and the American assassination of General Yamamoto.

The Origins of the Second World War: An International Perspective

The Origins of the Second World War: An International Perspective
A Book

by Frank McDonough

  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release : 2011-09-22
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN : 1441107738
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Many major world events have occurred since the last key anniversary of the beginning of the Second World War, and these events have had a dramatic impact on the international stage: 9/11, the Iraq War, climate change and the world economic crisis. This is an opportune moment to bring together a group of major international experts who will offer a series of new interpretations of the key aspects of the origins of the Second World War. Each chapter is based on original archival research and written by scholars who are all leading experts in their fields. This is a truly international collection of articles, with wide breadth and scope, which includes contributions from historians, and also political scientists, gender theorists, and international relations experts. This is an important contribution to scholarly debate on one of the most important events of the 20th century and a subject of major interest to the general reader, historians, students and researchers, policy makers and conflict prevention experts.

Roots of War

Roots of War
Wanting Power, Seeing Threat, Justifying Force

by David G. Winter

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN : 0199355584
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ever since Thucydides pondered reasons for the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, writers, philosophers, and social scientists have tried to identify factors that promote conflict escalation: for example, history (tomorrow's wars are often rooted in yesterday's conflicts), changing balance of power among nations, or domestic political forces. In the end, however, these "causes" are constructed by human beings and involve the memories, emotions, and motives of both the leaders and the led. In July 1914, the long-standing peace of Europe was shattered when the Sarajevo assassinations quickly escalated to World War I. In contrast, at the height of the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis could have easily plunged the world into a thermonuclear world war, but was ultimately peacefully resolved. Why the different outcomes? In Roots of War: Wanting Power, Seeing Threat, Justifying Force, David G. Winter identifies three psychological factors that contributed to the differences in these historical outcomes: the desire for power, exaggerated perception of the opponent's threat, and justification for using military force. Several lines of research establish how these factors lead to escalation and war: comparative archival studies of "war" and "peace" crises, laboratory experiments on threat perception, and surveys of factors leading people to believe that a particular war is "just." The research findings in Roots of War also demonstrate the importance of power in preserving peace through diplomatic interventions, past and present.

Parameters

Parameters
Journal of the US Army War College

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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»Truth« and Fiction

»Truth« and Fiction
Conspiracy Theories in Eastern European Culture and Literature

by Peter Deutschmann,Jens Herlth,Alois Woldan

  • Publisher : transcript Verlag
  • Release : 2020-07-31
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 3839446503
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Several of the most prolific and influential conspiracy theories originated in Eastern Europe. The efficacy of conspiracy narratives can be observed in recent developments in Poland or with regard to the wars waged in Eastern Ukraine and in former Yugoslavia. This volume analyses the history behind this widespread phenomenon as well as its relationship with representations of the present in Eastern European cultures and literatures.

The Postwar Legacy of Appeasement

The Postwar Legacy of Appeasement
British Foreign Policy Since 1945

by R. Gerald Hughes

  • Publisher : A&C Black
  • Release : 2014-01-16
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 1780936451
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Focusing on the Cold War and the post-Cold War eras, R. Gerald Hughes explores the continuing influence of Appeasement on British foreign policy and re-evaluates the relationship between British society and Appeasement, both as historical memory and as a foreign policy process. The Postwar Legacy of Appeasement explores the reaction of British policy makers to the legacies of the era of Appeasement, the memory of Appeasement in public opinion and the media and the use of Appeasement as a motif in political debate regarding threats faced by Britain in the post-war era. Using many previously unpublished archival sources, this book clearly demonstrates that many of the core British beliefs and cultural norms that had underpinned the Chamberlainite Appeasement of the 1930s persisted in the postwar period.

Military Review

Military Review
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Pathologies of Power

The Pathologies of Power
Fear, Honor, Glory, and Hubris in U.S. Foreign Policy

by Christopher J. Fettweis

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2013-09-30
  • Pages : 307
  • ISBN : 1107041104
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discusses how deeply held beliefs guide American foreign policy and identifies the foundations of those beliefs, explaining how they have inspired poor strategic decisions in Washington.

Israel's Holocaust and the Politics of Nationhood

Israel's Holocaust and the Politics of Nationhood
A Book

by Idith Zertal

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2005-07-11
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9781139446624
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The ghost of the Holocaust is ever present in Israel, in the lives and nightmares of the survivors and in the absence of the victims. In this compelling and disturbing analysis, Idith Zertal, a leading member of the new generation of revisionist historians in Israel, considers the ways Israel has used the memory of the Holocaust to define and legitimize its existence and politics. Drawing on a wide range of sources, the author exposes the pivotal role of the Holocaust in Israel's public sphere, in its project of nation building, its politics of power and its perception of the conflict with the Palestinians. She argues that the centrality of the Holocaust has led to a culture of death and victimhood that permeates Israel's society and self-image. For the updated paperback edition of the book, Tony Judt, the world-renowned historian and political commentator, has contributed a foreword in which he writes of Zertal's courage, the originality of her work, and the 'unforgiving honesty with which she looks at the moral condition of her own country'.

Choosing War

Choosing War
Presidential Decisions in the Maine, Lusitania, and Panay Incidents

by Douglas Carl Peifer

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-07-01
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 0190268689
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Throughout US history, presidents have had vastly different reactions to naval incidents. Though some incidents have been resolved diplomatically, others have escalated to outright war. What factors influence the outcome of a naval incident, especially when calls for retribution mingle with recommendations for restraint? Given the rise of long range anti-ship and anti-air missile systems, coupled with tensions in East Asia, the Persian Gulf, and the Black Sea, the question is more relevant than ever for US naval diplomacy. In Choosing War, Douglas Carl Peifer compares the ways in which different presidential administrations have responded when American lives were lost at sea. Peifer specifically examines three cases: the Maine incident (1898), which led to war in the short term; the Lusitania crisis (1915), which set the trajectory for intervention; and the Panay incident (1937), which was settled diplomatically. He then analyzes the ways in which Presidents William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt responded to the incidents, considering the options they had available and the policies they ultimately selected. The case studies illustrate the ways in which leadership, memory, and shifting domestic policy shape presidential decisions, and ultimately provides important insights into the connections between naval incidents, war, and their respective historical contexts. Rich in dramatic narrative and historical perspective, Choosing War offers an essential tool for confronting future naval crises.

Beating Goliath

Beating Goliath
Why Insurgencies Win

by Jeffrey Record

  • Publisher : Potomac Books, Inc.
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN : 1597970905
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An urgently needed analysis of why great powers lose asymmetrical wars

A Companion to Steven Spielberg

A Companion to Steven Spielberg
A Book

by Nigel Morris

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-02-15
  • Pages : 536
  • ISBN : 1118726812
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Companion to Steven Spielberg provides an authoritative collection of essays exploring the achievements and legacy of one of the most influential film directors of the modern era. Offers comprehensive coverage of Spielberg’s directorial output, from early works including Duel, The Sugarland Express, and Jaws, to recent films Explores Spielberg’s contribution to the development of visual effects and computer games, as well as the critical and popular reception of his films Topics include in-depth analyses of Spielberg’s themes, style, and filming techniques; commercial and cultural significance of the Spielberg ‘brand’ and his parallel career as a producer; and collaborative projects with artists and composers Brings together an international team of renowned scholars and emergent voices, balancing multiple perspectives and critical approaches Creates a timely and illuminating resource which acknowledges the ambiguity and complexity of Spielberg’s work, and reflects its increasing importance to film scholarship

Confronting Fascism in Egypt

Confronting Fascism in Egypt
Dictatorship versus Democracy in the 1930s

by Israel Gershoni,James Jankowski

  • Publisher : Stanford University Press
  • Release : 2009-10-21
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 080477255X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Confronting Fascism in Egypt offers a new reading of the political and intellectual culture of Egypt during the interwar era. Though scholarship has commonly emphasized Arab political and military support of Axis powers, this work reveals that the shapers of Egyptian public opinion were largely unreceptive to fascism, openly rejecting totalitarian ideas and practices, Nazi racism, and Italy's and Germany's expansionist and imperialist agendas. The majority (although not all) of Egyptian voices supported liberal democracy against the fascist challenge, and most Egyptians sought to improve and reform, rather than to replace and destroy, the existing constitutional and parliamentary system. The authors place Egyptian public discourse in the broader context of the complex public sphere within which debate unfolded—in Egypt's large and vibrant network of daily newspapers, as well as the weekly or monthly opinion journals—emphasizing the open, diverse, and pluralistic nature of the interwar political and cultural arena. In examining Muslim views of fascism at the moment when classical fascism was at its peak, this enlightening book seriously challenges the recent assumption of an inherent Muslim predisposition toward authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and "Islamo-Fascism."

Making Foreign Policy Decisions

Making Foreign Policy Decisions
Presidential Briefings

by Christopher J. Fettweis

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2017-07-05
  • Pages : 114
  • ISBN : 1351507664
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is often said that voters hold presidents responsible for two things: the economy and foreign policy. Economic performance is generally beyond presidential control, but foreign policy is defined by the president. The White House is justifiably blamed or credited for how it manages relations with the outside world.How, then, can presidents maximize their chances to achieve successful foreign policies? What kinds of considerations should they bear in mind as they make important decisions for their country? Foreign policy begins with the process of making decisions. This briefing book examines foreign policy decision-making, and offers advice to current and future presidents drawn from fields ranging from political science and history, to psychology and economics. It identifies basic guidelines that presidents should consider when making choices. Such guidelines apply to almost any area of human endeavour, and they are certainly central to choices made in and outside of the Oval Office.When the strong make mistakes, the weak often suffer. As the strongest country in the history of the world, the United States has a special responsibility to run a sagacious foreign policy. This briefing book will benefit students, policy makers, and the general public.

The Methods and Skills of History

The Methods and Skills of History
A Practical Guide

by Michael J. Salevouris

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-09-21
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 1118745345
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Widely acclaimed for its accessibility and engaging approach to the subject, the fourth edition of The Methods and Skills of History combines theory and instruction with hands-on practice, making it a comprehensive guide to historical research and writing. Combines theory with hands-on practice in its introduction to historical methods Includes a series of field-tested exercises designed to make the research and writing of history more meaningful and accessible to readers Features expanded coverage of writing history and up-to-date coverage of online research Designed to strengthen students’ critical thinking and communication skills

Major Problems in American Foreign Relations, Volume II: Since 1914

Major Problems in American Foreign Relations, Volume II: Since 1914
A Book

by Dennis Merrill,Thomas Paterson

  • Publisher : Cengage Learning
  • Release : 2009-09-10
  • Pages : 624
  • ISBN : 1133007546
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Designed to encourage critical thinking about history, this reader uses a carefully selected group of primary sources and analytical essays to allow students to test the interpretations of distinguished historians and draw their own conclusions about the history of American foreign policy. This text serves as an effective educational tool for courses on U.S. foreign policy, recent U.S. history, or 20th Century U.S. history. Some of the new literature spotlights cultural relations, and the ways in which culturally constructed attitudes about class, gender, race, and national identity have shaped American's perceptions of the world and subsequently its overseas relationships. In this volume, almost one-half of the essays are new, including selections by Laura McEnaney, Michael L. Krenn, Walter A. Hixson, Robert W. Tucker, Erez Manela, Victoria de Grazia, Thomas F. O'Brien, John Lewis Gaddis, Andrew J. Rotter, Chen Jian, Vladislov Zubok, Michelle Mart, Christina Klein, Randall Woods, Jeremi Suri, Carol Eisenberg, Salim Yaquib, Melvyn P. Leffler, Arne Odd Westad, and George C. Herring. This new edition includes expanded coverage of U.S. policy toward the Third World. New selections explore the U.S. presence in Latin America during the interwar era and the Middle East during the early Cold War and the era of detente. Others examine U.S. relations with Southeast Asia prior to U.S. military escalation in the Vietnam War and the negotiations pursued by the Richard Nixon administration to end that conflict. Recently released documents on Ronald Reagan's presidency and the end of the Cold War have also been added. Finally, the last chapter had been revised to focus on the administration of George W. Bush and its response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, including the on-going wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Out of Ashes

Out of Ashes
A New History of Europe in the Twentieth Century

by Konrad H. Jarausch

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2016-08-29
  • Pages : 888
  • ISBN : 0691173079
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A sweeping history of twentieth-century Europe, Out of Ashes tells the story of an era of unparalleled violence and barbarity yet also of humanity, prosperity, and promise. Konrad Jarausch describes how the European nations emerged from the nineteenth century with high hopes for continued material progress and proud of their imperial command over the globe, only to become embroiled in the bloodshed of World War I, which brought an end to their optimism and gave rise to competing democratic, communist, and fascist ideologies. He shows how the 1920s witnessed renewed hope and a flourishing of modernist art and literature, but how the decade ended in economic collapse and gave rise to a second, more devastating world war and genocide on an unprecedented scale. Jarausch further explores how Western Europe surprisingly recovered due to American help and political integration. Finally, he examines how the Cold War pushed the divided continent to the brink of nuclear annihilation, and how the unforeseen triumph of liberal capitalism came to be threatened by Islamic fundamentalism, global economic crisis, and an uncertain future. A gripping narrative, Out of Ashes explores the paradox of the European encounter with modernity in the twentieth century, shedding new light on why it led to cataclysm, inhumanity, and self-destruction, but also social justice, democracy, and peace.

Survival 49.1

Survival 49.1
Survival 49.1, Spring 2007

by Dana Allin

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2019-08-21
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 100067343X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volume 49 of Survival- The IISS Quarterly publication. (The International Institute for Strategic Studies) First published in Spring 2007. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.