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The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
A Book

by Sjaak Van Loo,Jaap Koppejan

  • Publisher : Earthscan
  • Release : 2012-05-16
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1849773041
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems.Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.

NO Emission During Co-firing Coal and Biomass in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

NO Emission During Co-firing Coal and Biomass in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Highlights: Burning biomass alone has a higher NO emission than coal. Nitrogen conversion is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission has been observed. Oxygen staging combustion succeeds in controlling the NO emission. Abstract: Co-firing biomass and coal under oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) holds the potential for negative CO2 emission into the atmosphere and is a promising technology to realized atmospheric CO2 reduction. Experiments co-firing coal and three kinds of Chinese biomass, i.e. rice husk (RH), wood chips (WC) and dry wood flour (WF) under oxy-fuel condition were carried out in a 10 kWt CFBC. Results show that burning biomass separately produces higher NO emissions and a higher fuel nitrogen conversion ratio than burning coal without biomass addition due to the higher volatile matter content of the biomass; the fuel nitrogen conversion ratio is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel under both air and oxy-fuel atmosphere. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission is observed than in air combustion, because CO2 replacing N2 reduces the yield of NO precursors like NH3 during the devolatilization process and enhances NO reduction via char/NO/CO reaction. NO emission increases as temperature, overall oxygen concentration and primary oxidant fraction increase during oxy-fuel combustion. Oxygen staging succeeds in controlling NO emission in a comparatively low level at high overall oxygen concentration condition. The results can be helpful for the design and operation of the oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustor.

Investigation of Ash Deposition During Co-firing Biomass/peat with Coal in a Pilot-scale Fluidized-bed Reactor

Investigation of Ash Deposition During Co-firing Biomass/peat with Coal in a Pilot-scale Fluidized-bed Reactor
A Book

by Yuanyuan Shao

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass, a promising alternative to fossil fuels, has been applied widely for energy generation by co-firing technology in recent year particularly in the EU countries. In this thesis, a key issue of biomass co-firing technology - ash deposition in combustion, co-combustion and gasification, was comprehensively investigated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. A custom-designed, air-cooled probe was installed in the freeboard zone of the reactor to simulate the heat-transfer surface and collect ash deposits from the process. A local lignite coal, a woody biomass (white pine), and a Canadian peat were involved in the tests. The main varying operating parameters investigated in this study included: blending ratio, air/fuel ratio, moisture content and sulphur addition for the combustion/combustion tests; equivalence ratio, bed materials and fuel types for the gasification tests. A new parameter, "relative deposition rate" (RDA) was proposed in this study to evaluate the relative deposition tendencies of biomass fuels and biomass-coal mixed fuels against the coal as the base fuel for co-firing. As expected, co-firing of the lignite and the wood pellets (with a much lower ash-content than the lignite) resulted in a decreased superficial rate of ash deposition. However, co-firing of woody biomass and lignite coal did not significantly increase the ash deposition tendency in terms of the values of RDA, and more interestingly, co-firing of the fuel blend of 50% lignite-50% white pine pellets produced a lower RDA. Co-combustion of three-fuel blend at 20%lignite-40%peat-40%pine resulted in the lowest deposition rate and the least deposition tendency among all the combustion tests with various mixed fuels or individual fuels. Another new and interesting discovery of this study was that fluidized-bed combustion of an individual fuel or a fuel blend with a higher moisture content produced not only a more uniform temperature profile along the fluidized-bed column but also a reduced ash deposition rate. A higher chlorine concentration in the feed would generally result in a higher tendency of ash deposition. Adding sulfur into the fuel of coal or peat could effectively decrease the chloride deposition in the ash deposits via sulphation. The sulphur addition could also reduce the ash deposition rate for the combustion of lignite, while it slightly increased the ash deposition rate for the peat fuel. In air-blown gasification of a woody biomass and a Canadian peat, the experimental results demonstrated that among the four bed materials (olivine, limestone, iron ore, and dolomite), the use of olivine resulted in the lowest ash deposition rate. The superb performance of olivine in retarding ash deposition could be accounted for by its outstanding thermal stability and mechanical strength. The other three bed materials, in particular limestone, were fragile during the fluidized bed gasification, and the fractured fines from the bed materials were found to deposit along with the fuel-ash on the heat transfer surface, leading to higher ash deposition rates. Finally, mathematical models parameterized with interactions between fuel chlorine, alkali and ash particles were developed to analyze the ash and chlorine deposition behavior based on the experimental data from co-firing peat with lignite coal. The developed equations in this study can not only describe the dependence of the deposition rate and the ash chlorine content on the fraction of peat, but can also determine suitable range of the peat fraction for smooth operations, which would be useful for co-firing other fuel blends.

Effect of Co-firing Coal and Biomass Blends on the Gaseous Environments and Ash Deposition During Pilot-scale Oxy-combustion Trials

Effect of Co-firing Coal and Biomass Blends on the Gaseous Environments and Ash Deposition During Pilot-scale Oxy-combustion Trials
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Highlights: Air- and oxy-fuel tests were done co-firing biomass and coal in a 100 kWth combustor. Co-firing tests used CCP biomass with 0, 50, 75 and 100% (w/w) of EC coal. Increasing the share of CCP biomass reduced SO2 and increased HCl in the flue gas. Sulphur levels were similar in deposits from oxy-firing pure coal and pure biomass. Chlorine was only found in the deposits generated from oxy-firing 100% CCP biomass. Abstract: This paper presents the experimental results from co-firing blends of El Cerrejon (EC) coal and cereal co-product (CCP) using several ratios (100/0; 75/25; 50/50; 0/100 (w/w)) under air- and oxy-firing conditions, in a retrofitted 100 kWth pulverised fuel combustor. An on-line high-resolution multi-component Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) analyser was used to measure CO2, O2, H2 O, CO, NO, NO2, N2 O, NH3, SO2, HCl, HF and CH4 . A comprehensive evaluation of the major and minor species present in the flue gas was carried out to study the effects of the addition of biomass, the firing mode (air/oxy) and the type of recycle (wet/dry) on the gaseous environment in the combustor. It was found that similar CO2 levels can be reached when using pure coal or pure biomass, on a dry basis. For the minor species, the increase in the share of biomass had the effect of decreasing the SO2 levels reached in the flue gas and increasing the HCl content. No significant variation in the NOx levels was observed as a consequence of using high percentages of biomass. For ash deposit characterisation, two probes were used for which surface temperatures were controlled at 650° and 750 °C. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), were used to study the deposits. The ESEM/EDX and XRD results showed similar sulphur levels in the deposits when varying the share of biomass even though EC coal contains 3.5 times more sulphur than CCP. This is thought to be a consequence of the reaction of sulphur with the alkalis, especially potassium, present at higher levels in the CCP, which produces higher levels of K2 SO4 in the combustion gas. Chlorine was only found in the deposits generated using pure CCP under oxy-firing conditions. An evaluation of the different mineral species formed when varying the biomass share and the firing mode was also performed. Results obtained comparing the mineral species in deposits when using 100% CCP, switching from air to oxy-firing conditions, showed that in air-firing CCP deposits had higher levels of aluminium phosphate and arcanite (K2 SO4 ). Also, under oxy-firing conditions, 100% CCP-derived deposits had a higher level of potassium magnesium chloride compared 100% EC.

Federal Register

Federal Register
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000-02-14
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Analysis of Biomass Waste Cofiring Into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Analysis of Biomass Waste Cofiring Into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
A Book

by Arif Darmawan

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass utilization to generate electricity via combustion simply can be classified into firing and cofiring. Biomass cofiring into the pulverized coal boilers has some advantages compared to dedicated biomass firing in terms of capital cost and combustion efficiency. To understand the cofiring behavior of biomass and coal comprehensively, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method can be used to analyze and solve problems involving fluid flows inside a combustor. A CFD modeling is significantly more effective from the perspectives of time and cost and safety and ease of scaling up; hence, it is usually performed before conducting a physical investigation through experiment. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art CFD modeling-based study is capable of solving the complexity of the interdependent processes such as turbulence, heat transfer via radiation, produced gas, and reactions in both the particle and gas phases during combustion. This chapter focuses on the study of cofiring of biomass, which is palm mill wastes, into the existing coal-fired power plant. Two palm mill wastes are evaluated: palm kernel shell and hydrothermally treated empty fruit bunch. Distributions of temperature and the produced are simulated to find the most optimum and applicable cofiring conditions.

Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
A Book

by Edited By Sjaak Van Loo And Jaap Koppejan

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9786000001117
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fiscal Year 2000 Climate Change Budget Authorization Request

Fiscal Year 2000 Climate Change Budget Authorization Request
Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment of the Committee on Science, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, April 14, 1999

by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 1457
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Modeling and Evaluation of a Coal Power Plant with Biomass Cofiring and CO2 Capture

Modeling and Evaluation of a Coal Power Plant with Biomass Cofiring and CO2 Capture
A Book

by Dumitru Cebrucean

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Coal-fired power plants are the largest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere, with more than 9.5 billion tonnes of CO2 emitted annually. In order to mitigate the emissions of CO2 from coal-fired plants, several measures were proposed, such as increasing the efficiency of the plants, cofiring biomass with coal, and capturing and storing CO2 deep underground. Among these measures, the use of biomass, which is considered one of the most cost-effective renewables and, in addition, carbon neutral, combined with CO2 capture and storage will play an important role toward reducing the fossil-based CO2 emissions. In this study, we investigated in detail the performances of pulverized coal combustion plants with direct cofiring of biomass and integrated with an amine-based postcombustion capture technology. All the systems were modeled and simulated using the process simulation software Aspen Plus. The results indicate that cofiring 10% of biomass in a coal-based power plant only slightly affects the energy performance of the plant, reducing the net efficiency by 0.3% points. The addition of an amine capture system to both the coal-fired and biomass cofiring plants further reduces the efficiency of the plants by more than 10% points. Analyzing the effect of various CO2 capture process parameters on the heat, solvent and cooling water requirements, and on the overall plant performance, it was found that the concentration of amine in the solution is the most important parameter. The results showed that the net electrical efficiency increases for systems using higher amine concentrations. Further, we investigated the effect of systems with lower heat requirement for solvent regeneration on the plant gross/net power output and also analyzed the plant performances under a flexible CO2 capture efficiency.

Fiscal Year 2001 Climate Change Budget Authorization Request

Fiscal Year 2001 Climate Change Budget Authorization Request
Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment of the Committee on Science, House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session, March 9, 2000

by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Investigation on Potientiality of Co Firing of Biomass and Coal

Investigation on Potientiality of Co Firing of Biomass and Coal
A Book

by Salikka Lim Chung Seng

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 148
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Energy Technology Perspectives

Energy Technology Perspectives
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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How much can technology contribute to securing adequate and affordable energy supplies and lower CO2 emissions? What energy technologies hold the most promise? How long will it take? At their 2005 summit in Gleneagles, G-8 leaders confronted these questions and called upon the International Energy Agency to provide advice on scenarios and strategies for a clean and secure energy future. This publication demonstrates how energy technologies can make a difference in a series of global scenarios to 2050. It reviews in detail the status and prospects of key energy technologies in electricity generation, buildings, industry and transport. It assesses ways the world can enhance energy security and contain growth in CO2 emissions by using a portfolio of current and emerging technologies (major strategic elements of a successful portfolio are energy efficiency, CO2 capture and storage, renewables and nuclear power). It provides technology and policy insights to help policy makers craft sustainable solutions.

The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-Fuels and Co-firing

The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-Fuels and Co-firing
A Book

by N. Altawell

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-03-28
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 111885246X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A functional discussion of the crop selection process for biomass energy The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing provides a detailed examination and analysis for a number of energy crops and their use as a source for generating electricity and for the production of bio-fuels. Renowned renewable energy expert and consultant Dr. Najib Altawell begins with the fundamentals of bio-fuels and co-firing and moves on to the main feature, which is the methodology that assists energy scientists and engineers to arrive at the most suitable biomass materials tailored to each company’s business and economic environments and objectives. This methodology provides a framework whereby power-generating companies can insert their own values for each factor, whether business factor (BF) or scientific & technical factors (S&T) or both simultaneously. The methodology provides a list of factors related to the biomass energy business. The average values have been obtained from the survey method and laboratory tests. These values are the standard values power companies can use if they need or wish to use them. The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing has been designed and compiled for the widest possible range of readers, researchers, businesspeople, and economists who are connected to the renewable energy field in general, and biomass energy in particular. Because of its focus on practical data and applications, the book is also accessible for general readers who may or may not have a technical or scientific background.

ASME Technical Papers

ASME Technical Papers
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Paper

Paper
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Institute of Energy's Second International Conference on Combustion & Emissions Control

The Institute of Energy's Second International Conference on Combustion & Emissions Control
Proceedings of the Institute of Energy Conference Held in London, UK, on 4-5 December 1995 ; Organized by the Institute of Energy ; Co-sponsored by Associazione Termotecnica Italiana ... [et Al.].

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1995
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN : 9780902597495
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Power

Power
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Analysis of Financial Incentives for Biomass Energy

Analysis of Financial Incentives for Biomass Energy
Final Report

by Arthur Young & Company

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1981
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Science & Public Policy

Science & Public Policy
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recycling Today

Recycling Today
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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