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Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Chapter 9. Bioinformatics for Cancer Genomics

by Katayoon Kasaian,Yvonne Y. Li,Steven J.M. Jones

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0128061065
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled cost-effective sequencing of a single human genome at an unprecedented rate, facilitating scientific endeavours never imagined possible before. These improvements have transformed the field of cancer genomics, allowing the complete molecular characterization of individual cancer genomes. However, the promise of unveiling the complexity of cancer has lent itself to yet another level of complexity, the task of managing and integrating the massive amount of data that is generated as part of such experiments. There is a need to manage and store large sequence datasets such that they can be accessed and shared readily but, more importantly, there is a need for their thorough and efficient analysis. Developments and improvements in computer hardware and processing power have eliminated the data storage and access issues. Additionally, bioinformatic algorithms and software, designed specifically for the analysis of cancer genomic data, are now able comprehensively to profile the mutations in a cancer sample, to provide a probability score for their role as disease drivers and to identify potential actionable targets. Although the functional validation of putative driver mutations will remain a necessity, continued improvements in sequencing technologies and analysis tools promise to provide increasingly reliable computational analysis of cancer genomes.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
A Book

by Robert L. Strausberg

  • Publisher : IOS Press
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 9781586032517
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume explores the genomics of cancer. Contributions explain how advances in biomedical research in the 1990s launched the genomics era - we are no longer satisfied to study a gene or gene product in isolation, but rather we strive to view each gene within the complex circuitry of a cell. In rapid succession, this mindset has invigorated the analysis of all molecular entities, from the genome, to transcripts (transciptome) and proteins (proteome).

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
From Bench to Personalized Medicine

by Graham Dellaire,Jason N Berman,Robert J. Arceci

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0123972744
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer Genomics addresses how recent technological advances in genomics are shaping how we diagnose and treat cancer. Built on the historical context of cancer genetics over the past 30 years, the book provides a snapshot of the current issues and state-of-the-art technologies used in cancer genomics. Subsequent chapters highlight how these approaches have informed our understanding of hereditary cancer syndromes and the diagnosis, treatment and outcome in a variety of adult and pediatric solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. The dramatic increase in cancer genomics research and ever-increasing availability of genomic testing are not without significant ethical issues, which are addressed in the context of the return of research results and the legal considerations underlying the commercialization of genomic discoveries. Finally, the book concludes with "Future Directions", examining the next great challenges to face the field of cancer genomics, namely the contribution of non-coding RNAs to disease pathogenesis and the interaction of the human genome with the environment. Tools such as sidebars, key concept summaries, a glossary, and acronym and abbreviation definitions make this book highly accessible to researchers from several fields associated with cancer genomics. Contributions from thought leaders provide valuable historical perspective to relate the advances in the field to current technologies and literature.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Molecular Classification, Prognosis and Response Prediction

by Ulrich Pfeffer

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-02-12
  • Pages : 588
  • ISBN : 9400758421
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The combination of molecular biology, engineering and bioinformatics has revolutionized our understanding of cancer revealing a tight correlation of the molecular characteristics of the primary tumor in terms of gene expression, structural alterations of the genome, epigenetics and mutations with its propensity to metastasize and to respond to therapy. It is not just one or a few genes, it is the complex alteration of the genome that determines cancer development and progression. Future management of cancer patients will therefore rely on thorough molecular analyses of each single case. Through this book, students, researchers and oncologists will obtain a comprehensive picture of what the first ten years of cancer genomics have revealed. Experts in the field describe, cancer by cancer, the progress made and its implications for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. The deep impact on the clinics and the challenge for future translational research become evident.

Cancer Biology and Treatment

Cancer Biology and Treatment
A Book

by Aysha Divan,Janice A. Royds

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2020-03-27
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 0198813473
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This primer provides an overview of the complex processes underpinning cancer development and progression along with a summary of cancer treatment strategies, emphasising the development of targeted molecular therapies and the opportunities they provide. It takes a contemporary and integrated approach, encompassing debates on genetics, epigenetics, and cancer addictions, and highlighting the remaining challenges and future research directions to advance the field.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Chapter 13. Breast Cancer Genomics

by Moamen Bydoun,Paola Marcato,Graham Dellaire

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0128061103
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Although early diagnosis, outcome prediction and treatment options are the ultimate objectives when assessing breast cancer patients, the methodology behind this clinical assessment varies and has gradually evolved from using standard clinical criteria into incorporating high-throughput genome-wide analysis. Early methods involved evaluating tumor size and spread as well as histological assessment (tumor grade). Later, the expression of hormone/growth receptors (ER, PR, and HER2) was added to the standard stratification of breast cancer patients. More recently, molecular approaches, which are based on the expression of a well-defined set of genes, have subdivided patients into five clinically relevant subtypes which not only predict prognosis and dictate treatment choice but also complement standard assessment. The advent of genome-wide analysis has produced the most robust classification system of breast cancers by coupling specific genetic aberrations (single nucleotide mutations and gene copy number variations) with gene expression profiles. Although these genome-wide approaches offer a promising future for breast cancer prognosis and treatment options, they are still not clinically feasible for standard population-based screening. Nonetheless, these approaches are becoming faster and more reliable in understanding the molecular architecture of breast cancer and are slowly paving the way towards personalized treatments which are tailored to individual patients. In the light of a rapidly evolving field of breast cancer genomics, this chapter highlights key standard and upcoming approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment and discusses the feasibility of genome-oriented personalized treatments.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Chapter 8. Preclinical Animal Models for Cancer Genomics

by Jason N. Berman,Priscilla P.L. Chiu,Graham Dellaire

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0128061057
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Genome-wide association (GWA) studies and tumor-specific epigenome, transcriptome and genome sequencing projects are generating an ever-growing list of susceptibility alleles, as well as putative gain- and loss-of-function gene mutations associated with cancer. These genetic changes ultimately need to be validated to determine their contribution to the initiation, progression and likelihood of treatment response for various cancers. The bottle-neck is no longer obtaining sequence data or completion of the GWA studies, but rather the ability efficiently to validate candidate genes identified by these projects. In vivo studies in animal models are the “gold standard” for validation of these candidate drivers and modifiers of cancer. Furthermore, once a gene product or molecular pathway has been validated as playing an important role in the development or progression of cancer, animal models provide the necessary preclinical data for evaluation of the efficacy and toxicity of new therapeutics targeting that gene or pathway. As such, animal models play an essential role in cancer research by facilitating the translation of genomic discoveries into preclinical studies that precede new targeted therapies for cancer. In this chapter, we will discuss vertebrate and invertebrate animal models as they apply to cancer genomics, as well as key technologies employed. In particular, we will focus on the use of murine and zebrafish human tumor xenografts and transgenic models.

Genomics

Genomics
A Book

by Julian Parkhill,Sarah J. Lindsay,Phil Jones,Lia Chappell,Jonathon Roberts,Nancy Holroyd,Michal Spzak,Francesca (Wellcome Sanger Institute) Gale

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2020-04-15
  • Pages : 200
  • ISBN : 0198848382
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This Oxford Biology Primer will introduce students to the field of genomics and its applications. From the early days of the Human Genome Project, sequencing technology has rapidly developed and is now cheaper and more accessible than ever before. The resulting pervasive nature of these technologies make them more likely to be experienced by people as patients, consumers and citizens. The primer introduces the basic principles of genomics and then uses these to consider human genetics, through examples of some of the rare diseases linked to single genes. The impact of these rare diseases is far-reaching and the knowledge gained through genome sequencing is proving invaluable in their diagnosis. Genome sequencing is revolutionising the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and the primer introduces students to some of the key breakthroughs which have taken place in recent years. These include the identification of specific genes indicating cancer risk, and the sequencing of tumours throughout treatment to identify further mutations and modify treatment accordingly. The primer aims to address a number of the ethical issues which are raised by this rapidly-growing area of biology. Students are challenged to consider some of the decisions they may need to make relating to these technologies in their own lives, and are given opportunities to explore different aspects of these issues in a way which allows discussion to be both informed and meaningful. The study of infectious disease is also feeling the impact of genomics: the primer discusses the concept of pathogen genome sequencing, and illustrates the various ways in which this can be used - for example, enabling us to find different solutions to infections, to track outbreaks of disease to their source, and to identify and possibly ultimately combat antibiotic resistance. Many of the major diseases which impact the global population are caused by parasites, which come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The primer introduces students to the importance of understanding parasite genomes. Parasite genome sequencing makes it possible to develop both new medicines, and new treatments such as gene drive systems to wipe out disease-causing mosquito populations. For many years, our views of classification and evolution have been based on observational techniques going back to Darwin and Linnaeus. Focusing on human evolution, the primer will open students' eyes to the ways in which genome sequencing is being used to reveal evolutionary links that have never before been recognised, and to elucidate the way humans spread out of Africa across the world. Students are not always aware of the role technological developments play in enabling the progress of science. The final chapter delves into how genome sequencing technologies have developed, considering both the speed of change in the technology, its implications for usefulness, availability and cost, and the growing issue of big data and how it can be manipulated. The different technologies described in this chapter are referenced throughout the book.

Cancer Genomics for the Clinician

Cancer Genomics for the Clinician
A Book

by Ramaswamy Govindan, MD,Ashiq Masood, MD

  • Publisher : Springer Publishing Company
  • Release : 2019-01-28
  • Pages : 184
  • ISBN : 082616868X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer Genomics for the Clinician is a practical guide to cancer genomics and its application to cancer diagnosis and care. The book begins with a brief overview of the various types of genetic alterations that are encountered in cancer, followed by accessible and applicable information on next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics; tumor heterogeneity; whole genome, exome, and transcriptome sequencing; epigenomics; and data analysis and interpretation. Each chapter provides essential explanations of concepts, terminology, and methods. Also included are tips for interpreting and analyzing molecular data, as well as a discussion of molecular predictors for targeted therapies covering hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. The final chapter explains the use of FDA-approved genomic-based targeted therapies for breast cancer, lung cancer, sarcomas, gastrointestinal cancers, urologic cancers, head and neck cancer, thyroid cancer, and many more. Assembled in an accessible format specifically designed for the non-expert, this book provides the clinical oncologist, early career practitioner, and trainee with an essential understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of cancer and the clinical aspects that have led to advancements in diagnosis and treatment. With this resource, physicians and trainees will increase their breadth of knowledge and be better equipped to educate patients and families who want to know more about their genetic predispositions to cancer and the targeted therapies that could be considered and prescribed. Key Features: Describes how cancer genomics and next generation sequencing informs cancer screening, risk factors, therapeutic options, and clinical management across cancer types Explains what mutations are, what tests are needed, and how to interpret the results Provides information on FDA-approved targeted therapies that are being used in the clinic Covers different sequencing platforms and technologies and how they perform in research settings Includes access to the fully searchable eBook

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Chapter 3. Cancer Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis

by Ryan D. Morin,Stephen B. Montgomery

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0128061006
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Identifying gene expression changes in cancer provides opportunities to identify biomarkers that can be informative in regard to risk and in the choice of treatment options. In recent years, advances in sequencing have provided not only a quantitative measure of gene expression, but the resolution of diverse species of RNA, alternative transcripts and allele-specific expression. As well, such data have revealed novel sequences such as those from pathogens, mutations resulting in amino acid differences and fusion transcripts resulting from translocations and other structural alterations, each of which can inform the development of novel treatment strategies or potential preventive measures. In this chapter, we will discuss how transcriptome sequencing is conducted and analyzed and provide examples that illustrate its utility in studying cancer samples.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Chapter 22. Soft Tissue Sarcomas

by Amal M EL-Naggar,Gabriel Leprivier,Poul H Sorensen

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0128061197
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a diverse group of uncommon mesenchymally derived malignant tumors and commonly present as an asymptomatic mass almost anywhere in the body. The most important steps in the diagnosis and therefore subsequent management of STSs include adequate tumor biopsies for proper histologic evaluation, including immunohistochemical studies, and detection of disease extension, and radiological imaging. Although STSs are relatively uncommon, they are typically high grade and, if diagnosed at an advanced stage, survival rates for such patients are poor. Although important insights into STS pathogenesis and new molecular diagnostic tools have emerged, prognosis for sarcoma patients with metastatic disease has failed to improve. Identifying those factors that contribute to STS metastasis that could be targeted therapeutically would have a tremendous impact on survival in these diseases. Here we summarize characteristics of some of the more common STS subtypes, as well as known molecular alterations and their roles in sarcomatogenesis.

Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
Chapter 16. Thyroid Cancer

by Angela Greco,Claudia Miranda,Maria Grazia Borrello,Marco A. Pierotti

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 0128061138
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thyroid cancer represents the most common endocrine malignancy and its incidence is increasing. The majority of thyroid tumours (90–95%) originate from the follicular epithelial cells; it includes several histotypes and related variants characterized by different biological and clinical behavior, such as differentiated papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC), and poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma (PDTC and ATC). Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) represents a small fraction of thyroid tumors and originates from the parafollicular C cells. PTCs feature a frequent deregulation of the MAPK pathway, as RET/PTC, TRK, RAS or BRAF oncogenes have been found in about 70% of cases. FTCs are associated with RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARγ oncogenic chromosome rearrangements. PDTCs and ATCs display some alterations occurring in differentiated tumors, as well as other alterations specific of late tumor stages. MTC carry RET or RAS mutations. Here we summarize the molecular alterations detected in each thyroid tumor type, their role in the process of thyroid carcinogenesis, as well as how high-throughput gene expression analyses have contributed to the study of this malignancy.

Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics E-Book

Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics E-Book
A Book

by Peter D Turnpenny,Sian Ellard,Ruth Cleaver, Mbchb BSC MRCP

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-02
  • Pages : 436
  • ISBN : 0702079677
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Long recognized as a leading textbook in this fast-moving field, Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics and Genomics offers current, complete information with a strong basis in practical clinical genetics and genomics for medical school and beyond. The 16th Edition of this award-winning text has been thoroughly updated throughout and includes case-based and multiple-choice questions, end-of-chapter summaries, an extensive glossary, and convenient online access, making it an ideal choice for all medical undergraduates as well as postgraduates seeking to improve their understanding and knowledge. Includes new case-based studies with questions and answers throughout, in addition to multiple-choice self-assessment questions for study and review. Covers key topics such as pharmacogenetics, personalized medicine, prenatal testing, reproductive genetics, and ethical and legal issues in medical genetics. Divides the text into three easy-to-use sections: The Scientific Basis of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine and Genomic Medicine, and Clinical Genetics, Counseling and Ethics. Features full-color illustrations and other images that help readers visualize the appearance of genetic disorders and assist with the understanding of complex genetic structures. Contains learning features such as summary boxes, an extensive glossary of terms, online hyperlinks to important genetics websites and clinical databases, and more. Presents the extensive knowledge and experience of distinguished editors Peter D. Turnpenny and Sian Ellard, as well as new editor Ruth Cleaver.

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2007

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2007
Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session

by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 51
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer Genomics

Cancer Genomics
A Book

by Robert L. Strausberg

  • Publisher : IOS Press
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 9781586032517
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume explores the genomics of cancer. Contributions explain how advances in biomedical research in the 1990s launched the genomics era - we are no longer satisfied to study a gene or gene product in isolation, but rather we strive to view each gene within the complex circuitry of a cell. In rapid succession, this mindset has invigorated the analysis of all molecular entities, from the genome, to transcripts (transciptome) and proteins (proteome).

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics
Methods and Protocols

by Paul B. Fisher

  • Publisher : Humana Press
  • Release : 2007-09-27
  • Pages : 358
  • ISBN : 9781588295040
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer Genomics and Proteomics provides a compendium of techniques and applications in gene identification and function. The approaches described in detail are state-of-the art and can be tailored to individual ongoing or planned research projects. This volume is a valuable laboratory resource for designing experiments to identify and analyze genes that are relevant to complex biological phenomena.

Illuminating Colorectal Cancer Genomics by Next-Generation Sequencing

Illuminating Colorectal Cancer Genomics by Next-Generation Sequencing
A Big Chapter in the Tale

by Khalid El Bairi

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-09-28
  • Pages : 185
  • ISBN : 3030538214
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book reviews the potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in research on and management of colorectal cancer (CRC), a leading cause of death worldwide and one of the most biologically and clinically heterogeneous cancers. It critically discusses findings from recent large-scale studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses and offers an introduction to the management of CRC in the era of precision medicine. In CRC, dozens of driver and passenger mutations are associated with the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. Consequently, the book discusses recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of CRC as a biomarker, the advent of NGS technologies in modern genomics, and the impact of NGS technology on the management of CRC. Furthermore, it highlights the potential of NGS in the context of liquid biopsy and single-cell sequencing in CRC, as well as its role in shedding light on the link between gut microbiota, immune-checkpoint blockade and CRC. The book concludes with a chapter on the limitations and cost-effectiveness of NGS in CRC. Given its scope, the book will appeal to all those interested in learning about the potential of NGS in advancing CRC research and patient care.

Computational Approaches for Cancer Genomics

Computational Approaches for Cancer Genomics
Identifying Somatic Intergenic Mutations of Relevance in Cancer

by Vasilisa A. Rudneva

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9783330516441
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cancer Research

Cancer Research
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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