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Colorectal Neoplasia and the Colorectal Microbiome

Colorectal Neoplasia and the Colorectal Microbiome
Dysplasia, Probiotics, and Fusobacteria

by Martin H. Floch

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-08-15
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 0128225610
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Colorectal Neoplasia and the Microbiome: Dysplasia, Probiotics, and Fusobacteria provides foundational knowledge on the gut microbiome and evidence for an association with colorectal neoplasia. It covers the role of microbiota in causing adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer as well as the modulatory effect of diet and probiotics. Chapters explain a foundational history of microbiology in the colon, the epidemiology of colon polyps and cancer, dysbiosis, the role of immunology and bacteria, and the diet. The book combines medical and scientific aspects to show mechanistic aspects between microbiota and hosts, clearly presenting the association between microbiota, colonic lesions and possible causal links. The book is essential reading for everyone working with human microbiota including basic scientists, physiologists of the intestine, experts in intestinal microbiota, gastroenterologists, oncologists and surgeon. Provides foundational background on the complete history of microbiology in the colon Offers thorough coverage of the connection between fusobacterium nucleatum, diet and bacteria on colon health Presents the connection between immunology and bacteria in the colon

The Gut Microbiome and Its Relationship to Colorectal Cancer

The Gut Microbiome and Its Relationship to Colorectal Cancer
A Book

by Elizabeth Shultes

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 34
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Humans are "supraorganisms" composed of human and microbial components. The microbial community, living in and on humans, along with their genome, is called the microbiome. The microbiome is essential to human health because it can play a role in the development of many diseases, including cancer. The gut microbiome contains the highest density of bacteria in the body. Changes in the composition of the gut microbiome are related to colorectal cancer, specifically through the production of metabolites that affect transcription of cancer suppressor genes. `Manipulation of the microbiome through diet and probiotics may lead to new cancer therapies.

Study of Gut Microbiome and Metabolomics Profiling in Colorectal Cancer Patients

Study of Gut Microbiome and Metabolomics Profiling in Colorectal Cancer Patients
A Book

by Lucky Poh Wah Goh

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 135
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mapping the Colorectal Cancer Microbiome and Metabolome

Mapping the Colorectal Cancer Microbiome and Metabolome
A Book

by James Alexander

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Characterization and Manipulation of the Colonic Microbiome in a Mouse Model of Colon Cancer

Characterization and Manipulation of the Colonic Microbiome in a Mouse Model of Colon Cancer
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 82
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. The development of CRC is thought to be influenced by microbial populations that normally colonize the local intestinal environment, known as the colonic microbiota. Several studies have identified taxonomic shifts associated with the development of CRC. These shifts are thought to induce or result from dysbiosis, an imbalance of the microbiota in the intestine. Studies of the genetic material of the microbiota, known as the microbiome, have yielded significant insights into these populations in humans but are limited by environmental variability and microbiome differences between individuals. Colon cancer mouse models were instrumental identifying the colonic polyp-microbiota association and have the potential to minimize microbiome variability. Despite this, the microbiome has yet to be fully described in these models. In the following thesis, I have described the colonic microbiomes of a Cre-lox mouse model in two experiments: first by identifying shifts in polyp-associated microbiomes, and second, describing the effect of the therapeutic VAX-IP minicells on the colonic microbiome in polyp bearing mice. Polyp-associated microbiomes displayed several taxonomic shifts from controls including the overrepresentation of the potentially pathogenic group Enterococcacae (p = 0.01) and a reduction in the phylum Actinobacteria (p

Microbiome Insults on the Way to Colorectal Cancer

Microbiome Insults on the Way to Colorectal Cancer
The Impact of Noninvasive Bacteria on Immune Response and Tumorigenesis

by Jackline Joy Martin Lasola

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 118
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volatile Organic Compound and Microbiome Profiling in Patients with Colorectal Cancer, Their Spouses and First Degree Relatives

Volatile Organic Compound and Microbiome Profiling in Patients with Colorectal Cancer, Their Spouses and First Degree Relatives
A Book

by Michael J. McFarlane

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Illuminating Colorectal Cancer Genomics by Next-Generation Sequencing

Illuminating Colorectal Cancer Genomics by Next-Generation Sequencing
A Big Chapter in the Tale

by Khalid El Bairi

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-09-28
  • Pages : 185
  • ISBN : 3030538214
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book reviews the potential of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in research on and management of colorectal cancer (CRC), a leading cause of death worldwide and one of the most biologically and clinically heterogeneous cancers. It critically discusses findings from recent large-scale studies, clinical trials and meta-analyses and offers an introduction to the management of CRC in the era of precision medicine. In CRC, dozens of driver and passenger mutations are associated with the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. Consequently, the book discusses recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of CRC as a biomarker, the advent of NGS technologies in modern genomics, and the impact of NGS technology on the management of CRC. Furthermore, it highlights the potential of NGS in the context of liquid biopsy and single-cell sequencing in CRC, as well as its role in shedding light on the link between gut microbiota, immune-checkpoint blockade and CRC. The book concludes with a chapter on the limitations and cost-effectiveness of NGS in CRC. Given its scope, the book will appeal to all those interested in learning about the potential of NGS in advancing CRC research and patient care.

Faith for an Age of Crisis

Faith for an Age of Crisis
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1953
  • Pages : 34
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Human Microbiome and Cancer

The Human Microbiome and Cancer
A Book

by Gary Moran,Nezar Al-Hebshi

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-09-03
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889639894
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Intestinal Microbiota in the Adenoma Progression to Colorectal Cancer

Intestinal Microbiota in the Adenoma Progression to Colorectal Cancer
A Cross-sectional Study

by Anna Brujats Rubirola

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inflammation, Infection, and Microbiome in Cancers

Inflammation, Infection, and Microbiome in Cancers
Evidence, Mechanisms, and Implications

by Jun Sun

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-04-20
  • Pages : 509
  • ISBN : 3030679519
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book offers a summary and discussion of the advances of inflammation and infection in various cancers. The authors cover the classically known virus infections in cancer, novel roles of other pathogens (e.g. bacteria and fungi), as well as biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. Further, the chapters highlight the progress of immune therapy, stem cells and the role of the microbiome in the pathophysiology of cancers. Readers will gain insights into complex microbial communities, that inhabit most external human surfaces and play a key role in health and disease. Perturbations of host-microbe interactions often lead to altered host responses that can promote cancer development. Thus, this book highlights emerging roles of the microbiome in pathogenesis of cancers and outcome of therapy. The focus is on mechanistic concepts that underlie the complex relationships between host and microbes. Approaches that can inhibit infection, suppress chronic inflammation and reverse the dysbiosis are discussed, as a means for restoring the balance between host and microbes. This comprehensive work will be beneficial to researchers and students interested in infectious diseases, microbiome, and cancer as well as clinicians and general physiologists.

Protein Fermentation, Gut Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer

Protein Fermentation, Gut Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer
A Book

by Eiman Abdulla Mohamed Zahir Al Hinai

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Explore the Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota Along the Conventional Adenoma-Carcinoma Colorectal Cancer Pathway

Explore the Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota Along the Conventional Adenoma-Carcinoma Colorectal Cancer Pathway
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative Colitis
from Genetics to Complications

by Mustafa Shennak

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2012-01-18
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 9533078537
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is a rapidly evolving medical field, and will continue to be very exiting in the next few decades. Although the underlying cause of this disease is still unknown, results in research dealing with various issues related to this disease are published every day. Chapters included in this book review the most recent literature on related advancements in regard to this chronic disease, which is controllable but not curable. Aspects like epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetics, incriminated etiologies, clinical aspects, complications, and disease management, including advancements in the diagnostic and therapeutic options, were documented by well known clinicians, researchers, and world wide authorities in their fields. This book on UC will be a valuable addition to each doctor's library interested in this subject, or for physicians dealing with patients suffering from this disease. Authors have also included figures and diagrams to depict their point, and to easily reach the minds of the readers in the simplest way.

Sporadic Colorectal Cancer - Role of the Commensal Microbiota

Sporadic Colorectal Cancer - Role of the Commensal Microbiota
A Book

by Mairi E. Hope

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There are vast numbers of bacteria present within the human colon and many studies have implicated these in CRC development. Despite this evidence, microbial diversity present at the mucosal surface has not been well characterised, with many investigations using culturing methods or extrapolating from analysis on faecal material. In this thesis, molecular analysis of colonic mucosal microbial diversity (caecum to rectum) in 10 healthy individuals revealed that each individual harboured their own microbial cohort that remained constant throughout the colon. Detailed 16S rDNA cloning and sequence analysis of caecal and rectal tissue from 1 individual reflected DGGE findings and showed the majority of sequences affiliated with the low G + C bacterial phylum, namely Clostridium cluster IV, XIVa and also the Bacteroides subphylum. DGGE and sequence analysis of a faecal sample from the same individual showed major differences in microbial diversity compared to tissue samples. DGGE analysis of paired neoplastic and adjacent normal mucosa samples revealed differences in microbial populations between the 2 tissues in a significant number of paired polyp samples. A number of cancer/normal tissue paired samples also displayed altered microbial diversity. Lectin immunohistochemistry was performed on selected healthy individuals and a number of paired neoplastic/normal colonic samples in order to determine host carbohydrate expression. Analysis of healthy tissue revealed individual glycosylation patterns, whilst neoplastic samples often showed altered glycosylation. Changes in host glycosylation did not appear to correlate with microbial diversity. RT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of several fucosyltranferases in healthy individuals and selected neoplastic tissues. Downregulation in FUT3 expression was found in cancer tissue, correlating with loss of fucose-specific lectin staining in cancer tissue samples.

The Microbial Etiology of Colorectal Cancer

The Microbial Etiology of Colorectal Cancer
A Book

by Melissa C. Kordahi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 146
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The microbiome of the gastro-intestinal tract is estimated at 100 trillion organisms which act in a symbiotic relationship with the surrounding tissue cells to maintain homeostasis. However, alterations in the gut microbiota caused by genetics or environmental factors can disturb this relationship and promote diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is the third most common form of cancer in both men and women and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, presenting a considerable disease burden. The intimate association between the microbiota and the cells of the colon sets the stage for a number of interactions that may contribute to carcinogenesis. While only a few specific commensal species may play a direct causal role in CRC, more general shifts in the composition may promote local inflammation through engagement of innate immune receptors encoded within the colonic tissue. Changes in gene expression within the microbiota may also be important by altering virulence factors and producing metabolites that may have detrimental effects on the tissue. In the first chapter of this Thesis, we explore the conceptual frameworks through which certain members of the microbiota are believed to cause CRC, the sensing of microbiota associated molecular patterns by innate immune receptors known as Toll-Like-receptors (TLRs) and the various strategies aimed at manipulating the microbiota and targeting the TLRs, in the hopes of developing new treatment approaches. In the second chapter of this body of Research, we focus on Bacteroides fragilis, a particular bacterial commensal species that has been correlated to CRC development in human studies. Mouse models have also shown that B. fragilis is capable of remodeling the mucosal immune response and colonic bacterial community to promote oncogenic changes in the epithelium. In our study, we analyzed the mucosal microbiome of patients undergoing CRC screening and noted a high prevalence of B. fragilis in patients with early CRC lesions. We isolated B. fragilis from mucosal biopsy samples for deeper characterization and showed that they phenotypically differed according to their geographical location in the colon and the presence of pre-cancerous lesions in the microenvironment they were isolated from. The results we gathered explore the relationship between B. fragilis and early-stage CRC and provide biological framework for microbiota-based biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This study shows that the pre-cancerous mucosal environment alters the immunogenicity of a gut commensal. Environmental factors that influence the gut microbiota are then further explored in the context of individual species in Chapter 3 using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) technology. Another factor influencing the gut microbiota and, therefore the host immune response, is genetics. Development of the human immune system depends on various receptors capable of recognizing and responding to pathogens and commensals. As mentioned in Chapter 1, these receptors include toll-like receptors (TLRs) found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and intestinal epithelial cells. Using TLR6 knockout mice in chapter 4, our study aimed to understand how disruption in host recognition of the microbiota can exacerbate disease. Defective TLR6 signaling was shown to worsen the host susceptibility to inflammation associated colorectal cancer. Within the same study, analysis of the microbiota revealed a therapeutic potential by restoring microbial ecology. By better understanding how the gut microbiome influences the development of colorectal cancer, we can begin to think in terms of innovative therapies to approach the treatment of this disease that continues to be challenge for healthcare professionals and patients in the clinic.

The Human Microbiome, An Issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine,

The Human Microbiome, An Issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine,
A Book

by Matthew R. Pincus

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2014-11-12
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 0323326579
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Human Biome is a complex and essential biological system within the human body. The adult human harbors some 100 trillion bacteria in his gut alone. Balance of this system is essential to good health. This issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine focuses on treatments to realign this balance as well as advances in understanding the system in general. Topics include: Changes in microbiome in GERD; The relationship of microbiome, inflammation, and colon cancer; Gut microbiome and host genetics in Crohn's disease; Association of oral microbiome with head and neck cancer; The vaginal microbiome-disease, genetics and the environment;, The human virome in children and its relationship to febrile illness; Gut microbiome in irritable bowel syndrome; The neonatal microbiome and necrotizing enterocolitis; Fecal microbiota transplantation for clostridium difficile Infection.

Theranostics Approaches to Gastric and Colon Cancer

Theranostics Approaches to Gastric and Colon Cancer
A Book

by Ganji Seeta Rama Raju,L.V.K.S. Bhaskar

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-03-04
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 9811520178
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book highlights the importance of understanding gastric and colon cancer metabolism in guiding diagnosis and drug discovery. It summarizes the correlation between adiponectin and matrix metalloproteinase with colorectal cancer. The book also evaluates the divergent role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. After discussing the role of genetic polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing enzymes and EPHX1 with the onset of colorectal cancer, it reviews the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and novel therapeutic strategies to reverse the chemoresistance of tumors. In addition, the book explores the theranostic role of nanoparticles and therapeutic potential of phytochemicals with regard to colorectal cancer. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable guide for oncologists, academic researchers, pharmaceuticals practitioners, and students who are involved in research and treatment of cancer.

Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Health and Diseases

Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Health and Diseases
A Book

by Debabrata Biswas,Shaik O. Rahaman

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-08-27
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 3030473848
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive examination of the role of gut microbiome/microflora in nutrition, metabolism, disease prevention and health issues, including farm animal health and food value, and human gastrointestinal health and immunity. Indigenous microbiotas, particularly the gut microflora/microbiome, are an essential component in the modern concept of human and animal health. The diet and lifestyle of the host and environment have direct impact on gut microflora and the patterns of gut microbial colonization associated with health and diseases have been documented. Contributing authors cover the impact of gut microbiome in farm animal health, and explore the possibility of modulating the human gut microbiome with better animal products to prevent human diseases, including endemic and emerging diseases such as obesity, cancer and cardiac diseases. Dieting plan and control methods are examined, with attention paid to balance dieting with natural food and drink components. In addition, the role of gut microbiota in enteric microbial colonization and infections in farm animals is also discussed. The volume also explores the possibility of improving human health by modulating the microbiome with better food, including bio-active foods and appropriate forms of intake. Throughout the chapters, authors examine cutting edge research and technology, as well as future directions for better practices regarding emerging issues, such as the safety and production of organic food.