Download Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems Ebook PDF

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems
A Book

by Scholargy Publishing, Incorporated

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002-01
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9781586669805
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems
A Book

by Bapu Vaitla

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-09-01
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 012820916X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems analyzes cooperation within both biological networks and human societies. The book’s approach is cross-disciplinary, focusing on key ideas and methods from genetics, biology, ecology, economics, and political science, while guiding students to make conceptual and mathematical connections between fields. The core objective of the book is to help students perceive the deep, common structure of networked interaction in nature, and to gain the tools necessary to formally analyze cooperation. The book begins by offering a conceptual and mathematical toolkit centered on game theory and network science. Readers then apply these tools to the study of biological phenomena, including genetic networks, endosymbiosis, intraspecies cooperation, and mutualisms, in the following chapters. The final portion of the book presents case studies of the most pressing problems of collective action facing global society today, including climate change, cyberterrorism, and infectious disease, applying the lessons of biological and social evolution to the search for cooperative solutions. Cooperation in Biological and Social Systems is a valuable resource for readers looking to gain further insight into biological networks and animal and human biology. This book is also helpful for students across academic disciplines aside from biology, including ecology, genetics, and political science. Describes and examines game theory and network science, providing readers with the rigorous quantitative foundation needed to link concepts across widely varying systems Structured to proceed sequentially through biological systems of increasing structural complexity, genomes, cells, organisms, ecological communities, to understand the nested nature of cooperation Includes key term lists, practice exercises, and detailed answers for reader engagement

Levels of Integration in Biological and Social Systems

Levels of Integration in Biological and Social Systems
A Book

by Robert Redfield

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1942
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cooperation and Its Evolution

Cooperation and Its Evolution
A Book

by Kim Sterelny,Richard Joyce,Brett Calcott,Ben Fraser

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 577
  • ISBN : 0262018535
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Essays from a range of disciplinary perspectives show the central role that cooperation plays in structuring our world. This collection reports on the latest research on an increasingly pivotal issue for evolutionary biology: cooperation. The chapters are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and utilize research tools that range from empirical survey to conceptual modeling, reflecting the rich diversity of work in the field. They explore a wide taxonomic range, concentrating on bacteria, social insects, and, especially, humans. Part I ("Agents and Environments") investigates the connections of social cooperation in social organizations to the conditions that make cooperation profitable and stable, focusing on the interactions of agent, population, and environment. Part II ("Agents and Mechanisms") focuses on how proximate mechanisms emerge and operate in the evolutionary process and how they shape evolutionary trajectories. Throughout the book, certain themes emerge that demonstrate the ubiquity of questions regarding cooperation in evolutionary biology: the generation and division of the profits of cooperation; transitions in individuality; levels of selection, from gene to organism; and the "human cooperation explosion" that makes our own social behavior particularly puzzling from an evolutionary perspective.

Self-Organisation and Evolution of Biological and Social Systems

Self-Organisation and Evolution of Biological and Social Systems
A Book

by Charlotte Hemelrijk

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2005-09-29
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9781139446198
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Self-organisation of social systems can be observed at all levels of biological complexity, from cells to organisms and communities. Although individuals are governed by simple rules, their interactions with each other and their environment leads to complex patterns. Self-Organisation and Evolution of Social Systems investigates a broad spectrum of social systems ranging from those of simple single-celled organisms to those of very complex ones, such as humans. It examines groups of all sizes, from small as in certain species of primates, to very large as in some species of fish and social insects. This book deals with numerous aspects of their social organisation, including group formation, task-division, foraging, dominance interactions, infant protection, language and voting. It is recommended reading for all academic researchers and professionals interested in this fascinating field.

Modeling Complexity in Economic and Social Systems

Modeling Complexity in Economic and Social Systems
A Book

by Frank Schweitzer

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2002-12-09
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9814488356
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Economics and the social sciences are, in fact, the “hard” sciences, as Herbert Simon argued, because the complexity of the problems dealt with cannot simply be reduced to analytically solvable models or decomposed into separate subprocesses. Nevertheless, in recent years, the emerging interdisciplinary “sciences of complexity” have provided new methods and tools for tackling these problems, ranging from complex data analysis to sophisticated computer simulations. In particular, advanced methods developed in the natural sciences have recently also been applied to social and economic problems. The twenty-one chapters of this book reflect this modern development from various modeling perspectives (such as agent-based models, evolutionary game theory, reinforcement learning and neural network techniques, time series analysis, non-equilibrium macroscopic dynamics) and for a broad range of socio-economic applications (market dynamics, technological evolution, spatial dynamics and economic growth, decision processes, and agent societies). They jointly demonstrate a shift of perspective in economics and the social sciences that is allowing a new outlook in this field to emerge. Contents:Market Dynamics:Trading Behavior and Excess Volatility in Toy Markets (M Marsili & D Challet)Percolation Models of Financial Market Dynamics (D Stauffer)Electrodynamical Model of Quasi-Efficient Financial Markets (K N Ilinski & A S Stepanenko)Multi-Agent Market Modeling of Foreign Exchange Rates (G Zimmermann et al.)Forecasting Price Increments Using an Artificial Neural Network (F Castiglione)Spectral Regularization, Data Complexity and Agent Behavior (A Ilyinsky)Technological Evolution:Dynamics of Economic and Technological Search Processes in Complex Adaptive Landscapes (W Ebeling et al.)New Results in a Self-Organized Model of Technological Evolution (A Arenas et al.)Firms' Decision-Making Process in an Evolutionary Model of Industrial Dynamics (W Kwasnicki)Spatial Dynamics and Economic Growth:Modelling Migration and Economic Agglomeration with Active Brownian Particles (F Schweitzer)The Evolution of Industrial Clusters — Simulating Spatial Dynamics (T Brenner & N Weigelt)The Growth Dynamics of German Business Firms (J Voit)A Dynamic Theory of a Firm: An Application of ‘Economic Forces’ (M Estola)Decision Processes:Adaptive Platform Dynamics in Multi-Party Spatial Voting (B M R Stadler)Subtle Nonlinearity in Popular Album Charts (R A Bentley & H D G Maschner)Dynamical Aspects in the Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures (G Weisbuch & G Boudjema)Collective Choice and Mutual Knowledge Structures (D Richards et al.)Agent Societies:Evolutionary Study of Interethnic Co-Operation (V Kvasnicka & J Pospichal)Coalition Factor in the Evolution of Non-Kin Altruism (J-L Dessalles)Optimal Payoff Functions for Members of Collectives (D H Wolpert & K Tumer)A Day at the Beach: Human Agents Self-Organizing on the Sand Pile (H Ishii et al.) Readership: Researchers in the field of complex system science, economists, sociologists, physicists with an interdisciplinary focus, graduates, and professionals. Keywords:

Randomness Enhances Cooperation: A Resonance-type Phenomenon in Evolutionary Games

Randomness Enhances Cooperation: A Resonance-type Phenomenon in Evolutionary Games
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

We investigate the effect of randomness in both relationships and decisions on the evolution of cooperation. Simulation results show, in such randomness' presence, the system evolves more frequently to a cooperative state than in its absence. Specifically, there is an optimal amount of randomness, which can induce the highest level of cooperation. The mechanism of randomness promoting cooperation resembles a resonancelike fashion, which could be of particular interest in evolutionary game dynamics in economic, biological, and social systems.

Evolution by Cooperation

Evolution by Cooperation
Ecology, Ethics, and the Chicago School, 1910-1950

by Gregg Alden Mitman

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1988
  • Pages : 698
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Foundations of Intelligent Systems

Foundations of Intelligent Systems
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE 2011)

by Yinglin Wang,Tianrui Li

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-11-25
  • Pages : 754
  • ISBN : 3642256643
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent System and Knowledge Engineering presents selected papers from the conference ISKE 2011, held December 15-17 in Shanghai, China. This proceedings doesn’t only examine original research and approaches in the broad areas of intelligent systems and knowledge engineering, but also present new methodologies and practices in intelligent computing paradigms. The book introduces the current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore, new computing methodologies are presented, including cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. The proceedings will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners who want to utilize intelligent methods in their specific research fields. Dr. Yinglin Wang is a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China; Dr. Tianrui Li is a professor at the School of Information Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.

Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition

Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
  • Release : 2012-01-09
  • Pages : 2846
  • ISBN : 1464963703
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research. The editors have built Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Biological, Biochemical, and Evolutionary Sciences Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence And Learning, And Complexity - Volume III

Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence And Learning, And Complexity - Volume III

by L. Douglas Kiel

  • Publisher : EOLSS Publications
  • Release : 2009-08-25
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 1905839138
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence and Learning, and Complexity is the component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence and Learning, and Complexity in the Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources provides the latest scientific insights into the evolution of complexity in both the natural and social realms. Emerging perspectives from the fields of knowledge management, computer-based simulation and the organizational sciences are presented as tools for understanding and supporting this evolving complexity and the earth's life support systems. These three volumes are aimed at the following a wide spectrum of audiences from the merely curious to those seeking in-depth knowledge: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Organization Theory by Chester Barnard

Organization Theory by Chester Barnard
An Introduction

by Kazuhito Isomura

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-10-26
  • Pages : 95
  • ISBN : 9811592063
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book helps undergraduate and graduate students understand Chester Barnard’s organization theory. Barnard’s book The Functions of the Executive is a classic that, along with Herbert Simon’s Administrative Behavior, is often considered to be essential reading for management students. However, it is well known to be difficult and abstract. Offering a systematic overview, this book provides an excellent introduction to Barnard’s organization theory. Chester Barnard’s concept of formal organization is often cited as a definitive opus on the subject of organization. However, he provided other concepts of organization, such as cooperative systems, complex formal organizations, and informal organizations. In his second book, Organization and Management, he added two more concepts, lateral organizations and status systems, allowing researchers to gain a better understanding of how Barnard developed his organization theory after his first publication. Barnard was a successful practitioner as well as a theorist, and his organization theory is full of practical insights gained from managing various types of organizations, including NGOs and NPOs. This book discusses how Barnard’s organization theory can be applied to business practices in the context of exploring a new style of management, and provides suggestions for business people seeking innovations for their own organizations.

Social Biology and Human Affairs

Social Biology and Human Affairs
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The Coevolution of Cooperation and Structure in Biological Markets

The Coevolution of Cooperation and Structure in Biological Markets
A Book

by Zhiyuan Song

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This dissertation centers on the theme of the coevolution of cooperation and structure in biological markets. Analogous to the market economy of human societies, a typical biological market consists of two types of individuals, where one or both types of individuals are mobile so that they can not only change their individual behavior within given partnerships but also actively choose partners to interact with. However, partner choice is constrained by the dynamic supply and demand in a biological market. Therefore, ecological dynamics provide feedback to the evolutionary process. I integrate behavioral, ecological and evolutionary dynamics to explore two common types of biological markets: intraspecific interactions in breeding systems (Chapter 1) and interspecific interactions in plant-pollinator mutualisms (Chapter 2 and 3). Chapter 1 focuses on the coevolution of intraspecific pairwise cooperation and pair-bonding in a population with a symmetric sex ratio. The fitness payoff of pairwise cooperation, such as biparental care, often depends on the pair-matching structure of a population, and the latter often emerges as a collective outcome of individual pair bonding traits, which are also under selection. Here we develop an analytical model and individual-based simulations to study the coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation in parental care, where partners play a Snowdrift game in each breeding season. We illustrate that long-term pair bonds may coevolve with cooperation when bonding cost is below a threshold. As long-term pair bonds lead to assortative interactions through pair-matching dynamics, they may promote the prevalence of cooperation. In addition to the payoff matrix of a single game, the evolutionarily stable equilibrium also depends on bonding cost and accidental divorce rate, and it is determined by a form of balancing selection because the benefit from pair-bond maintenance diminishes as the frequency of cooperators increases. Our findings highlight the importance of ecological factors affecting social bonding cost and stability in understanding the coevolution of social behaviour and social structures, which may lead to the diversity of biological social systems. In Chapter 2, we shift our attention to cooperative interactions between two species with dynamic population densities. Mutualism between plants and animals, such as in pollination and seed dispersal, is a fundamental mechanism facilitating the productivity and biodiversity of ecosystems, and it is often considered as an analog of a free-market economy. The coevolution of plant reward and animal choosiness, however, involves an apparent paradox due to incomplete information and limited mutation rates: Plant rewards evolve only when animals are choosy, but choosy animals purge the heritable variations of plants, which then favors less choosy animals. We use a two-species mathematical model to illustrate how non-heritable phenotypic variances of plants may facilitate the coevolution of rewards and choosiness and solve the paradox with low mutation rates. We simultaneously track the ecological and evolutionary dynamics and show that the population ratio links the two processes and tunes the stable eco-evolutionary equilibrium. Numerical simulations confirm the analytic prediction with varying mutation rates (heritable variance). The efficiency of a biological market is generally suboptimal due to the information constraint and individual competition. In the last chapter, we explore the question how adaptive foraging behaviors, e.g., flower constancy, of individual pollinators, which are sensitive to floral density and diversity, may shape the structure and stability of co-flowering plant communities. We construct a mathematical model integrating pollinator adaptive foraging behavior and plant population dynamics, and use numerical analyses to study the ecological consequences for the plant community. The result is significantly different from that of a model in which pollinators are either strict generalists or specialists. In general, pollinators with adaptive foraging behavior enhance the stability of plant species coexistence compared to strict generalists, but less effectively than strict specialists. This suggests that individual adaptive behavior in mutualistic interactions can have a very different impact on community structure from that in predator-prey interactions. This could be an important complementary mechanism to adaptive foraging at the species level. In addition, the adaptive behavior of pollinators may cause a sharp regime shift between the sink and source states for invading plant species. This novel result is relevant to the conservation of native plant communities as well as the management of invasive plant species.

Five Years of Cooperation to Improve Curricula in Western Schools of Nursing

Five Years of Cooperation to Improve Curricula in Western Schools of Nursing
A Final Report

by Curriculum Improvement Project,Juereta Smith

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1972
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Part IV

Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Part IV
15th International Conference, KES 2011, Kaiserslautern, Germany, September 12-14, 2011, Proceedings

by Andreas König,Andreas Dengel,Knut Hinkelmann,Koichi Kise,Robert J. Howlett,Lakhmi C. Jain

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2011-09-15
  • Pages : 471
  • ISBN : 3642238661
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The four-volume set LNAI 6881-LNAI 6884 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2011, held in Kaiserslautern, Germany, in September 2011. Part 4: The total of 244 high-quality papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The 46 papers of Part 4 are organized in topical sections on human activity support in knowledge society, knowledge-based interface systems, model-based computing for innovative engineering, document analysis and knowledge science, immunity-based systems, natural language visualisation advances in theory and application of hybrid intelligent systems.

Management Thought

Management Thought
A Book

by Jayanta K Nanda

  • Publisher : Sarup & Sons
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 315
  • ISBN : 9788176256230
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cooperative Control of Multi-Agent Systems

Cooperative Control of Multi-Agent Systems
Optimal and Adaptive Design Approaches

by Frank L. Lewis,Hongwei Zhang,Kristian Hengster-Movric,Abhijit Das

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-12-31
  • Pages : 307
  • ISBN : 1447155742
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cooperative Control of Multi-Agent Systems extends optimal control and adaptive control design methods to multi-agent systems on communication graphs. It develops Riccati design techniques for general linear dynamics for cooperative state feedback design, cooperative observer design, and cooperative dynamic output feedback design. Both continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical multi-agent systems are treated. Optimal cooperative control is introduced and neural adaptive design techniques for multi-agent nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics, which are rarely treated in literature are developed. Results spanning systems with first-, second- and on up to general high-order nonlinear dynamics are presented. Each control methodology proposed is developed by rigorous proofs. All algorithms are justified by simulation examples. The text is self-contained and will serve as an excellent comprehensive source of information for researchers and graduate students working with multi-agent systems.

Learning From the Octopus

Learning From the Octopus
How Secrets from Nature Can Help Us Fight Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters, and Disease

by Rafe Sagarin

  • Publisher : Hachette UK
  • Release : 2012-03-27
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0465029817
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Despite the billions of dollars we've poured into foreign wars, homeland security, and disaster response, we are fundamentally no better prepared for the next terrorist attack or unprecedented flood than we were in 2001. Our response to catastrophe remains unchanged: add another step to airport security, another meter to the levee wall. This approach has proved totally ineffective: reacting to past threats and trying to predict future risks will only waste resources in our increasingly unpredictable world.In Learning from the Octopus, ecologist and security expert Rafe Sagarin rethinks the seemingly intractable problem of security by drawing inspiration from a surprising source: nature. Biological organisms have been living -- and thriving -- on a risk-filled planet for billions of years. Remarkably, they have done it without planning, predicting, or trying to perfect their responses to complex threats. Rather, they simply adapt to solve the challenges they continually face.Military leaders, public health officials, and business professionals would all like to be more adaptable, but few have figured out how. Sagarinargues that we can learn from observing how nature is organized, how organisms learn, how they create partnerships, and how life continually diversifies on this unpredictable planet.As soon as we dip our toes into a cold Pacific tidepool and watch what we thought was a rock turn into an octopus, jetting away in a cloud of ink, we can begin to see the how human adaptability can mimic natural adaptation. The same mechanisms that enabled the octopus's escape also allow our immune system to ward off new infectious diseases, helped soldiers in Iraq to recognize the threat of IEDs, and aided Google in developing faster ways to detect flu outbreaks. While we will never be able to predict the next earthquake, terrorist attack, or market fluctuation, nature can guide us in developing security systems that are not purely reactive but proactive, holistic, and adaptable. From the tidepools of Monterey to the mountains of Kazakhstan, Sagarin takes us on an eye-opening tour of the security challenges we face, and shows us how we might learn to respond more effectively to the unknown threats lurking in our future.

Human By Nature

Human By Nature
Between Biology and the Social Sciences

by Peter Weingart,Sandra D. Mitchell,Peter J. Richerson,Sabine Maasen

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2013-06-17
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 1134799616
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Representing a wide range of disciplines -- biology, sociology, anthropology, economics, human ethology, psychology, primatology, history, and philosophy of science -- the contributors to this book recently spent a complete academic year at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF) discussing a plethora of new insights in reference to human cultural evolution. These scholars acted as a living experiment of "interdisciplinarity in vivo." The assumption of this experiment was that the scholars -- while working and residing at the ZiF -- would be united intellectually as well as socially, a connection that might eventually enhance future interdisciplinary communication even after the research group had dispersed. An important consensus emerged: The issue of human culture poses a challenge to the division of the world into the realms of the "natural" and the "cultural" and hence, to the disciplinary division of scientific labor. The appropriate place for the study of human culture, in this group's view, is located between biology and the social sciences. Explicitly avoiding biological and sociological reductionisms, the group adopted a pluralistic perspective -- "integrative pluralism" -- that took into account both today's highly specialized and effective (sub-)disciplinary research and the possibility of integrating the respective findings on a case-by-case basis. Each sub-group discovered its own way of interdisciplinary collaboration and submitted a contribution to the present volume reflecting one of several types of fruitful cooperation, such as a fully integrated chapter, a multidisciplinary overview, or a discussion between different approaches. A promising first step on the long road to an interdisciplinarily informed understanding of human culture, this book will be of interest to social scientists and biologists alike.