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The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
A Book

by Sjaak Van Loo,Jaap Koppejan

  • Publisher : Earthscan
  • Release : 2012-05-16
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1849773041
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems.Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.

Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering

Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering
5. Biomass co-firing

by C. Yin

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-04-04
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0128087579
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40%, and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co-firing. This chapter also briefly introduces indirect co-firing and parallel co-firing and their application status.

Energy Ans Exergy Analysis of Biomass Co-firing in Pulverized Coal Power Generation

Energy Ans Exergy Analysis of Biomass Co-firing in Pulverized Coal Power Generation
A Book

by Shoaib Mehmood,University of Ontario Institute of Technology

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass co-firing with coal exhibits great potential for large scale utilization of biomass energy in the near future. In the present work, energy and exergy analyses are carried out for a co-firing based power generation system to investigate the impacts of biomass cofiring on system performance and gaseous emissions of CO2, NOx, and SOx. The power generation system considered is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle system, while four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel) and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite) are chosen for the analysis. System performance is evaluated in terms of important performance parameters for different combinations of fuel at different co-firing conditions and for the two cases considered. The results indicate that plant energy and exergy efficiencies decrease with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture. The extent of decrease in energy and exergy efficiencies depends on specific properties of the chosen biomass types. The results also show that the increased fraction of biomass significantly reduces the net CO2 emissions for all types of selected biomass. However, gross CO2 emissions increase for all blends except bituminous coal/refuse derived fuel blend, lignite/chicken litter blend and lignite/refuse derived fuel blend. The reduction in NOx emissions depends on the nitrogen content of the biomass fuel. Likewise, the decrease in SOx emissions depends on the sulphur content of the biomass fuel. The most appropriate biomass in terms of NOx and SOx reduction is sawdust because of its negligible nitrogen and sulphur contents.

Economics of Biomass Co-firing in New Hard Coal Power Plants in Germany

Economics of Biomass Co-firing in New Hard Coal Power Plants in Germany
A Book

by Andreas Lüschen,Reinhard Madlener

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 29
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass Co-firing with Coal and Natural Gas

Biomass Co-firing with Coal and Natural Gas
A Book

by Ezinwa Uchechukwu Agbor

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 119
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass fuels have long been accepted as useful renewable energy sources, especially in mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Fossil fuel-based power plants make up over 30% of the GHG emissions in Alberta, Canada. Displacement of fossil fuel-based power through biomass co-firing has been proposed as a near-term option to reduce these emissions. In this research, co-firing of three biomass feedstocks (i.e., whole forest, agricultural residues and forest residues) at varying proportions with coal as well as with natural gas in existing plants was studied to investigate different co-firing technologies. Whole forest biomass refers to live or dead trees (spruce and mixed hardwood) not considered merchantable for pulp and timber production; agricultural residues are straws obtained as the by-product of threshing crops such as wheat, barley, and flax; and forest residues refer to the limbs and tops of the trees left on the roadside to rot after logging operations by pulp and timber companies. Data-intensive models were developed to carry out detailed techno-economic and environmental assessments to comparatively evaluate sixty co-firing scenarios involving different levels of the biomass feedstock co-fired with coal in existing 500 MW subcritical pulverized coal (PC) plants and with natural gas in existing 500 MW natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants. Minimum electricity production costs were determined for the co-fired plants for the same three biomass feedstocks and base fuels. Environmental assessments, from the point of harvesting to delivering electricity to the customers, was evaluated and compared to the various co-fired configurations to determine the most economically viable and environmental friendly options of biomass co-firing configuration for western Canada. The results obtained from these analyses shows that the fully paid-off coal-fired power plant co-fired with forest residues is the most attractive option and has levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) ranging from $53.12 to $54.50/MWh; and CO2 abatement costs ranging from $27.41 to $31.15/tCO2. Similarly, the LCOE and CO2 abatement costs for whole forest chips range from $54.68 to $56.41/MWh and $35.60 to $41.78/tCO2 respectively. When straw is co-fired with coal in a fully paid-off plant, the LCOE and CO2 abatement costs range from $54.62 to $57.35/MWh and $35.07 to $38.48/tCO2 respectively. This is of high interest considering the likely increase of the carbon levy to about $30/tCO2 in the Province of Alberta by 2017.

Evaluation of drying processes for biomass co-firing in coal fired steam power plants

Evaluation of drying processes for biomass co-firing in coal fired steam power plants
A Book

by Birte Everts

  • Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
  • Release : 2016-12-30
  • Pages : 136
  • ISBN : 3736984413
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In dieser Arbeit werden verschiedene Prozesse zu Biomassetrocknung für die anschließende Mitverbrennung in kohlebefeuerten Dampfkraftwerken untersucht. Modelle der verschiedenen Trocknungsprozesse, sowie Modelle des Dampferzeugers und des Gesamtprozesses werden erstellt, um die Auswirkungen der Biomassemitverbrennung auf den Kraftwerksprozess zu untersuchen. Mehrere Szenarien für die dezentrale und prozessintegrierte Trocknung werden analysiert und bewertet. In this work, several processes for biomass drying for biomass co firing in coal fired steam power plants are evaluated. Models are developed for each drying process, as well as for the power plant boiler and the overall power generation process, to analyse the consequences and impacts of biomass co firing on the power generation process. Several scenarios for decentralised and process integrated drying are analysed and evaluated.

1st World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry

1st World Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry
Proceedings of the Conference Held in Sevilla, Spain, 5-9 June 2000

by Spyros Kyritsis

  • Publisher : Earthscan
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 2135
  • ISBN : 9781902916156
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The 1st World Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy and Industry, held in Sevilla in June 2000, brought together for the first time the traditional European Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry and the Biomass Conference of the Americas, thus creating the largest and most outstanding event in the worldwide biomass sector. The conference elaborated innovative global strategies, projects and efficient practice rules for energy and the environment at a key stage in the industry's development. New concepts and projects were highlighted to increase the social and political awareness for a change in worldwide resource consumption and to promote economically, socially and environmentally sustainable development for the next millennium. In 2 volumes, the Proceedings include some 470 papers essential to an understanding of current thinking, practice, research and global developments in the biomass sector - a vital reference source for researchers, manufacturers, and policy makers involved or interested in the use of biomass for energy and industry.

Co-firing biomass with coal-power plant case study

Co-firing biomass with coal-power plant case study
A Book

by K. C. G. Bindemann,H. J. Graham

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Closed-loop Biomass Co-firing in a Laboratory Reactor and in a Full-scale Boiler

Closed-loop Biomass Co-firing in a Laboratory Reactor and in a Full-scale Boiler
A Book

by Robert B. Williams,Bryan M. Jenkins,Lee A. Jakeway,Scott Q. Turn,Linda Gail Blevins

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 58
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. (3) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2, C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were sampled near the superheater tube using an impaction probe and were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Particle loading appeared higher for biomass co-firing than for coal combustion, especially for the smaller particle diameters. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect silicon, aluminum, titanium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium concentrations near the superheater. LIBS provided an abundant amount of real-time information. The major constituents of the fuel ash (silicon and aluminum) were also the major measured inorganic constituents of the combustion products. The combustion products were enriched in sodium relative to the fuel ash during all tests, and they were enriched in potassium for the biomass co-firing tests. Alkali metals are enriched because compounds containing these elements are more readily releasable into the combustion products than refractory components that remain in large particles such as silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Relative to the measured deposit chemistry, the combustion flows were enriched in iron, sodium, and potassium, constituents that are known to form fumes laden with fine particles and/or vapors. The LIBS results yield insight into the deposition mechanism: Impaction of larger particles dominates over fume deposition. The present application of LIBS reveals its potential to provide real-time field information on the deposition propensity of different fuels and the effects of different fuels and boiler operating conditions.

Co-firing of Biomass at UK Power Plant

Co-firing of Biomass at UK Power Plant
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 36
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass Combustion and Co-firing

Biomass Combustion and Co-firing
An Overview

by International Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (FR).

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 14
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Co-firing Fossil Fuels and Biomass

Co-firing Fossil Fuels and Biomass
Combustion, Deposition and Modelling

by Ala H. M. Khodier

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The application of advanced technologies employing combustion/co-firing of coal andbiomass is seen as a promising approach to minimising the environmental impact andreducing CO2 emissions of heat/power production. The existing uncertainties in thecombustion behaviour of such fuel mixes and the release of alkali metals with otherelements during the combustion (or co-firing) of many bio-fuels are some of the mainissues that are hindering its application. The potential presence of high levels of alkalichlorides and low levels of sulfates in the deposits formed on heat exchanger can causeenhanced corrosion and/or limit the heat transfer between the hot combustion gases andthe water/steam system within the process plant. This work has investigated the detailed gas compositions and deposition characteristicsof the combusted gas streams produced from fossil and biomass fuels pure and/or blendin a pilot-scale combustors (PF and FBC) at Cranfield University. Combustion gasanalysis were obtained on-line by a high resolution multi-component Fourier TransformInfra-Red (FTIR) gas analyser and deposits samples were collected from the flue gasusing air-cooled probes with surface temperatures of about 500, 600, 700oC andanalysed using SEM-EDX and XRD techniques. Fuels included several biomass fuels(cereal co-product (CCP) straw, miscanthus (pulverised), oil seed rape straw (againststored pellets), miscanthus (pellets), willow, fast pyrolysis bio-oil) and twocommercially-used coals (El-cerrejon and Daw Mill). The results of the experimentalstudies have been compared with thermodynamic equilibrium predictions. High combustion efficiency was maintained throughout the range of fuel mixes. TheSO2 and HCl levels were low in pure biomass combustion and increased as the biomassfraction of the fuel decreased when co-fired with these coals. However, the NOx outputremained stable except for Miscanthus:Daw Mill mixtures and OSR stored pelletcombustion. The deposition flux was highest on the coolest probes for each fuel. Thelowest deposition fluxes were found for the combustion of either fast pyrolysis bio-oilor coppiced willow. There is evidence of significant differences deposition fluxesbetween El-cerrejon coal and Daw Mill coal mixed with CCP and/or miscanthus. Thepresence of chlorine was identified in deposits produced from combustion of purebiomass or high biomass mixes. The lowest levels found here in fast pyrolysis bio-oilcombustion and only detected at higher shares (? 80 %) of biomass co-fired with DawMill coal, whereas, mixed biomass with El-cerrejon coal produced Cl in deposits at alow % biomass share. The application of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling has been found to be usefultool for providing a qualitative understanding of elements present and/or control by hotgas in modern combustion processes.

Fireside Corrosion of Boiler Materials

Fireside Corrosion of Boiler Materials
Effect of Co-firing Biomass with Coal

by C. J. Davis,L. W. Pinder,Great Britain. Cleaner Fossil Fuels Programme

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 20
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Development and Application of a Decision Support Tool for Biomass Co-firing in Existing Coal Fired Power Plants

Development and Application of a Decision Support Tool for Biomass Co-firing in Existing Coal Fired Power Plants
A Book

by Jason S. Smith

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 126
  • ISBN : 9781339045979
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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ENDOGENOUS ADOPTION DECISIONS OF COAL-BIOMASS CO-FIRING

ENDOGENOUS ADOPTION DECISIONS OF COAL-BIOMASS CO-FIRING
AN EQUILIBRIUM FRAMEWORK APPROACH.

by Brayam Valqui Ordonez

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass co-firing technology with coal is an alternative means to achieving Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) that could also extend the life of coal-fired power plants. This approach is particularly attractive in regions where there is a considerable potential supply of biomass and where a high share of electricity generation capacity comes from coal plants. An RPS that allows for biomass co-firing could provide an incentive for some plants that otherwise would not co-fire. In order to properly assess the likely response of coal units in a region requires taking into consideration competition among coal plants and other generation sources. Further, such an analysis would require estimating biomass local availability, which is heterogeneous across different areas, and could drive up its price, making co-firing not economic feasible for some plants. In this thesis, I present a holistic framework allowing for endogenous adoption decisions of whether a plant chooses to co-fire or not. This framework is composed of a detailed power system that determines hourly output at each power plant while accounting for real world operational constraints (Unit Commitment Model) and a game-theoretic model that solves for a stable equilibrium among power plants competing for biomass. As a case study, I apply this framework to the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO), where many states have an existing RPS and where there is a high potential to obtain corn residue as a biomass. I simulate a co-firing rate under a broad range of carbon prices, which act as a RPS that includes biomass, and numerically solve for the Nash Equilibrium; i.e., none of the competing coal plants would unilaterally change their decisions whether to co-fire with biomass.

Closed Loop Biomass Co-Firing

Closed Loop Biomass Co-Firing
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 5
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Climate Change 2007 - Mitigation of Climate Change

Climate Change 2007 - Mitigation of Climate Change
Working Group III contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC

by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2007-11-12
  • Pages : 851
  • ISBN : 1139468642
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Climate Change 2007 volumes of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provide the most comprehensive and balanced assessment of climate change available. This IPCC Working Group III volume provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change, including students and researchers, analysts and decision-makers in governments and the private sector.

Effect of Co-Firing Torrefied Woody Biomass with Coal in a 30 KWt Downfired Burner

Effect of Co-Firing Torrefied Woody Biomass with Coal in a 30 KWt Downfired Burner
A Book

by Siva Sankar Thanapal

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mesquite and juniper can be beneficially utilized for gasification and combustion applications. Torrefaction has been considered to be one of the thermal pretreatment options to improve the chemical (e.g. heat content) and physical (e.g. grindability) properties of raw biomass. A simple three component parallel reaction model (TCM) was formulated to study the effect of heating rate, temperature, residence time and type of biomass on torrefaction process. Typically inert environment (e.g. N2, He, Ar) is maintained to prevent oxidation of biomass during torrefaction. A novel method for utilization of carbon dioxide as the pretreatment medium for woody biomass has been investigated in the current study. Both raw and the torrefied biomass (TB) were pyrolyzed using TGA under N_(2). The TB fuels were also fired with coal in a 30 kWt downfired burner to study the NOx emission. In addition, tests were also done using raw biomass (RB) (mesquite and juniper) blended with coal and compared with results obtained from cofiring TB with coal. A zero dimensional model has been developed to predict the combustion performance of cofired fuels. The results are as follows. TGA studies yielded global kinetics based on maximum volatile release (MVR) method. TCM predicts higher loss of hemicellulose upon torrefaction when compared to the other components, cellulose and lignin resulting in improved heat values of TB. Comparable mass loss at lower temperatures, improved grindability, and improved fuel properties were observed upon using CO2 as the torrefaction medium. Co-firing 10% by mass of raw mesquite with coal reduced the NOx emission from 420 ppm to 280 ppm for an Equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.9. Further cofiring TB with coal reduced the NOx emission by 10% when compared to base case NOx emission from combustion of pure PRB coal. NOx emission decreased with increase in equivalence ratio. In addition, a term used in the biological literature, respiratory quotient (RQ), is applied to fossil and biomass fuels to rank the potential of fuels to produce carbon dioxide during oxidation process. Lesser the value of 'RQ' of a fuel, lower the global warming potential. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/152768

GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I.

GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I.
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 58
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Electric Power Research Trends

Electric Power Research Trends
A Book

by Michael C. Schmidt

  • Publisher : Nova Publishers
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN : 9781600219788
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The world is becoming increasingly electrified. For the foreseeable future, coal will continue to be the dominant fuel used for electric power production. The low cost and abundance of coal is one of the primary reasons for this. Electric power transmission, a process in the delivery of electricity to consumers, is the bulk transfer of electrical power. Typically, power transmission is between the power plant and a substation near a populated area. Electricity distribution is the delivery from the substation to the consumers. Due to the large amount of power involved, transmission normally takes place at high voltage (110 kV or above). Electricity is usually transmitted over long distance through overhead power transmission lines. Underground power transmission is used only in densely populated areas due to its high cost of installation and maintenance, and because the high reactive power gain produces large charging currents and difficulties in voltage management. A power transmission system is sometimes referred to colloquially as a "grid"; however, for reasons of economy, the network is rarely a true grid. Redundant paths and lines are provided so that power can be routed from any power plant to any load centre, through a variety of routes, based on the economics of the transmission path and the cost of power. Much analysis is done by transmission companies to determine the maximum reliable capacity of each line, which, due to system stability considerations, may be less than the physical or thermal limit of the line. Deregulation of electricity companies in many countries has led to renewed interest in reliable economic design of transmission networks. This new book presents leading-edge research on electric power and its generation, transmission and efficiency.