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Consumer Neuroscience

Consumer Neuroscience
A Book

by Philip Kotler

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2017-11-16
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0262036592
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Foreword / Philip Kotler -- Introduction to consumer neuroscience / Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Moran Cerf, and Ana Iorga -- Brain physiology and anatomy / Yuping Chen, Ming Hsu, and Moran Cerf -- Sensation and perception / Irit Shapira-Lichter and Moran Cerf -- Methods / Moran Cerf -- Attention / Manuel Garcia-Garcia -- Memory / Ingrid LC Nieuwenhuis -- Emotions / Carl Marci and Brendan Murray -- Appendix to chapter 7 -- Attention and emotion / Giovanni Vecchiato, Patrizia Cherubino, Arianna Trettel, and Fabio Babiloni -- Decision making / Moran Cerf -- The brain's reward system : a marketer's guide to the biological basis of pleasure / Neal J. Roese, Hans Melo, Thalia Vrantsidis, and William A. Cunningham -- Customer-based brand equity : insights from consumer neuroscience / Ming Hsu -- Pricing / Hirak Parikh, Davide Baldo, and Kai-Markus Muller -- Social marketing applications for consumer neuroscience / Dante M. Pirouz -- Using the knowledge from neuroscience to make business predictions / Moran Cerf -- Implications of consumer neuroscience in market research / David Brandt -- Ethics in consumer neuroscience / Julia Trabulsi, Maria Cordero, Daniela Somarriba, and Manuel Garcia-Garcia -- Future of consumer neuroscience / Kimberly Rose Clark -- Index -- Contributors

Introduction to Neuromarketing & Consumer Neuroscience

Introduction to Neuromarketing & Consumer Neuroscience
A Book

by Thomas Zoega Ramsoy

  • Publisher : Neurons Incorporated
  • Release : 2015-05-13
  • Pages : 204
  • ISBN : 9788799760206
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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How do we make decisions on what to buy and what to pay for it? Why are we affected by brands and pricing when making our choices or just experiencing something? Traditional approaches to such questions have relied on the behavioural and social sciences. However, today we see a dramatic shift in our understanding of consumption behaviours. Recent advances in modern neuroscience, and how it combines with economics and psychology, have allowed us to study of how different brain functions serve consumer behaviour. A commercial industry is emerging that offers novel ways to assess consumer attention, emotion and memory. This book, written by one of the leading figures in neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience, offers a comprehensive insight into the workings of the brain and its mind, and how this knowledge can inform our understanding of consumption behaviours. The book offers both basic and front-end academic insights, and includes chapters on sensation and perception; attention and consciousness; emotion and feeling; memory and learning; motivation and preference; and decision making. It also offers up to date and comprehensive insight about how the tools of neuroscience can be applied to assess consumer cognition and emotion. This book works as a landmark for this emerging academic and commercial disciplines, and to become a standard book of reference, just as the textbooks by Kotler and Keller have been for advertising and marketing.

Analyzing the Strategic Role of Neuromarketing and Consumer Neuroscience

Analyzing the Strategic Role of Neuromarketing and Consumer Neuroscience
A Book

by Atli, Dincer

  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release : 2020-06-19
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 1799831280
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Marketing research in modern business has developed to include more than just data analytics. Today, an emerging interest within scientific marketing researches is the movement away from consumer research toward the use of direct neuroscientific approaches called neuromarketing. For companies to be profitable, they need to utilize the neuromarketing approach to understand how consumers view products and react to marketing, both consciously and unconsciously. Analyzing the Strategic Role of Neuromarketing and Consumer Neuroscience is a key reference source that provides relevant theoretical frameworks and the latest empirical research findings in the neuromarketing field. While highlighting topics such as advertising technologies, consumer behavior, and digital marketing, this publication explores cognitive practices and the methods of engaging customers on a neurological level. This book is ideally designed for marketers, advertisers, product developers, brand managers, consumer behavior analysts, consumer psychologists, managers, executives, behaviorists, business professionals, neuroscientists, academicians, and students.

Consumer Neuroscience

Consumer Neuroscience
A Book

by Cathrine Jansson-Boyd,Peter Bright

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-10-01
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 0128027584
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Consumer Neuroscience presents a clear overview of the fundamentals of neuroscience and applies the principles to understanding consumer behaviors. In order to truly understand consumer behaviors, we need a clear understanding of how the brain is shaped by contextual factors. The initial chapters introduce the topic to ensure that even those with a limited knowledge of neuroscience will be able to grasp the more advanced content. The book moves on to review: methods; the field of affective neuroscience for a deeper understanding of emotions; mechanisms and applications of neuroimaging methods; lifespan development neuroscience; fundamentals of visual neuroscience; cross modal correspondences for understanding consumer perception of stimuli; and directions for future research. The book concludes with a collection of case studies that allow readers to analyze actual results of different cases in which brain activity was used to answer marketing and business questions. Presents readers with a clear overview of consumer neuroscience as a field Includes a visual brain index Discusses neuroscientific areas that are highly relevant to consumer sciences but not yet integrated into the discipline Offers the combined expertise of a psychologist and a neuroscientist to provide well rounded insight into the area of consumer neuroscience Describes unresolved issues and possible methods in consumer neuroscience and approaches for tackling them

Consumer Neuroscience

Consumer Neuroscience
A Book

by Moran Cerf,Manuel Garcia-Garcia

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2017-11-16
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0262341611
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A comprehensive introduction to using the tools and techniques of neuroscience to understand how consumers make decisions about purchasing goods and services. Contrary to the assumptions of economists, consumers are not always rational actors who make decisions in their own best interests. The new field of behavioral economics draws on the insights of psychology to study non-rational decision making. The newer field of consumer neuroscience draws on the findings, tools, and techniques of neuroscience to understand how consumers make judgments and decisions. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of consumer neuroscience, suitable for classroom use or as a reference for business and marketing practitioners. After an overview of the field, the text offers the background on the brain and physiological systems necessary for understanding how they work in the context of decision making and reviews the sensory and perceptual mechanisms that govern our perception and experience. Chapters by experts in the field investigate tools for studying the brain, including fMRI, EEG, eye-tracking, and biometrics, and their possible use in marketing. The book examines the relation of attention, memory, and emotion to consumer behavior; cognitive factors in decision making; and the brain's reward system. It describes how consumers develop implicit associations with a brand, perceptions of pricing, and how consumer neuroscience can encourage healthy behaviors. Finally, the book considers ethical issues raised by the application of neuroscience tools to marketing. Contributors Fabio Babiloni, Davide Baldo, David Brandt, Moran Cerf, Yuping Chen, Patrizia Cherubino, Kimberly Rose Clark, Maria Cordero-Merecuana, William A. Cunningham, Manuel Garcia-Garcia, Ming Hsu, Ana Iorga, Philip Kotler, Carl Marci, Hans Melo, Kai-Markus Müller, Brendan Murray, Ingrid L. C. Nieuwenhuis, Graham Page, Hirak Parikh, Dante M. Pirouz, Martin Reimann, Neal J. Roese, Irit Shapira-Lichter, Daniela Somarriba, Julia Trabulsi, Arianna Trettel, Giovanni Vecchiato, Thalia Vrantsidis, Sarah Walker

Consumer Neuroscience

Consumer Neuroscience
A Book

by Cathrine Jansson-Boyd,Peter Bright

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-10-01
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 9780128027363
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In order to truly understand consumer behaviors, we need a clear understanding of how the brain is shaped by contextual factors. Consumer Neuroscience presents a clear overview of the fundamentals of neuroscience, and applies the principles to understanding consumer behaviors. The initial chapters introduce the topic to ensure that even those with a limited knowledge of neuroscience will be able to grasp the more advanced content. The book moves on to review: methods; the field of affective neuroscience for a deeper understanding of emotions; mechanisms and applications of neuroimaging methods; lifespan development neuroscience; fundamentals of visual neuroscience; cross modal correspondences for understanding consumer perception of stimuli; and directions for future research. Consumer Neuroscience concludes with a collection of case studies that allow readers to analyze actual results of different cases in which brain activity was used to answer marketing and business questions. Presents readers with a clear overview of consumer neuroscience as a field Includes a "visual brain index" Discusses neuroscientific areas that are highly relevant to consumer sciences but may not yet have been integrated into the discipline Offers the combined expertise of a psychologist and a neuroscientist in authoring the book to provide well rounded insight into the area of consumer neuroscience Describes unresolved issues and possible methods in consumer neuroscience and approaches for tackling them

Applying Neuroscience to Business Practice

Applying Neuroscience to Business Practice
A Book

by Dos Santos, Manuel Alonso

  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release : 2016-10-25
  • Pages : 332
  • ISBN : 152251029X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary research area that evaluates the structural and organizational function of the nervous system. When applied to business practices, it is possible to investigate how consumers, managers, and marketers makes decisions and how their emotions may play a role in those decisions. Applying Neuroscience to Business Practice provides theoretical frameworks and current empirical research in the field. Highlighting scientific studies and real-world applications on how neuroscience is being utilized in business practices and marketing strategies to benefit organizations, as well as emergent business and management techniques being developed from this research, this book is a pivotal reference source for researchers, managers, and students.

Brains at Brand Touchpoints

Brains at Brand Touchpoints
A Consumer Neuroscience Study of Information Processing of Brand Advertisements and the Store Environment in Compulsive Buying

by Dalia Bagdziunaite

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9788793579958
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Background. Compulsive buying-defined as excessive, uncontrolled, and repetitive buying- is a serious problem in today's society, driven by consumeristic values and reinforced by marketing efforts. However, the research on the external influences (e.g., brand information) and underlying processes that explain consumer behavior in brand-manifesting situations in compulsive buying is relatively scarce. This thesis provides an integrative literature review and two experimental studies that yield cross-disciplinary insights into the compulsive buying phenomenon. The thesis aims to study the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses that characterize consumer-brand interactions at relevant brand touchpoints in compulsive buying. Research methodology. Two experimental studies investigate similarities and differences between two groups of consumers with high and low compulsive buying tendencies (CBTs) at two brand touchpoints that represent a pre-purchase and purchase phase of the consumer journey. Multimodal consumer neuroscience tools (i.e., eye-tracker, EEG, and EDA) are employed to collect neurophysiological and physiological responses during exposure to marketing information. The first study examines consumer information processing of advertisements during a simulated TV commercial-viewing experiment. The second study investigates consumer information processing of store environments during a field experiment conducted in two single-brand fashion-apparel stores (i.e., low-end vs. high-end). Findings. The findings from the first study indicate that, regardless of their CBT level, consumers tend to allocate a relatively equal amount of cognitive resources to attend to, process, and remember exposed advertising information during the entire duration of commercial viewing. The two groups differed in their visual processing of brand elements only when viewing advertisements related to social cause. In the consumer group with a high CBT, a higher cognitive workload was linked to a lower probability of subsequent brand recognition. The findings from the second study revealed that, regardless of the fashion-store type, consumers with a high CBT chose items that were more expensive than consumers with a low CBT. The changes in physiological arousal during the first minute of shopping showed that, although both consumer groups were more emotionally responsive to the high-end than the low-end fashion store, the emotional receptivity in both groups was expressed in different physiological responses. Specifically, consumers with a high CBT demonstrated a higher frequency and a shorter duration of emotional responses, whereas consumers with a low CBT showed a higher amplitude of emotional responses in the high-end fashion store than in the low-end fashion store. The results indicate that there are two potentially different mechanisms that occur in the two consumer groups during encounters with store information. Conclusions. This thesis provides theoretical, methodological, managerial, and societal contributions. This research highlights the fact that compulsive buying is a complex phenomenon and that researchers should address both internal and external influences, examine the unconscious processes and mechanisms, and study consumer responses to marketing information in more naturalistic settings. The thesis also promotes the integration of consumer neuroscience tools with the compulsive buying research practice, aims to increase the awareness of the problem of compulsive buying, and encourages the development of novel, technologybased and scientifically driven consumer-behavior-monitoring policies.

Decoding the Irrational Consumer

Decoding the Irrational Consumer
How to Commission, Run and Generate Insights from Neuromarketing Research

by Darren Bridger

  • Publisher : Kogan Page Publishers
  • Release : 2015-08-03
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 0749473851
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Decoding the Irrational Consumer was written to help marketing practitioners demystify neuromarketing, a relatively new field of marketing research used to understand consumer response to marketing stimuli. This book presents in plain terms the key theoretical tools required to implement neuromarketing studies and achieve desired research outcomes. Marketers and researchers will learn how to effectively and confidently brief data processors, and confer with neuroscientists and technicians. They will gain keen understanding of recent developments in behavioural science and data-processing technology, as well as sophisticated neuromarketing tools used to understand subconscious responses including behavioural economics, eye-tracking, implicit response measures, and facial coding. The author discusses when to apply these techniques and others, how to combine them effectively and how to correctly interpret resulting data to generate valuable insights that aid in decision making. About the series: The Marketing Science series makes difficult topics accessible to marketing students and practitioners by grounding them in business reality. Each book is written by an expert in the field and includes case studies and illustrations enabling marketers to gain confidence in applying the tools and techniques and in commissioning external research.

Essays on Consumer Neuroscience

Essays on Consumer Neuroscience
Decoding The Mind of The Consumer

by Yu-Ping Chen

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 82
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Marketing theory and practice have become increasingly customer-centered in recent decades. To that end, marketers, consumer researchers, and the lay public alike have begun to take special interest in how understanding the human brain can help them better understand consumers. Despite advances in knowledge of how the brain represents simple goods such as those involving primary rewards, however, there is great difficulty in extending this understanding to more complex goods typical of modern human society, and in particular how the brain represents the set of intangible characteristics resulting from social and cultural influences, for example, the intangible characteristics captured by a good's brand. Here we combine newly available machine learning techniques with functional neuroimaging data to characterize the set of processes that give rise to the intangible associations people have with brands. Our findings represent an important advance in the application of neuroscientific methods to consumer research, moving from work focused on cataloguing brain regions associated with marketing stimuli to testing and refining mental constructs central to theories of consumer behavior.

The Neuro-Consumer

The Neuro-Consumer
Adapting Marketing and Communication Strategies for the Subconscious, Instinctive and Irrational Consumer's Brain

by Anne-Sophie Bayle-Tourtoulou,Michel Badoc

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2020-04-24
  • Pages : 322
  • ISBN : 1000055485
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neuroscientific research shows that the great majority of purchase decisions are irrational and driven by subconscious mechanisms in our brains. This is hugely disruptive to the rational, logical arguments of traditional communication and marketing practices and we are just starting to understand how organizations must adapt their strategies. This book explains the subconscious behavior of the "neuro-consumer" and shows how major international companies are using these findings to cast light on their own consumers’ behavior. Written in plain English for business and management readers with no scientific background, it focuses on: how to adapt marketing and communication to the subconscious and irrational behaviors of consumers; the direct influence of the primary senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch) on purchasing decisions and the perception of communications by customers’ brains; implications for innovation, packaging, price, retail environments and advertising; the use of "nudges" and artifices to increase marketing and communication efficiency by making them neuro-compatible with the brain’s subconscious expectations; the influence of social media and communities on consumers’ decisions – when collective conscience is gradually replacing individual conscience and recommendation becomes more important than communication; and the ethical limits and considerations that organizations must heed when following these principles. Authored by two globally recognized leaders in business and neuroscience, this book is an essential companion to marketers and brand strategists interested in neuroscience and vital reading for any advanced student or researcher in this area.

Handbook of Developments in Consumer Behaviour

Handbook of Developments in Consumer Behaviour
A Book

by Victoria Wells,G. R. Foxall

  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release : 2012-01-01
  • Pages : 624
  • ISBN : 1781005125
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This Handbook examines the area of consumer behaviour from the perspective of current developments and developing areas for the discipline, to new opportunities that comprehend the nature of consumer choice and its relationship to marketing. Consumer research incorporates perspectives from a spectrum of long-established sciences: psychology, economics and sociology. This Handbook strives to include this multitude of sources of thought, adding geography, neuroscience, ethics and behavioural ecology to this list. Encompassing scholars with a passion for researching consumers, this Handbook highlights important developments in consumer behaviour research, including consumer culture, impulsivity and compulsiveness, ethics and behavioural ecology. It examines evolutionary and neuroscience perspectives as well as consumer choice. Undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers in marketing with interests in consumer behaviour will find this enriching resource invaluable.

Interpretation of Online Consumer Behaviour from the Consumer Neuroscience Perspective

Interpretation of Online Consumer Behaviour from the Consumer Neuroscience Perspective
Cross Generational Study

by Anida Krajina

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9788021091108
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The value of eye tracking technology in explaining consumer behaviour appears to be underestimated. Moreover, according to the state of the art, there is a need to expand our understanding of the visual attention patterns and preferences among generation cohorts. This study explains the deviation between potential exposure and the actual exposure to different types of content: text and graphics (picture). Both text and graphics are designed in such a way as to potentially draw the visual attention to the specific elements in the content, called "call to action". Furthermore, the author explores the relation between the strength of the stimuli and the memory effect. The final goal is to define the cognitive and emotional responses as well as the memory effect and to compare them across the two generations (Generation Y and Generation Z). The aim is to provide a recommendation on how to adopt the web-based commercial communication message elements. These recommendations will be based on conclusions drawn from observations of the different online behaviour of two generations. Their uniqueness of common patterns of behaviour will serve as a guideline for adapting web-based content to the two groups.

Defining, Measuring and Managing Consumer Experiences

Defining, Measuring and Managing Consumer Experiences
A Book

by Annarita Sorrentino

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2020-10-01
  • Pages : 106
  • ISBN : 1000195511
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges that marketing faces in understanding, managing and measuring the dynamics of modern consumer behaviours and successfully managing the customer experience. The reader will gain a deeper knowledge of the approaches to consumer behaviour and learn about the theoretical and empirical challenges of studying customer experience management. It also considers the post-modern consumer, which requires a move beyond the purely rationalist perspective of traditional marketing and provides methodological support for firms and scholars who wish to measure cognitive, emotional and behavioural consumer reactions. More specifically, it explores the changes in consumer behaviours, the limitations of traditional measurement approaches and the importance of capturing small insights with neuromarketing metrics, with a chapter contributed by a leading expert. A new three-point perspective on consumer behaviours is set out that combines behaviour (what people do) with the declared (what people say) and the perceived (what people feel). This approach acknowledges the complexity of consumer behaviours and the methodological bias derived from the use of the traditional techniques (principally the survey) or from big data. Only a holistic perspective can capture the heterogeneous nature of consumer behaviour. The book thereby takes up the theoretical debate about the definition, management and measurement of customer behaviour. It also examines measurement methodologies, an area that has received little attention elsewhere. Besides addressing the scientific community in the field, the book will also be a valuable practical resource for marketing managers, entrepreneurs and consultants who want to implement innovative strategies to manage the customer experience.

Consumer Neuroscience

Consumer Neuroscience

by Valentina Vodopivec

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 62
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inspiring Green Consumer Choices

Inspiring Green Consumer Choices
Leverage Neuroscience to Reshape Marketplace Behavior

by Michael E. Smith,Overcoming the Sustainability Say-Do Gap Michael E Smith

  • Publisher : Kogan Page
  • Release : 2021-09-28
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 9781398601024
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Shape the consumer's mindset using insights from neuroscience to trigger purchasing behavior that maps to their intention to buy sustainable products and services.

The Cambridge Handbook of Consumer Psychology

The Cambridge Handbook of Consumer Psychology
A Book

by Michael I. Norton,Derek D. Rucker,Cait Lamberton

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2015-09-09
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 131641616X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Why do consumers make the purchases they do, and which ones make them truly happy? Why are consumers willing to spend huge sums of money to appear high status? This Handbook addresses these key questions and many more. It provides a comprehensive overview of consumer psychology, examining cutting-edge research at the individual, interpersonal, and societal levels. Leading scholars summarize past and current findings, and consider future lines of inquiry to deepen our understanding of the psychology behind consumers' decision making, their interactions with other consumers, and the effects of societal factors on consumption. The Cambridge Handbook of Consumer Psychology will act as a valuable guide for faculty as well as graduate and undergraduate students in psychology, marketing, management, sociology, and anthropology.

New Trends in Process Control and Production Management

New Trends in Process Control and Production Management
Proceedings of the International Conference on Marketing Management, Trade, Financial and Social Aspects of Business (MTS 2017), May 18-20, 2017, Košice, Slovak Republic and Tarnobrzeg, Poland

by Lenka Štofová,Petra Szaryszová

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-09-27
  • Pages : 582
  • ISBN : 135167272X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Dynamic economics, technological changes, increasing pressure from competition and customers to improve manufacturing and services are some of the major challenges to enterprises these days. New ways of improving organizational activities and management processes have to be created, in order to allow enterprises to manage the seemingly intensifying competitive markets successfully. Enterprises apply business optimizing solutions to meet new challenges and conditions. But also ensuring effective development for long-term competitiveness in a global environment. This is necessary for the application of qualitative changes in the industrial policy. “New Trends in Process Control and Production Management” (MTS 2017) is the collection of research papers from authors from seven countries around the world. They present case studies and empirical research which illustrates the progressive trends in business process management and the drive to achieve enterprise development and sustainability.

Ph.D.-serie

Ph.D.-serie
A Consumer Neuroscience Study of Information Processing of Brand Advertisements and the Store Environment in Compulsive Buying. Brains at brand touchpoints

by Dalia Bagdziunaite

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ethics and Neuromarketing

Ethics and Neuromarketing
Implications for Market Research and Business Practice

by Andrew R. Thomas,Nicolae Alexandru Pop,Ana Maria Iorga,Cristian Ducu

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-10-19
  • Pages : 209
  • ISBN : 3319456091
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book addresses the emerging field of neuromarketing, which, at its core, aims to better understand the impact of marketing stimuli by observing and interpreting human emotions. It includes contributions from leading researchers and practitioners, venturing beyond the tactics and strategies of neuromarketing to consider the ethical implications of applying powerful tools for data collection. The rationale behind neuromarketing is that human decision-making is not primarily a conscious process. Instead, there is increasing evidence that the willingness to buy products and services is an emotional process where the brain uses short cuts to accelerate the decision-making process. At the intersection of economics, neuroscience, consumer behavior, and cognitive psychology, neuromarketing focuses on which emotions are relevant in human decision-making, and uses this knowledge to make marketing more effective. The knowledge is applied in product design; enhancing promotions and advertising, pricing, professional services, and store design; and improving the consumer experience as a whole. The foundation for all of this activity is data gathering and analysis. Like many new processes and innovations, much of neuromarketing is operating far ahead of current governmental compliance and regulation and thus current practices are raising ethical issues. For example, facial recognition software, used to monitor and detect a wide range of micro-expressions, has been tested at several airports—under the guise of security and counterterrorism. To what extent is it acceptable to screen the entire population using these powerful and intrusive techniques without getting passengers’ consent? Citing numerous examples from the public and private sectors, the editors and contributing authors argue that while the United States has catalyzed technological advancements, European companies and governments are more progressive when it comes to defining ethical parameters and developing policies. This book details many of those efforts, and offers rational, constructive approaches to laying an ethical foundation for neuromarketing efforts.