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Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications

Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications
A Book

by Shinji Yamashita,Yahachi Saito,Jong Hyun Choi

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0857098624
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene make them potentially suitable for a variety of photonic applications. Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications explores the properties of these exciting materials and their use across a variety of applications. Part one introduces the fundamental optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene before exploring how carbon nanotubes and graphene are synthesised. A further chapter focusses on nonlinearity enhancement and novel preparation approaches for carbon nanotube and graphene photonic devices. Chapters in part two discuss carbon nanotubes and graphene for laser applications and highlight optical gain and lasing in carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotube and graphene-based fiber lasers, carbon-nanotube-based bulk solid-state lasers, electromagnetic nonlinearities in graphene, and carbon nanotube-based nonlinear photonic devices. Finally, part three focusses on carbon-based optoelectronics and includes chapters on carbon nanotube solar cells, a carbon nanotube-based optical platform for biomolecular detection, hybrid carbon nanotube-liquid crystal nanophotonic devices, and quantum light sources based on individual carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications is a technical resource for materials scientists, electrical engineers working in the photonics and optoelectronics industry and academics and researchers interested in the field. Covers the properties and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications Considers the uses of carbon nanotubes and graphene for laser applications Explores numerous carbon-based light emitters and detectors

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
3. Carbon nanotube and graphene photonic devices: nonlinearity enhancement and novel preparation approaches

by Y.-W. Song

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088206
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With their nano-scaled dimensions and extremely elevated optical nonlinearity, carbon nanostructures including single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene have played a critical role in generating ultrafast optical pulses. The pulsation relies on passive mode-locking of the nanostructures, and has been enhanced by employing an evanescent field interaction scheme that guarantees the all-fiber high-power operation. Preparation schemes for pulsating devices have been evolving via the development of elegant processes such as optical deposition, electrospray, and aerosol deposition of carbon nanostructures, ensuring the dramatic increase of process efficiency. In this chapter, details of the technical achievements are addressed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
8. Carbon nanotube-based nonlinear photonic devices

by K.K. Chow

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088257
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Because of their estimated ultra-high third-order nonlinearity, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be regarded as a potential new material for optical nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of CNTs is believed to originate from the inter-band transitions of the π-electrons, causing nonlinear polarization. In this respect, CNTs are similar to other organic optical materials that exhibit extremely high nonlinearity. CNT-based photonics devices offer several key advantages, including ultrafast response, robustness, tunability of wavelength, and compatibility to fibers. This chapter will describe the design and fabrication of CNT-based nonlinear photonic devices. CNTs with suitable diameters – and thus suitable operational wavelengths – are deposited or grown directly on different types of fibers or waveguides to ensure effective CNT–light interaction. Optical nonlinear effects including four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and self-phase modulation (SPM) have been observed experimentally using fabricated CNT-based devices. Corresponding wavelength conversion and optical signal regeneration applications based on various nonlinear effects are discussed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
1. Fundamental optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene

by K. Matsuda

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088184
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fundamental electronic states and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are briefly explained in this chapter. Moreover, the novel optical properties of carbon nanotubes revealed by advanced laser spectroscopy (single-nanotube spectroscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy) are introduced. Due to the enhanced Coulomb interaction, the optically generated electron-hole pair forms a strongly bound ‘exciton’ state, analogous to the hydrogen-like state in the carbon nanotubes. The striking features of excitons in the carbon nanotube, such as singlet-dark states and triplet states, which dominate the optical properties, are described in this chapter.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
6. Carbon-nanotube-based bulk solid-state lasers

by W.B. Cho,F. Rotermund

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088230
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) possessing outstanding linear and nonlinear optical properties are utilized as saturable absorbers (SAs) for passive mode-locking of different bulk solid-state lasers in a wide spectral range between 0.8 and 2μm. To overcome some of the limitations and drawbacks of currently available saturable absorbers, diverse carbon nanotubes and techniques for fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorbers (SWCNT-SAs) are investigated. In this chapter, we discuss various manufacturing procedures and essential characteristics of SWCNT-based passive mode-locking devices, and review recent demonstrations of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers employing different types of SWCNT-SAs.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
4. Optical gain and lasing in carbon nanotubes

by E. Gaufrès,N. Izard,A. Noury,X. Le Roux,L. Vivien

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088214
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter describes how the semiconducting-single-wall nanotube (SWNT) extraction affects their luminescence properties and how such properties can be exploited to fabricate optical sources emitting in near-infrared wavelengths ranging from 1 to 2μm. The main applications of carbon nanotube (CNT) lasers are aimed at optical interconnects and biophotonics. We review recent achievements in obtaining optical gain in thin films doped with CNTs. Techniques for determining optical gain in CNTs are considered with particular focus on the variable strip length (VSL) method and choices to integrate nanotubes in the optical waveguide are discussed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
12. Hybrid carbon nanotube–liquid crystal nanophotonic devices

by T. Wilkinson,H. Butt

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 012808829X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter discusses the background knowledge and provides a literature review of carbon-nanotubes-based metamaterials and other nanophotonic devices we present in the chapter. The materials properties of carbon nanotubes are discussed, along with their possible application in producing metamaterials which display artificial optical properties. A detailed analysis of different types of metamaterials is presented, along with their theory and applications. The utilization of silicon nanopillars for producing photonic crystals and the enhanced reflection effects are discussed. Lastly, the theoretical background and designing of carbon nanotube forests-based Fresnel lenses are presented.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
5. Carbon nanotube and graphene-based fiber lasers

by A. Martinez,S. Yamashita

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088222
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fiber laser technology is attracting a great deal of attention due to its numerous applications in fields as diverse as micromachining, biology and medical sciences or telecommunications and its potential as a substitute for solid-state lasers in industrial and technological applications. Fiber lasers are also exciting from the scientific point of view as they are an excellent platform to further study and understand nonlinear optical phenomena. In this chapter, we review the impact of nano-materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, in advancing fiber laser technology. Both graphene and carbon nanotubes present a highly nonlinear optical response, with a high third order susceptibility and saturable absorption. Here, we discuss how these properties can be used to achieve pulse operation using a technique known as mode-locking and how these two materials compare to other mode-locking mechanisms in terms of their ability to achieve pulse operation, the stability of the mode-locked lasers and their long-term reliability.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
2. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

by E. Einarsson,S. Maruyama

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088192
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter provides an overview of methods used to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene. Synthesis methods of commercially available SWNTs are reviewed first, followed by common in-house methods. Historically important approaches are discussed but the focus is on tailored synthesis by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Primary routes for graphene synthesis are described next, in addition to background regarding the discovery of this two-dimensional material. Exfoliation of graphite into single-layer graphene is described, followed by synthesis routes involving reduction of graphene oxide and epitaxial growth from carbides. The chapter ends with an overview of CVD synthesis of graphene on metal substrates.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
10. Carbon nanotube-based optical platforms for biomolecular detection

by J. Pan,T.-G. Cha,H. Chen,J.H. Choi

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088273
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbon nanotubes are exceptionally photostable fluorophores that emit in the near infrared range. Their novel optical properties make them particularly appealing for applications in biosensing. This chapter focuses on the state-of-the-art development of optical biosensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs); also, it draws attention to the basic photophysics of SWCNTs, optical-sensing mechanisms, and surface functionalization principles. The concerted efforts from the research community in the past decade have enabled the realization of several SWCNT-based optical biosensors that provide real-time, non-invasive analyte detection. We review the performance of these biosensors with regard to their sensitivity, selectivity and response time, and highlight the prospects and challenges of constructing biosensors for more advanced sensing applications.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
7. Electromagnetic nonlinearities in graphene

by S. Mikhailov

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088249
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A theory of the linear and, especially, nonlinear electromagnetic response of graphene is presented. It is shown that, because of the massless energy spectrum of quasi-particles – electrons and holes – graphene has strongly nonlinear electromagnetic properties. Nonlinear electrodynamic phenomena – such as higher harmonic generation, frequency mixing and multiplication, detection – can be observed in graphene at electric fields several orders of magnitude lower than in many other nonlinear materials. A brief overview of experimental results is given. Prospects of future theoretical and experimental studies are discussed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
13. Quantum light sources based on individual carbon nanotubes

by W. Walden-Newman,S. Strauf

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088303
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have recently attracted tremendous interest as a nanomaterial for photonics and quantum photonics devices. Here we shall review recent work with a focus on quantum light properties such as blinking and spectral diffusion, and in particular, methods and techniques to suppress these detrimental effects with the goal of enhancing optical emission. Furthermore, we shall review recent work on the generation and detection of nonclassical light emissions from individual SWCNTs embedded in polymer cavities, and discuss the role of spatial exciton localization along the tube.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
9. Carbon nanotube solar cells

by B.A. Baker,H. Zhang,T.-G. Cha,J.H. Choi

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088265
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbon nanotubes have been explored in light-harvesting and photovoltaic devices because of their unique optoelectronic properties. This chapter provides a brief description of the optoelectronic properties of carbon nanotubes, particularly single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and their implication in various solar cell applications including donor–acceptor solar cells, polymer solar cells, and dye-sensitized solar cells, where carbon nanotubes are utilized as photoactive materials. Carbon-nanotube-based electrodes in photovoltaic devices are also introduced. Carbon-nanotube-based light-harvesting devices are reviewed in terms of fabrication and material processing as well as performance. Finally, advanced emerging methods and the future outlook for carbon-nanotube-based solar cells are discussed.

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications

Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications
11. Carbon nanotube-based photovoltaic and light-emitting diodes

by L.-M. Peng,S. Wang,Z. Zhang

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-08-31
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0128088281
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are excellent optoelectronic materials and have been investigated for various electronic and optoelectronic device applications, such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors and photovoltaic cells. This chapter begins with a general discussion on the various types of CNT diodes. It then focuses on a particular type of CNT diode fabricated by a doping-free process, and its application in photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes. The chapter ends with an outlook for the use of CNT in further integrated nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

Environmental Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials-Based Devices

Environmental Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials-Based Devices
A Book

by Shadpour Mallakpour,Chaudery M. Hussain

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-11-15
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 3527348654
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Environmental Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials-Based Devices Explore this insightful treatment of the function and fabrication of high-performance devices for environmental applications Environmental Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials-Based Devices delivers an overview of state-of-the-art technology in functionalized carbon nanomaterials-based devices for environmental applications. The book provides a powerful foundation, based in materials science, on functionalized carbon nanomaterials in general, and environmental science and device fabrication in particular. The book focuses on the chemical and physical methods of functionalization of carbon nanomaterials and the technology of device fabrication, including lab-on-a-chip approaches and applications such as wastewater purification and gas sensing. It provides readers with a thorough understanding of effective environmental remediation techniques performed with carbon nanomaterials-based devices. In addition to topics such as cross-linked graphene oxide membranes assembled with graphene oxide nanosheets, free-standing graphene oxide-chitin nanocrystal composite membranes for dye adsorption and oil/water separation, and in-situ grown covalent organic framework nanosheets on graphene for membrane-based dye/salt separation, readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to charge-gated ion transport through polyelectrolyte intercalated amine reduced graphene oxide membranes An exploration of hydrotalcite/graphene oxide hybrid nanosheets functionalized nanofiltration membrane for desalination A discussion of the incorporation of attapulgite nanorods into graphene oxide nanofiltration membranes for efficient dyes wastewater treatment An examination of attapulgite nanofibers and graphene oxide composite membranes for high-performance molecular separation Perfect for materials scientists, analytical chemists, and environmental chemists, Environmental Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials-Based Devices will also earn a place in the libraries of sensor developers seeking a one-stop resource for high-performance devices and sensors useful for environmental applications.

Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon Nanotubes
Redefining the World of Electronics

by Prasanta Ghosh,Arti Rushi,Kunal Datta

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2021-10-13
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 1838811842
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbon Nanotubes - Redefining the World of Electronics is a compendium of current, state-of-the-art information about carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their potential applications in electronics. Chapters cover such topics as the incorporation of CNTs into electronic devices, CNT-based rubber composites for electronic components, the role of CNTs in different energy storage and conversion systems, and ternary implementations of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) circuits.

Photodetectors

Photodetectors
Materials, Devices and Applications

by Bahram Nabet

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2015-10-24
  • Pages : 550
  • ISBN : 1782424687
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Photodetectors: Materials, Devices and Applications discusses the devices that convert light to electrical signals, key components in communication, computation, and imaging systems. In recent years, there has been significant improvement in photodetector performance, and this important book reviews some of the key advances in the field. Part one covers materials, detector types, and devices, and includes discussion of silicon photonics, detectors based on reduced dimensional charge systems, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanowires, low-temperature grown gallium arsenide, plasmonic, Si photomultiplier tubes, and organic photodetectors, while part two focuses on important applications of photodetectors, including microwave photonics, communications, high-speed single photon detection, THz detection, resonant cavity enhanced photodetection, photo-capacitors and imaging. Reviews materials, detector types and devices Addresses fabrication techniques, and the advantages and limitations and different types of photodetector Considers a range of application for this important technology Includes discussions of silicon photonics, detectors based on reduced dimensional charge systems, carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanowires, and more

Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Applications

Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Applications
A Book

by Sabu Thomas,El Hadji Mamour Sakho,Nandakumar Kalarikkal,Oluwatobi Samuel Oluwafemi,Jihuai Wu

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-06-12
  • Pages : 760
  • ISBN : 0128133384
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Applications provides a review of recent developments in the field of nanomaterials based solar cells. It begins with a discussion of the fundamentals of nanomaterials for solar calls, including a discussion of lifecycle assessments and characterization techniques. Next, it reviews various types of solar cells, i.e., Thin film, Metal-oxide, Nanowire, Nanorod and Nanoporous materials, and more. Other topics covered include a review of quantum dot sensitized and perovskite and polymer nanocomposites-based solar cells. This book is an ideal resource for those working in this evolving field of nanomaterials and renewable energy. Provides a well-organized approach to the use of nanomaterials for solar cell applications Discusses the synthesis, characterization and applications of traditional and new material Includes coverage of emerging nanomaterials, such as graphene, graphene-derivatives and perovskites

Carbon-Based Nanoelectromagnetics

Carbon-Based Nanoelectromagnetics
A Book

by Antonio Maffucci,Sergey Maksimenko,Yuri Svirko

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-06-08
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 0081023944
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbon-Based Nanoelectromagnetics provides detailed insights into the electromagnetic interactions of carbon-based nanostructured materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Chapters within the book offer a comprehensive overview on this discipline, starting with an introduction to the field-matter interaction, its features, and finally, its applications in microwave, THz and optical frequency ranges. Electromagnetics at the nanoscale level has become a major research area in recent years as the synthesis of a variety of carbon-based nanostructures has progressed dramatically, thus opening the era of nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. To meet the challenges of these new fields, a thorough knowledge is required of the peculiar properties of the electromagnetic field. The novel behavior of the electromagnetic fields interacting with nano-sized elements and nano-structured has motivated the birth of this new research discipline, ‘Nanoelectromagnetics’. Presents a one-stop resource that explores the emerging field of nanoelectromagnetics Focuses on modeling, simulation, analysis, design and characterization, with an emphasis on applications of nanoelectromagnetics Explores the optical properties and applications of a range of carbon-based nanomaterials

Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons

Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons
A Book

by Jean-Charles Arnault,Dominik Eder

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-09-21
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 1119429382
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A crucial overview of the cutting-edge in nanocarbon research and applications In Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons, the distinguished authors have set out to discuss fundamental topics, synthetic approaches, materials challenges, and various applications of this rapidly developing technology. Nanocarbons have recently emerged as a promising material for chemical, energy, environmental, and medical applications because of their unique chemical properties and their rich surface chemistries. This book is the latest entry in the Wiley book series Nanocarbon Chemistry and Interfaces and seeks to comprehensively address many of the newly surfacing areas of controversy and development in the field. This book introduces foundational concepts in nanocarbon technology, hybrids, and applications, while also covering the most recent and cutting-edge developments in this area of study. Synthesis and Applications of Nanocarbons addresses new discoveries in the field, including: · Nanodiamonds · Onion-like carbons · Carbon nanotubes · Fullerenes · Carbon dots · Carbon fibers · Graphene · Aerographite This book provides a transversal view of the various nanocarbon materials and hybrids and helps to share knowledge between the communities of each material and hybrid type.