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Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Location, Identification and Environmental Remediation

by Richard D. Albright

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 305
  • ISBN : 1437734774
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Part I. The Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions Part II. Case Study: The American University Experiment Station (AUES): A Formerly Used Defense Site Appendices Bibliography.

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste
Unexploded Ordinance Remediations

by Robert Noyes

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 1996-12-31
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 081551641X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Some of the more difficult environmental problems facing the Department of Defense (DOD) include (1) chemical weapons destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. It is conceivable that $50 to $100 billion will be spent by DOD for these three programs, offering unusual opportunities for environmental engineering and related firms. Military installations are similar to small cities in terms of population, industrial activities, and some types of contaminated sites. However, some cover an area larger than a small state. DOD has operated industrial facilities on its installations for several decades that have generated, stored, recycled, or disposed of hazardous wastes. Many of these activities have contaminated the nearby soil and groundwater. To study and clean up contaminated sites, DOD established the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was made part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. The Secretary of Defense delegated cleanup responsibility to the Army, Navy, the Air Force, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Cleanup actions are usually accomplished under contract with private firms, which are monitored by the services. Most cleanup actions are funded through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Account. Congress established DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive contaminated sites on DOD installations. The technology to clean up the conventional hazardous wastes on DOD sites are the same as those utilized for industrial sites, and well-documented by this publisher. However, there are three DOD programs that require the utilization of somewhat unusual or different technologies that have not been as well documented. These three programs are: 1. Chemical weapons destruction 2. Remediation of explosives contaminated soils and lagoons 3. Unexploded ordnance detection, clearance, and extraction This book discusses the current and potential treatment technologies involved in these three programs.

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Locating, Identifying Contaminants, and Planning for Environmental Remediation of Land and Sea Military Ranges and Ordnance Dumpsites, Second Edition

by Richard D. Albright

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Death of the Chesapeake

Death of the Chesapeake
A History of the Military's Role in Polluting the Bay

by Richard Albright

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-05-29
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN : 1118756665
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In essence this book deals with an area that contributes significantly to the pollution and degradation of Chesapeake Bay, but has been completely overlooked in many of the efforts to restore the Bay, specifically, the federal military pollution sources. The book also recognizes for the first time, that efforts to restore the Bay have failed because of violation of a fundamental precept of environmental cleanup; that is, to sample the site and see what is there. The Bay itself has never been sampled. Thus this book presents a view of the environmental condition of Chesapeake Bay that is totally unique. It covers a part of the history of the Bay that is not widely known, including how the Bay was formed. It presents a mixture of science, military history, and novel solutions to the Bay's degradation. In so doing, the author examines the military use of the Bay and reveals the extent of munitions dumpsites containing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as chemical warfare material, and how this is effecting the environment. The book concludes with the author's own clean-up plan that, if implemented, would go a long way to restoring health to Bay. The book is supplemented with many photographs and maps.

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Locating, Identifying the contaminants, and Planning for Environmental Cleanup of Land and Sea Military Ranges and Dumpsites

by Richard Albright

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-07-04
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 0815516452
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to World War I, are a worldwide concern, especially at closed military bases that will be redeveloped for housing or civilian use. In Europe and Asia, many munitions sites are former battlegrounds; in Russia and its former territories, sites are used for storage and waste disposal. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50 and 250 billion dollars to cleanup these sites, many of which are in high-population density, residential areas. You might live near one such site right now. This book gives detailed instructions for cleaning up military ordnance sites, and lists of explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products that the soil and groundwater must be tested for. Also included are archival studies; remote sensing techniques; geophysical techniques; safety issues; a chemical weapons, explosives and ordnance primer; known and unknown range lists; and a case study of documents written for cleaning up one of the worst examples yet: Spring Valley in the District of Columbia. It disproves myths, common misconceptions and lies, and explains what, how, and where to look for munitions and their residual contamination. * Author is an award winning and world-renowned expert in weapons of mass destruction. * Meets the needs of explosive and ordnance demolition personnel, as well as environmental scientists, insurance agents, and building contractors. * Includes the primary documents written (by the author) for the cleanup of one of the worst sites in the United States (Spring Valley, District of Columbia). * Subject of the book is of worldwide concern with former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, as well as storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories. * The only text available with clear and complete instructions on proper cleanup of military ordnance sites including a detailed list of explosives, chemical warfare material and breakdown products.

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System
A Book

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2002-01-20
  • Pages : 76
  • ISBN : 0309082692
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chemical warfare materiel (CWM) encompasses diverse items that were used during 60 years of efforts by the United States to develop a capability for conducting chemical warfare. Non-Stockpile CWM (NSCWM) is materiel not included in the current U.S. inventory of chemical munitions and includes buried materiel, recovered materiel, components of binary chemical weapons, former production facilities, and miscellaneous materiel. Because NSCWM is stored or buried at many locations, the Army is developing transportable treatment systems that can be moved from site to site as needed. Originally, the Army planned to develop three transportable treatment systems for nonstockpile chemical materiel: the rapid response system (RRS), the munitions management device (MMD), and the explosive destruction system (EDS). This report supplements an earlier report that evaluated eight alternative technologies for destruction of the liquid waste streams from two of the U.S. Army’s transportable treatment systems for nonstockpile chemical materiel: the RRS and the MMD. This report evaluates the same technologies for the destruction of liquid waste streams produced by the EDS and discusses the regulatory approval issues and obstacles for the combined use of the EDS and the alternative technologies that treat the EDS secondary waste streams. Although it focuses on the destruction of EDS neutralent, it also takes into consideration the ability of posttreatment technologies to process the more dilute water rinses that are used in the EDS following treatment with a reagent.

Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated with Explosive Or Radioactive Wastes

Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated with Explosive Or Radioactive Wastes
A Book

by Edwin Barth

  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release : 1994-12-01
  • Pages : 110
  • ISBN : 9780788114601
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides an overview of technical issues related to remediating soil & ground water contaminated with explosive & radioactive wastes at federal facility sites. Covers a range of sampling approaches & treatment technologies, both those that have been successfully demonstrated & applied & those that have not yet been successfully implemented. Includes operation of the technology; applications at the laboratory, bench, pilot, or field scale; & advantages & limitations of the technology. Over 100 charts, tables & drawings.

Handbook

Handbook
Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated with Explosive Or Radioactive Wastes

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 113
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Energetic Materials and Munitions

Energetic Materials and Munitions
Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact and Demilitarization

by Adam Stewart Cumming,Mark S. Johnson

  • Publisher : Wiley-VCH
  • Release : 2019-04-01
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 3527344837
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides a hands-on approach to demilitarization and environmental aspects of energetic materials and munitions This book gives an overview of the environmental impact of the production, use, and cleanup of energetic materials and munitions. It provides scientists, engineers, environmental specialists, and users with the understanding of environmental issues for munitions and of the ways to improve design and manage potential risks. It covers the various aspects of how chemical properties influence fate, transport, and toxicity of new formulations and prescribes tools for reducing or alleviating environmental risks. In addition, it discusses pyrotechnics and the problem of dealing with munitions underwater. Chapters in Energetic Materials and Munitions: Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact and Demilitarization look at demilitarization in general, as well as in the future. Topics covered include logistics, costs, and management; life cycle analysis and management; and greener munitions. Another introduces readers to the "One Health" approach in the design of sustainable munition compounds. Following that, readers are taught about land assessment for munitions-related contamination in military live-fire training. The book also examines the development and integration of environmental, safety, and occupational health information. -Brings together in one source expertise and in-depth information on the current and future state of how we handle the production, use, and demilitarization of explosives and weaponry -A handy reference for experienced practitioners, as well as for training young professionals in the field -Every chapter contains real-life examples and proposes future directions for the field Energetic Materials and Munitions: Life Cycle Management, Environmental Impact and Demilitarization is an important book for explosives specialists, pyrotechnicians, materials scientists, military authorities, safety officers, health officers, and chemical engineers.

Environmental Security and Public Safety

Environmental Security and Public Safety
Problems and Needs in Conversion Policy and Research After 15 Years of Conversion in Central and Eastern Europe

by Wolfgang Spyra,Michael Katzsch

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-01-08
  • Pages : 207
  • ISBN : 1402056427
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The conversion of former military areas represents one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century, and demands considerable expenditures on the part of society if it's to be properly addressed. This book discusses these issues.

Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unexploded Ordnance

Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unexploded Ordnance
A Book

by Office of the Under Secretary of Defense

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Release : 2016-04-09
  • Pages : 142
  • ISBN : 9781530960262
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Defense Science Board Task Force on Unexploded Ordnance, UXO, met from September 2002 to May 2003. The Task Force's charter contained two principal questions: (1) can advanced technology help reduce the very high cost of UXO cleanup at former and current test and training sites and (2) can advanced technology help minimize the environmental impact of future live-fire munitions training? The Task Force's answer to both these questions is a qualified "yes." Today's UXO cleanup problem is massive in scale with some 10 million acres of land involved. Estimated cleanup costs are uncertain but are clearly tens of billions of dollars. This cost is driven by the digging of holes in which no UXOs are present. The instruments used to detect UXOs (generally located underground) produce many false alarms, -i.e., detections from scrap metal or other foreign or natural objects-, for every detection of a real unexploded munition found. Because each of these false alarms could potentially be a UXO, a careful excavation is required, leading to very high costs. The Task Force believes that modern technology can substantially reduce such false alarms leading to a dramatic reduction in overall cleanup cost. Some substantial changes in cleanup management structure are needed to foster the deployment of such technology. Much of the aforementioned 10 million acres is free of UXOs and this land could be returned to public use relatively quickly. The Task Force recommends an aggressive five-year program to accomplish this release. The Task Force concluded that technology can also help with future environmental problems associated with live-fire testing. The DoD uses over two million rounds of high explosive munitions per year for training purposes. Thus we are continuing to produce UXOs at a substantial rate. The Task Force believes that the future problem can be controlled by a variety of measures. First, we should carefully examine this extensive use of live munitions in training. Simulation techniques and inert rounds can reduce the number of live rounds actually used. Second, environmentally friendly "green" munitions are being developed. These green munitions combined with a significant improvement in fuze reliability, especially for medium caliber rounds, offer our best solution for the longer term. There is an emerging problem of chemical constituents of UXOs leaching into the ground water and possibly contaminating public water supplies. This is a volatile issue, an issue which has alrea9y closed down one major test facility. It deserves careful attention by the DoD . The Task Force recommendations, if implemented, can save tens of billions of dollars in future cleanup costs and can preserve the ability of the DoD to control its own destiny and to conduct live-fire testing into the distant future. The funding impact of the Task Force recommendations is not great considering the dollars to be saved downstream. Current DoD spending on the UXO problem is about $200 million per year. The implementation of the Task Force recommendations would require a rough doubling of this yearly funding.

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel
A Book

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2012-08-21
  • Pages : 139
  • ISBN : 030925793X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As the result of disposal practices from the early to mid-twentieth century, approximately 250 sites in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and 3 territories are known or suspected to have buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). Much of this CWM is likely to occur in the form of small finds that necessitate the continuation of the Army's capability to transport treatment systems to disposal locations for destruction. Of greatest concern for the future are sites in residential areas and large sites on legacy military installations. The Army mission regarding the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel (RCWM) is turning into a program much larger than the existing munition and hazardous substance cleanup programs. The Army asked the Nation Research Council (NRC) to examine this evolving mission in part because this change is significant and becoming even more prominent as the stockpile destruction is nearing completion. One focus in this report is the current and future status of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Project (NSCMP), which now plays a central role in the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel and which reports to the Chemical Materials Agency. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel also reviews current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and surveys organizations involved with remediation of suspected CWM disposal sites to determine current practices and coordination. In this report, potential deficiencies in operational areas based on the review of current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and develop options for targeted research and development efforts to mitigate potential problem areas are identified.

Poisoning the Pacific

Poisoning the Pacific
The US Military's Secret Dumping of Plutonium, Chemical Weapons, and Agent Orange

by Jon Mitchell

  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
  • Release : 2020-10-12
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 1538130343
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For decades, US military operations have been contaminating the Pacific region with toxic substances, including plutonium, dioxin, and VX nerve agent. Hundreds of thousands of service members, their families, and residents have been exposed—but the United States has hidden the damage and refused to help victims. After World War II, the United States granted immunity to Japanese military scientists in exchange for their data on biological weapons tests conducted in China; in the following years, nuclear detonations in the Pacific obliterated entire islands and exposed thousands of Americans, Marshallese, Chamorros, and Japanese fishing crews to radioactive fallout. At the same time, the United States experimented with biological weapons on Okinawa and stockpiled the island with nuclear and chemical munitions, causing numerous accidents. Meanwhile, the CIA orchestrated a campaign to introduce nuclear power to Japan—the folly of which became horrifyingly clear in the 2011 meltdowns in Fukushima Prefecture. Caught in a geopolitical grey zone, US territories have been among the worst affected by military contamination, including Guam, Saipan, and Johnston Island, the final disposal site of apocalyptic volumes of chemical weapons and Agent Orange. Accompanying this damage, US authorities have waged a campaign of cover-ups, lies, and attacks on the media, which the author has experienced firsthand in the form of military surveillance and attempts by the State Department to impede his work. Now, for the first time, this explosive book reveals the horrific extent of contamination in the Pacific and the lengths the Pentagon will go to conceal it.

Environmental Contamination

Environmental Contamination
Many Uncertainties Affect the Progress of the Spring Valley Cleanup

by U S Government Accountability Office (G,U. S. Government Accountability Office (

  • Publisher : BiblioGov
  • Release : 2013-06
  • Pages : 46
  • ISBN : 9781289060299
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During World War I, the U.S. Army operated a large research facility to develop and test chemical weapons and explosives in the area that became the Spring Valley neighborhood in Washington, D.C. Buried ordnance, discovered there in 1993, led to the designation by the Department of Defense (DOD) of 61 acres as a formerly used defense site. Through fiscal year 2001, DOD had spent over $50 million to identify and remove hazards at the site. The government entities involved have identified and removed a large number of hazards, but the number remaining is unknown. The health risks influencing cleanup activities at Spring Valley are the possibility of injury or death from exploding or leaking ordnance and containers of chemical warfare agents and potential long-term health problems from exposure to arsenic-contaminated soil. As of April 2002, the U.S. Army estimated that the remaining cleanup activities would cost $7.1 million and take 5 years. But these estimates are unreliable. GAO summarized this report in congressional testimony (See GAO-02-836T).

Environment Reporter

Environment Reporter
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Defense environmental programs annual report to Congress: Military Munitions Response Program (2002)

Defense environmental programs annual report to Congress: Military Munitions Response Program (2002)
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 1428982566
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unexploded Ordnance

Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unexploded Ordnance
A Book

by Office of Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition Technology and Logistics,Office of the Under Secretary of Defense

  • Publisher : CreateSpace
  • Release : 2015-06-29
  • Pages : 142
  • ISBN : 9781514745069
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Defense Science Board Task Force on Unexploded Ordnance, UXO, met from September 2002 to May 2003. The Task Force's charter contained two principal questions: (1) can advanced technology help reduce the very high cost of UXO cleanup at former and current test and training sites and (2) can advanced technology help minimize the environmental impact of future live-fire munitions training? The Task Force's answer to both these questions is a qualified "yes." Today's UXO cleanup problem is massive in scale with some 10 million acres of land involved. Estimated cleanup costs are uncertain but are clearly tens of billions of dollars. This cost is driven by the digging of holes in which no UXOs are present. The instruments used to detect UXOs (generally located underground) produce many false alarms, -i.e., detections from scrap metal or other foreign or natural objects-, for every detection of a real unexploded munition found. Because each of these false alarms could potentially be a UXO, a careful excavation is required, leading to very high costs. The Task Force believes that modern technology can substantially reduce such false alarms leading to a dramatic reduction in overall cleanup cost. Some substantial changes in cleanup management structure are needed to foster the deployment of such technology. Much of the aforementioned 10 million acres is free of UXOs and this land could be returned to public use relatively quickly. The Task Force recommends an aggressive five-year program to accomplish this release. The Task Force concluded that technology can also help with future environmental problems associated with live-fire testing. The DoD uses over two million rounds of high explosive munitions per year for training purposes. Thus we are continuing to produce UXOs at a substantial rate. The Task Force believes that the future problem can be controlled by a variety of measures. First, we should carefully examine this extensive use of live munitions in training. Simulation techniques and inert rounds can reduce the number of live rounds actually used. Second, environmentally friendly "green" munitions are being developed. These green munitions combined with a significant improvement in fuze reliability, especially for medium caliber rounds, offer our best solution for the longer term. There is an emerging problem of chemical constituents of UXOs leaching into the ground water and possibly contaminating public water supplies. This is a volatile issue, an issue which has alrea9y closed down one major test facility. It deserves careful attention by the DoD . The Task Force recommendations, if implemented, can save tens of billions of dollars in future cleanup costs and can preserve the ability of the DoD to control its own destiny and to conduct live-fire testing into the distant future. The funding impact of the Task Force recommendations is not great considering the dollars to be saved downstream. Current DoD spending on the UXO problem is about $200 million per year. The implementation of the Task Force recommendations would require a rough doubling of this yearly funding.

Environmental Protection

Environmental Protection
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1994
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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DOD Contractors' Safety Manual for Ammunition, Explosives and Related Dangerous Material

DOD Contractors' Safety Manual for Ammunition, Explosives and Related Dangerous Material
A Book

by United States. Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and Logistics)

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1968
  • Pages : 173
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Emperors in the Jungle

Emperors in the Jungle
The Hidden History of the U.S. in Panama

by John Lindsay-Poland

  • Publisher : Duke University Press
  • Release : 2003-01-21
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN : 0822384604
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Emperors in the Jungle is an exposé of key episodes in the military involvement of the United States in Panama. Investigative journalism at its best, this book reveals how U.S. ideas about taming tropical jungles and people, combined with commercial and military objectives, shaped more than a century of intervention and environmental engineering in a small, strategically located nation. Whether uncovering the U.S. Army’s decades-long program of chemical weapons tests in Panama or recounting the invasion in December 1989 which was the U.S. military’s twentieth intervention in Panama since 1856, John Lindsay-Poland vividly portrays the extent and costs of U.S. involvement. Analyzing new evidence gathered through interviews, archival research, and Freedom of Information Act requests, Lindsay-Poland discloses the hidden history of U.S.–Panama relations, including the human and environmental toll of the massive canal building project from 1904 to 1914. In stunning detail he describes secret chemical weapons tests—of toxins including nerve agent and Agent Orange—as well as plans developed in the 1960s to use nuclear blasts to create a second canal in Panama. He chronicles sustained efforts by Panamanians and international environmental groups to hold the United States responsible for the disposal of the tens of thousands of explosives it left undetonated on the land it turned over to Panama in 1999. In the context of a relationship increasingly driven by the U.S. antidrug campaigns, Lindsay-Poland reports on the myriad issues that surrounded Panama’s takeover of the canal in accordance with the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty, and he assesses the future prospects for the Panamanian people, land, and canal area. Bringing to light historical legacies unknown to most U.S. citizens or even to many Panamanians, Emperors in the Jungle is a major contribution toward a new, more open relationship between Panama and the United States.