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Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Health Interventions

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Health Interventions
A Book

by Carla Guerriero

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-12-11
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN : 0128129360
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cost-benefit Analysis of Environmental Health Interventions clearly articulates the core principles and fundamental methodologies underpinning the modern economic assessment of environmental intervention on human health. Taking a practical approach, the book provides a step-by-step approach to assigning a monetary value to the health benefits and disbenefits arising from interventions, using environmental information and epidemiological evidence. It summarizes environmental risk factors and explores how to interpret and understand epidemiological data using concentration-response, exposure-response or dose-response techniques, explaining the environmental interventions available for each environmental risk factor. It evaluates in detail two of the most challenging stages of Cost-Benefit Analysis in ‘discounting’ and ‘accounting for uncertainty’. Further chapters describe how to analyze and critique results, evaluate potential alternatives to Cost-Benefit Analysis, and on how to engage with stakeholders to communicate the results of Cost-Benefit Analysis. The book includes a detailed case study how to conduct a Cost-Benefit Analysis. It is supported by an online website providing solution files and detailing the design of models using Excel. Provides a clear understanding of the core theory of cost-benefit analysis in environmental health interventions Provides practical guidance using real-world case studies to motivate and expand understanding Describes the challenging ‘discounting’ and ‘accounting for uncertainty’ problems at chapter length Supported by a practical case study, online solution files, and a practical guide to the design of CBA models using Excel

Cost-benefit Analysis of Environmental Health Interventions

Cost-benefit Analysis of Environmental Health Interventions
Present Issues and Future Steps

by C. Guerriero

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Environmental Health Costs in Colombia

Environmental Health Costs in Colombia
The Changes from 2002 to 2010

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Applied Methods of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Health Care

Applied Methods of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Health Care
A Book

by Emma McIntosh

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2010-06-24
  • Pages : 267
  • ISBN : 0199237123
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive set of instructions and examples of how to perform a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a health intervention, with a particular focus on the use of stated preference survey methods to identify consumer preference data and the use of recent developments in cost-effectiveness analysis within a CBA framework.

The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy

The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy
A Book

by Michael A. Livermore,Richard L. Revesz

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2013-01-07
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 0199324115
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cost-benefit analysis -- the formal estimating and weighing of the costs and benefits of policy alternatives -- is a standard tool for governments in advanced economies. Through decades of research and innovation, institutions have developed in the United States, European Union, and other developed countries that examine and weigh policy alternatives as an aid to governmental decisionmaking. Lawmakers in the advanced economies have used cost-benefit analysis to evaluate core environmental and public health questions, such as urban air pollution control, water quality, and occupational safety. Yet despite its broad adoption in the industrialized world, most developing and emerging countries have not yet incorporated cost-benefit analysis into their policymaking process. Because these countries face significant limitations on financial resources and have less ability to shoulder inefficient rules, it is extremely important for their officials to determine which policies maximize net benefits for their societies. The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy examines how cost-benefit analysis can help developing and emerging countries confront the next generation of environmental and public-health challenges. Analysis in the book examines the growing reach of cost-benefit analysis; presents relevant case studies where cost-benefit analysis has been incorporated in the Americas, Africa, Middle East, and Asia; and includes a discussion on the conceptual and institutional issues that must be addressed when adopting cost-benefit analysis in developing and emerging countries. In part because governments in developing and emerging countries have not extensively used cost-benefit analysis, there has been only limited research and discussion of the practice and its potential. Most work that has been done is on the domestic or regional level, and has not been widely shared or distributed within the international academic or policy community. By providing both theoretical and practical discussion of this important new tool, this book makes a valuable contribution to the fields of environmental policy, development studies, and environmental law.

Child Survival and Environmental Health Interventions

Child Survival and Environmental Health Interventions
A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

by Robert C. G. Varley,Environmental Health Project,United States. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support, and Research

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 26
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report argues that environmental health interventions prevent illness by reducing exposure to adverse conditions and by promoting behavioral change. Child morbidity and mortality levels and rates have plateaued after considerable progress over the past 20 years. New environmental hazards in urban areas and demographic changes threaten advances made in the past decades. Environmental health interventions tend not to be included in child survival packages because of assumptions about cost effectiveness or the role of health service providers. Water supply and sanitation were ignored after 1979 due to cost comparisons made by Walsh and Warren (1979). This analysis differs from the Walsh and Warren cost analysis in being limited to health sector costs. This model is described in chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes a framework developed for integrating environmental health interventions with child survival. Chapter 3 discusses the impact and effectiveness of hygiene interventions for controlling childhood diarrhea. Chapter 4 explains some principles of the proposed cost effectiveness model and how costs were estimated. Chapter 5 presents the cost effectiveness results. Chapter 6 draws conclusions and puts forth recommendations. The model assumes that costs of physical hardware and physical infrastructure are not a health sector budget cost. User charges and public health subsidies pay for construction through public works. The indicative cutoff value for cost effectiveness is $150 per disability-adjusted life year. The model is based on the global disease paradigm of Murray and Lopez (1994) and the WDR. It offers guidance on ranking of interventions and determining research priorities. The costs of hygiene are the costs of carrying out ongoing campaigns of hygiene promotion and maintaining contact with target clients. Hygiene was found to be cost-effective in four scenarios in Mexico.

Environmental Health Policy

Environmental Health Policy
A Book

by Ball, David

  • Publisher : McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
  • Release : 2006-12-01
  • Pages : 283
  • ISBN : 0335218431
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Annotation.

Environmental Health Risks

Environmental Health Risks
Ethical Aspects

by Friedo Zölzer,Gaston Meskens

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2018-09-25
  • Pages : 198
  • ISBN : 1351273345
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Environmental health involves the assessment and control of environmental factors that can potentially affect human health, such as radiation, toxic chemicals and other hazardous agents. It is less commonly understood that environmental health also requires addressing questions of an ethical nature. Bringing together work from experts across a range of sub-disciplines of environmental health, this collection of essays discusses the ethical implications of environmental health research and its application, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Ethics of Environmental Health held in August 2016 in the Czech Republic. In doing so, it builds upon the insights and ideas put forward in the first volume of Ethics of Environmental Health, published by Routledge in early 2017. This volume will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental health, applied ethics, environmental ethics, medical ethics and bioethics, as well as those concerned with public health, environmental studies, toxicology and radiation.

Environmental Health and Child Survival

Environmental Health and Child Survival
Epidemiology, Economics, Experiences

by World Bank

  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release : 2008-06-16
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 9780821372371
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Each year, millions of children in developing countries fall sick and die from diseases caused by polluted air, contaminated water and soil, and poor hygiene behavior. Repeated infectious also contribute to malnutrition in children, and subsequently impacts future learning and productivity. This book analyzes the linkages between malnutrition and environmental health, and assesses the burden of disease on young children, and its economic costs.

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 7)

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 7)
Injury Prevention and Environmental Health

by Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent,Olive Kobusingye,Kirk R. Smith

  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release : 2017-10-27
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 1464805237
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The substantial burden of death and disability that results from interpersonal violence, road traffic injuries, unintentional injuries, occupational health risks, air pollution, climate change, and inadequate water and sanitation falls disproportionally on low- and middle-income countries. Injury Prevention and Environmental Health addresses the risk factors and presents updated data on the burden, as well as economic analyses of platforms and packages for delivering cost-effective and feasible interventions in these settings. The volume's contributors demonstrate that implementation of a range of prevention strategies-presented in an essential package of interventions and policies-could achieve a convergence in death and disability rates that would avert more than 7.5 million deaths a year.

Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
A Book

by Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Committee to Evaluate Measures of Health Benefits for Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulation

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2006-04-28
  • Pages : 382
  • ISBN : 0309164842
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Promoting human health and safety by reducing exposures to risks and harms through regulatory interventions is among the most important responsibilities of the government. Such efforts encompass a wide array of activities in many different contexts: improving air and water quality; safeguarding the food supply; reducing the risk of injury on the job, in transportation, and from consumer products; and minimizing exposure to toxic chemicals. Estimating the magnitude of the expected health and longevity benefits and reductions in mortality, morbidity, and injury risks helps policy makers decide whether particular interventions merit the expected costs associated with achieving these benefits and inform their choices among alternative strategies. Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis provides useful recommendations for how to measure health-related quality of- life impacts for diverse public health, safety, and environmental regulations. Public decision makers, regulatory analysts, scholars, and students in the field will find this an essential review text. It will become a standard reference for all government agencies and those consultants and contractors who support the work of regulatory programs.

Advanced Introduction to Cost–Benefit Analysis

Advanced Introduction to Cost–Benefit Analysis
A Book

by Robert J. Brent

  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release : 2017-10-27
  • Pages : 160
  • ISBN : 1785361767
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This concise yet comprehensive introduction aims to outline the core principles of Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA), laying them out in an accessible manner with minimum technical detail. The applied nature of the subject is emphasized by showing how each of the principles is applied to an actual public policy intervention, covering transport, education, health and the environment. Robert Brent demonstrates how economic efficiency and equity can be combined as social objectives to help determine decisions that can increase satisfaction for all.

Cleaning Pakistan’s Air

Cleaning Pakistan’s Air
Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

by Ernesto Sánchez-Triana,Santiago Enriquez,Javaid Afzal,Akiko Nakagawa,Asif Shuja Khan

  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release : 2014-06-26
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 146480236X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The extent of urban air pollution in Pakistan—South Asia's most urbanized country—is among the world’s most severe, significantly damaging human health, quality of life, and the economy and environment of Pakistan. The harm from Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the highest in South Asia, exceeding several high-profile causes of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. Improved air quality management (AQM) in Pakistan can have notable economic and health benefits. For example, the estimated health benefits per dollar spent on cleaner diesel are approximately US $1–1.5 for light-duty diesel vehicles and US $1.5–2.4 for large buses and trucks. This report advocates that Pakistan allocate resources to AQM, because its air quality is severely affecting millions of Pakistanis, and because experiences around the world indicate that interventions can significantly improve air quality. This report details a broad spectrum of research on Pakistan’s AQM challenges, and identifies a comprehensive set of steps to improve air quality. The research presented here underpins the conclusions that addressing Pakistan's urban air pollution requires coordinated interventions to strengthen AQM, build agencies' institutional capacity, bolster AQM's legal and regulatory framework, implement policy reforms and investments, and fill knowledge gaps. However, Pakistan's policy makers face major obstacles, including limited financial, human, and technical resources, and can pursue only a few AQM interventions at the same time. In the short term, Pakistan's AQM should give highest priority to reducing pollutants linked to high morbidity and mortality: PM2.5 (and precursors like SOx and NOx) from mobile sources. A second-level short-term priority could be PM2.5, SOx, and emissions of toxic metals from stationary sources. An important medium-term priority should be mass transportation in major cities, controlling traffic, and restricting private cars during high-pollution episodes. A long-term priority could be taxing hydrocarbons, based on their contribution to greenhouse gases.

Valuing Water, Valuing Livelihoods

Valuing Water, Valuing Livelihoods
Guidance on Social Cost-benefit Analysis of Drinking-water Interventions, with Special Reference to Small Community Water Supplies

by John Cameron

  • Publisher : IWA Publishing
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 9241564288
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book gives decision makers, health professionals and analysts a comprehensive view of the arguments and challenges associated with establishing the value of drinking-water interventions. The experts who have contributed to this publication provide guidance on assessing the benefits from improving access to safe drinking water and from reducing the burden of water-related diseases. They show how to compare the value of these benefits to the costs of the interventions, with special reference to small-scale drinking water systems.

Global Crises, Global Solutions

Global Crises, Global Solutions
Costs and Benefits

by Bjørn Lomborg

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2009-07-09
  • Pages : 681
  • ISBN : 0521517214
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A timely collection of arguments and data for prioritizing responses to some of the most serious problems facing the world, such as climate change, communicable diseases, and financial instability, features contributions by economists from around the world. Simultaneous.

How Much have Global Problems Cost the World?

How Much have Global Problems Cost the World?
A Book

by Bjørn Lomborg

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2013-10-10
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 1107027330
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bjorn Lomborg invites leading economists to provide an innovative 150-year view of humanity's biggest challenges, measured in economic terms."

Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research

Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research
A Book

by Rhiannon Tudor Edwards,Emma McIntosh

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2019-03-19
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0191057223
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In today's world of scare resources, determining the optimal allocation of funds to preventive health care interventions (PHIs) is a challenge. The upfront investments needed must be viewed as long term projects, the benefits of which we will experience in the future. The long term positive change to PHIs from economic investment can be seen across multiple sectors such as health care, education, employment and beyond. Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research is the fifth in the series of Handbooks in Health Economic Evaluation. It presents new research on health economics methodology and application to the evaluation of public health interventions. Looking at traditional as well as novel methods of economic evaluation, the book covers the history of economics of public health and the economic rationale for government investment in prevention. In addition, it looks at principles of health economics, evidence synthesis, key methods of economic evaluation with accompanying case studies, and much more. Looking to the future, Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research presents priorities for research in the field of public health economics. It acknowledges the role played by natural environment in promoting better health, and the place of genetics, environment and socioeconomic status in determining population health. Ideal for health economists, public health researchers, local government workers, health care professionals, and those responsible for health policy development. Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research is an important contribution to the economic discussion of public health and resource allocation.

Guidelines for Evaluation of Environmental Health Services

Guidelines for Evaluation of Environmental Health Services
A Book

by Christina H. Drew,Xavier Bonnefoy,Jaco van Duivenboden

  • Publisher : WHO Regional Office Europe
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 185
  • ISBN : 9289013575
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A practical guide to concepts, methods, and instruments for conducting an evaluation of environmental health services. Noting that managers frequently overlook the importance of evaluation, the book also performs a persuasive function, serving to illustrate the advantages of evaluation for purposes ranging from the justification of continuing expenditure to assurance that public health is being adequately protected from hazards in food, air or water. Throughout the book, examples of evaluations conducted in European countries are used to show how different approaches work to resolve specific practical problems. The book has six chapters. The first provides a general introduction to the purpose, principles and components of evaluation, as well as procedures that are frequently used. Chapter two applies these general principles to the specific setting of environmental health services, where process, impact, relevance, and adequacy of services may need to be assessed. Factors that make such services difficult to evaluate through traditional mechanisms are also briefly discussed. Against this background, a chapter on data and indicators provides detailed advice on the choice of indicators, concentrating on the use of process, environmental health, and urban indicators. Chapter four, on instruments for evaluation, outlines the strengths and weaknesses of several methods of data collection, giving particular attention to tools for economic analysis and qualitative evaluation. The remaining chapters cover the use of results in management decisions and set out five case studies of evaluations recently conducted in Europe.

Cost-benefit Analysis of the Onchoceriasis Control Program (OCP)

Cost-benefit Analysis of the Onchoceriasis Control Program (OCP)
A Book

by Ae-hy?ng Kim,Bruce Benton

  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release : 1995-01-01
  • Pages : 18
  • ISBN : 9780821332351
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Annotation World Bank Technical Paper No. 282. This volume presents a cost-benefit analysis of the Onchocerciasis (Riverblindness) Control Program (OCP) by examining its costs and the measurable economic benefits gained from the successful control of the disease. Widely recognized as one of the most successful disease control programs in the history of development assistance, the OCP projects the elimination of riverblindness throughout an eleven-country subregion of West Africa within the next eight years. This program, which began in the early 1970s, was the World Bank's first major venture into the health field. The Bank asked a large donor community of more than 20 governments and international organizations to make a long-term commitment of more than US$500 million to implement the OCP. This paper documents the benefits in economic terms from the large investment and shows that large-scale, well-conceived health interventions are clearly the business of development. The program improves the health and living environment of the rural population and frees previously oncho-ridden tracts of land for settlement and cultivation.

Water Quality

Water Quality
Guidelines, Standards, and Health : Assessment of Risk and Risk Management for Water-related Infectious Disease

by World Health Organization

  • Publisher : World Health Organization
  • Release : 2001-07
  • Pages : 424
  • ISBN : 924154533X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The quality of water, whether it is used for drinking, irrigation or recreational purposes, is significant for health in both developing and developed countries worldwide. This book is based on a programme of work undertaken by an international group of experts during 1999-2001. The aim was to develop a harmonised framework of effective and affordable guidelines and standards to improve the risk assessment and management of water-related microbial hazards. This book will be useful to all those concerned with issues relating to microbial water quality and health, including environmental and public health scientists, water scientists, policy makers and those responsible for developing standards and regulations.