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Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders
Neurophysiological Foundations

by Tatjana Aue,Hadas Okon-Singer

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-02-23
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN : 0128166614
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurophysiological Foundations focuses on the neurophysiological basis of biases in attention, interpretation, expectancy and memory. Each chapter includes a review of each specific bias, including both positive and negative information in both healthy individuals and psychiatric populations. This book provides readers with major theories, methods used in investigating biases, brain regions associated with the related bias, and autonomic responses to specific biases. Its end goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neural, autonomic and cognitive mechanisms related to processing biases. Outlines neurophysiological research on diverse types of information processing bias, including attention bias, expectancy bias, interpretation bias, and memory bias Discusses both normal and pathological forms of each cognitive biases Provides specific examples on how to translate research on cognitive biases to clinical applications

Schizophrenia Treatment

Schizophrenia Treatment
The New Facets

by Yu-Chih Shen

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2016-12-14
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN : 9535128256
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Schizophrenia treatment has many facets. This book begins with the glutamatergic and GABAergic hypofunctioning contribute to the schizophrenic symptoms and their current targeted therapeutics. The genetic, epigenetic, and immune etiologies of schizophrenia and their potential targeted therapeutics as approached in this book are interesting. Understanding cognitive biases and delusional circuits in schizophrenia is important; several behavioral cognitive therapies working on the reduction and avoidance of these cognitive biases are demonstrating their effectiveness. Advances in schizophrenia treatment followed, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and special sport program, are presented at the book's end.

Cognition across the psychiatric disorder spectrum: From mental health to clinical diagnosis

Cognition across the psychiatric disorder spectrum: From mental health to clinical diagnosis

by Caroline Gurvich, Susan L. Rossell

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015-08-31
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889196534
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Psychiatric symptoms are considered to be distributed along a continuum, from good mental health to a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In the case of psychosis, subclinical psychotic experiences, which can include odd behaviors, strange speech, unusual perceptual experiences and social/emotional withdrawal, are often referred to as schizotypy. Research examining schizotypal traits in non-clinical populations is rapidly expanding. The exploration of schizotypy allows us to identify areas of overlap with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and related disorders) at genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial levels, thus identifying putative risk factors, as well as exploring potentially protective factors. Schizotypy is also a valuable model for exploring cognition as performance is not confounded by issues often present in schizophrenia samples, such as long-term antipsychotic medication usage, social isolation, and recurrent hospitalizations. Investigating cognition is a particularly important area of research as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia, such as impaired attention, reduced memory and difficulties with executive functions, are a core feature of schizophrenia and strongly related to quality of life and functional outcomes, yet generally respond poorly to current treatment options. The aim of this special Research Topic is to explore the relationship between cognition, schizotypy and the schizophrenia spectrum. The articles in this e-book draw on a variety of perspectives and represent an interesting array of opinions, reviews and empirical studies that begin to answer questions about the similarities and overlaps between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, contributing to our understanding of potential risk factors. Equally important is research that highlights differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders that may enhance our understanding of potentially protective or adaptive features of schizotypy. Collectively, these articles highlight the exploratory potential of the study of schizotypy, particularly in relation to better understanding cognition across the schizophrenia spectrum.

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder
Cognitive and Neurobiological Mechanisms

by Yong-Ku Kim

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2015-06-11
  • Pages : 156
  • ISBN : 9535121294
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, phenotypically and biologically. MDD may be caused by complex interaction between genes and environment in susceptible individuals. Thus, a combination of certain genetic polymorphism, environmental stress, and personal susceptibility ultimately may induce MDD. Gene-environment interactions in the pathophysiology of MDD lead to advancement in personalized medicine by means of genotyping for inter-individual variability in drug action and metabolism. Gene-environment interactions may explain why some subjects become depressed while others remain unaffected. The aim of this book is to describe current knowledge of MDD from the point of view of neurobiology, molecular genetics and cognition. The authors address a deep understanding of cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in MDD.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition
A Book

by American Psychiatric Association

  • Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
  • Release : 2015-07-29
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN : 0890424659
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders
A Book

by Wenbin Guo,Fengyu Zhang,Feng Liu,Chaogan Yan

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-07-11
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889458865
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Management of Treatment-Resistant Major Psychiatric Disorders

Management of Treatment-Resistant Major Psychiatric Disorders
A Book

by Charles B. Nemeroff

  • Publisher : OUP USA
  • Release : 2012-06-05
  • Pages : 366
  • ISBN : 0199739986
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A sizable percentage of patients with major psychiatric disorders do not respond to the first or second treatments they receive. This book summarizes the latest evidence from clinical studies concerning the treatment of patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions are included, as well as somatic non-pharmacological treatments. The chapter authors represent the leaders in their respective fields.

Psychiatry

Psychiatry
A Book

by John Geddes,Jonathan Price,Rebecca McKnight

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2012-01-05
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 0191003018
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Psychiatry introduces medicine students to the subject in a concise, innovative and memorable way. Its patient-centred approach blends a discussion of the theoretical basis of different psychiatric disorders with an explanation of the management of these disorders in everyday clinical practice, using genuine case histories to place the content in a realistic context. Recognizing that having positive interactions with a patient is central to the provision of successful psychiatric care, the book includes guidance on history-taking and assessment, while also reflecting best practice as set out by current clinical guidelines. Having undergone an extensive revision for this fourth edition, and covering all the major psychiatric conditions in a logically-structured way, the book is an invaluable guide to all individuals who are likely to encounter those with psychiatric problems, including students of medicine, healthcare, and social work. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany Psychiatry features · Figures and tables from the book in electronic format · Self-assessment materials for students · Updates on the latest clinical guidelines

Biased Cognitions & Social Anxiety: Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neural Processes

Biased Cognitions & Social Anxiety: Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neural Processes

by Alexandre Heeren,Wolf-Gero Lange,Quincy Wong,Pierre Philippot

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-03-05
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 288919423X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders

Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders
What We Know and What We Don't Know

by Dwight L. Evans M.D.,Edna B. Foa Ph.D.,Raquel E. Gur M.D., Ph.D.,Herbert Hendin M.D.,Charles P. O'Brien M.D., Ph.D.,Martin E. P. Seligman Ph.D.,B. Timothy Walsh M.D.

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2005-07-14
  • Pages : 864
  • ISBN : 9780198038719
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Following on the heels of the widely acclaimed A Guide to Treatments That Work (OUP, 2002) by Nathan and Gorman, Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders brings together a distinguished group of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists to provide a groundbreaking, evidence-based survey of treatments and preventions for adolescents with mental health disorders. The book, the very first to disseminate the findings of the Adolescent Mental Health Initiative sponsored by the Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands and the Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) of the University of Pennsylvania, addresses the current state of our knowledge about various mental health disorders in the teenage years, a developmental period when behavior and the brain are still "plastic." Here, six commissions established by the Sunnylands Trust and APPC pool their expertise on adolescent anxiety, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, depression and bipolar disorders, eating disorders, and suicide in sections that thoroughly define each disorder, outline and assess available treatments, discuss prevention strategies, and suggest a research agenda based on what we know and don't yet know about these various conditions. As a meaningful counterpoint to its primary focus on mental illness, the volume also incorporates the latest research from a seventh commission-on positive youth development--which addresses how we can fully prepare young people to be happy and successful throughout their lives. Concluding chapters discuss other critical issues of particular relevance: the stigma of mental illness, the role of primary-care doctors and school-based mental health professionals in the detection and treatment of adolescent mental health problems, and the research, policy, and practice context for the delivery of evidence-based treatments. Integrating the work of eminent scholars in both psychology and psychiatry, this work will be an essential volume for academics and practicing clinicians and will serve as a wake-up call to mental health professionals and policy makers alike about the state of our nation's response to the needs of adolescents with mental disorders. The Association of American Publishers' 2005 Award Winner for Excellence in Professional and Scholarly Publishing--Clinical Medicine

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
The Old and the New Problems

by Vladimir Kalinin

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2014-04-03
  • Pages : 202
  • ISBN : 9535112384
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Although Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has been known since the ancient times, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of OCD unfortunately still remain unknown. In addition, the therapeutic approaches elaborated for the treatment of OCD as a whole are not perfect, and this disorder as a rule is characterized by unfavorable course and lack of full therapeutic response. In the current book some modern data on pathogenesis, phenomenology and treatment of OCD are presented. Besides, the data on co-morbidity of OCD with other neurological and psychiatric disorders are also included. This book is intended for broad circle of readers, but mostly for psychiatrists, psychologists and neurologists.

Handbook of Mental Health and Aging

Handbook of Mental Health and Aging
A Book

by Nathan Hantke,Amit Etkin,Ruth O'Hara

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-04-11
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 0128004932
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Handbook of Mental Health and Aging, Third Edition provides a foundational background for practitioners and researchers to understand mental health care in older adults as presented by leading experts in the field. Wherever possible, chapters integrate research into clinical practice. The book opens with conceptual factors, such as the epidemiology of mental health disorders in aging and cultural factors that impact mental health. The book transitions into neurobiological-based topics such as biomarkers, age-related structural changes in the brain, and current models of accelerated aging in mental health. Clinical topics include dementia, neuropsychology, psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, mood disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, and substance abuse. The book closes with current and future trends in geriatric mental health, including the brain functional connectome, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), technology-based interventions, and treatment innovations. Identifies factors influencing mental health in older adults Includes biological, sociological, and psychological factors Reviews epidemiology of different mental health disorders Supplies separate chapters on grief, schizophrenia, mood, anxiety, and sleep disorders Discusses biomarkers and genetics of mental health and aging Provides assessment and treatment approaches

Core Psychiatry E-Book

Core Psychiatry E-Book
A Book

by Padraig Wright,Julian Stern,Michael Phelan

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2012-01-08
  • Pages : 672
  • ISBN : 0702048585
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A new edition of a highly successful, award winning textbook for trainee psychiatrists, covering in one volume all the subjects required for the new MRCPsych and similar exams. Written in a highly engaging manner, it will also prove invaluable to qualified psychiatrists who need to keep up-to-date with the latest developments, as well as clinical psychologists, general practitioners, psychiatric nurses and senior medical students Concise yet comprehensive, Core Psychiatry relfects the latest developments in the curriculum plus all that is new and essential in clinical practice and the sciences that underpin it. It includes new information on the new Mental Capacity Act and Mental Health Act as well as enhanced sections on psychopharmacology, old age psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry and rehabilitation. The book also makes refernce to the latest NICE guidelines and includes new sections on sleep medicine and trauma psychiatry. New edition of a popular MRCPsych curriculum based text Previous edition ‘Highly Commended’ (Mental Health category) in the BMA Awards 2005 Contains useful summary boxes, lists and key points to make last minute learning easy Comprehensive and authoritative resource written by contributors to ensure complete accuracy and currency of specialist information Chapters prepared by specialists working in conjunction with trainees – content totally up-to-date and jointly written by authors who have recently been in the exam situation Contains the latest findings in sleep medicine and trauma psychiatry Expanded section on psychology – including social psychology – to reflect the latest MRCPych examination format Text updated in full to reflect the new Mental Capacity Act and Mental Health Act Relevant chapters now contain a ‘skills and competency’ section to reflect changes in MRCPsych curriculum Updating and amendments to improve coverage of old age psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry and rehabilitation Contains reference to the latest NICE guidelines in boxes and tables Enhanced discussion of the use of the best current management options, both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic, the latter including CBT, DBT, EMDR and psychodynamic group, couple and family therapy.

Judgment Under Uncertainty

Judgment Under Uncertainty
Heuristics and Biases

by Daniel Kahneman,Paul Slovic,Amos Tversky

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 1982-04-30
  • Pages : 555
  • ISBN : 9780521284141
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The thirty-five chapters in this book describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments but in important social, medical, and political situations as well. Individual chapters discuss the representativeness and availability heuristics, problems in judging covariation and control, overconfidence, multistage inference, social perception, medical diagnosis, risk perception, and methods for correcting and improving judgments under uncertainty. About half of the chapters are edited versions of classic articles; the remaining chapters are newly written for this book. Most review multiple studies or entire subareas of research and application rather than describing single experimental studies. This book will be useful to a wide range of students and researchers, as well as to decision makers seeking to gain insight into their judgments and to improve them.

The Science of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

The Science of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A Book

by Stefan G. Hofmann,Gordon J. G. Asmundson

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-06-01
  • Pages : 628
  • ISBN : 0128034580
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Science of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy describes the scientific approach of CBT, reviews the efficacy and validity of the CBT model, and exemplifies important differences and commonalities of CBT approaches. The overarching principle of CBT interventions is that cognitions causally influence emotional experiences and behaviors. The book reviews recent mediation studies, experimental studies, and neuroimaging studies in affective neuroscience that support the basic model of CBT, as well as those that clarify the mechanisms of treatment change. Additionally, the book explains the interplay of cognition and emotion in CBT, specifies the treatment goals of CBT, discusses the relationship of cognitive models with medical models and associated diagnostic systems, and provides concrete illustrations of important general and disorder-specific considerations of CBT. Investigates the scientific foundation of CBT Explores the interplay of emotion and cognition in CBT Reviews neuroscience studies on the mechanisms of change in CBT Identifies similarities and differences in CBT approaches for different disorders Discusses CBT extensions and modifications Describes computer assisted applications of CBT

Straight A's in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing

Straight A's in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 371
  • ISBN : 9781582554488
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Straight A's in Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing is an excellent review for the NCLEX® and for psychiatric-mental health nursing courses from the LPN through the BSN level. It follows the unique and highly visual two-column Straight A's format—an in-depth outline review in the inner column and a quick-scanning key points refresher in the outer column. Logos include "Top 10" Lists that save students time before exams and Time-Out for Teaching that provides tips on patient teaching. The book and bound-in CD-ROM contain hundreds of NCLEX®-style questions, including alternate-format questions, along with answers and rationales.

The Optimism Bias

The Optimism Bias
A Tour of the Irrationally Positive Brain

by Tali Sharot

  • Publisher : Vintage
  • Release : 2011-06-14
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 0307379833
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Psychologists have long been aware that most people maintain an irrationally positive outlook on life—but why? Turns out, we might be hardwired that way. In this absorbing exploration, Tali Sharot—one of the most innovative neuroscientists at work today—demonstrates that optimism may be crucial to human existence. The Optimism Bias explores how the brain generates hope and what happens when it fails; how the brains of optimists and pessimists differ; why we are terrible at predicting what will make us happy; how emotions strengthen our ability to recollect; how anticipation and dread affect us; how our optimistic illusions affect our financial, professional, and emotional decisions; and more. Drawing on cutting-edge science, The Optimism Bias provides us with startling new insight into the workings of the brain and the major role that optimism plays in determining how we live our lives.

Juvenile Offenders with Mental Health Disorders

Juvenile Offenders with Mental Health Disorders
Who are They and what Do We Do with Them?

by Lisa Melanie Boesky

  • Publisher : Amer Correctional Assn
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 343
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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1. Youth with mental health disorders in the juvenile justice system-- 2. The diagnosis of mental health disorders-- 3. The oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder-- 4. Mood disorders : major depression, dysthymic disorder and bipolar disorder-- 5. Attention-deficit - hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-- 6. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-- 7. Developmental disorders : mental retardation, learning disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)-- 8. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders-- 9. Substance use disorders : substance abuse and substance dependence-- 10. Co-occuring mental health and substance use disorders -- 11. Suicidal behaviour among juvenile offenders-- 12. Self-injurious behaviour among juvenile offenders-- 13. Screening and assessment of juvenile offenders with mental health disorders-- 14. Treatment of juvenile offenders with mental health disorders-- 15. Special issues 1 : minority youth, female offenders, homosexual youth-- 16. Special issues 2 : head trauma - neuropsychiatric factors, violence and mental illness, seclusion and restraint, malingering, staff training.

Handbook of Pediatric and Adolescent Health Psychology

Handbook of Pediatric and Adolescent Health Psychology
A Book

by Anthony J. Goreczny,Michel Hersen

  • Publisher : Allyn & Bacon
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 477
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of Handbook of Pediatric and Adolescent Health Psychology is to stimulate research ideas for clinical researchers in the field of pediatric and adolescent psychology. This is the latest compilation or resource available for clinicians who treat children and adolescents. This includes not just psychologists but also family practitioners from diverse disciplines. Readers will benefit from the wealth of research and issues devoted to child and adolescent health psychology.

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety Disorders
Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Treatment

by Gerard Emilien,Cecile Durlach,Ulla Lepola,Timothy Dinan

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2002-03-01
  • Pages : 298
  • ISBN : 9783764367022
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this book, the discussion of the normal and pathological aspects of anxiety is critically examined. A chapter on the molecular basis of anxiety is included, outlining the potential of such approach in the discovery of novel effective pharmacological interventions. The face validity, predictability and usefulness of animal models in the design of valid new efficacious products are discussed. Separate chapters dedicated to each particular type of anxiety such as generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic and obsessive-compulive disorder are included. This book should be of benefit to psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, general practitioners, nurses, students and all those engaged in neuropsychiatric research.