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Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut

Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut
Effects on Human Health and Disease

by Kieran Tuohy,Daniele Del Rio

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-08-04
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 0124079415
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets — including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development. One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and disease Experts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approaches Clear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations

P4-33-01 - Food & Nutrition: The Driving Factors of Our Gut Microbes

P4-33-01 - Food & Nutrition: The Driving Factors of Our Gut Microbes
A Book

by Matthias Scholz

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction: The gut microbiome has attracted much attention in the last decade due to new studies and technologies revealing how gut microbes play a key role in human health and disease risk. However, we still know little about how diets, foods and nutrients shape the gut microbiome.Materials and Methods:To expand our knowledge about the complex relationship between nutrient intake and intestinal bacteria, we performed a broad dietary study covering diverse foods and nutrient intakes of nearly 100 adults. We analyzed metataxonomic data from 16S rRNA sequencing and correlated the microbial abundances of the top 55 dominant taxonomic groups with collected intakes of 40 food groups and 44 nutritional parameters, as well as degree of adherence to healthy eating patterns. Based on Spearman correlation profiles and hierarchical clustering, we also identified food groups and nutritional parameters that modulate in a similar manner microbial community structure.Results: We will present preliminary results showing direct effects of specific dietary patterns (e.g. adherence to the Mediterranean style diet), food groups (e.g., fruits, nuts, dairy) and nutrients (e.g. iron, magnesium, zinc) on specific genera of the gut microbiota. We found significant associations between alcohol and the bacterial genus Holdemania. We will show that food groups supposed to belong to the same higher-level food category do not always show the expected effect on the gut microbes, which supports the need for a detailed food classification scheme to investigate dietary effects. Similarly, we found that correlations at dietary and higher food group levels more consistently reflect existing diet:microbe associations from the literature while correlations at the nutrient level are prone to confounding factors only apparent at higher alimentary ontology.Discussion: Our study aims at a more complete understanding of the complex relations between human diet and gut microbiome community structure. Initial results confirm that both the quantity of a nutrient and the dietary source of a nutrient can both influence associations with gut bacteria. Our results may help to define new strategies for modelling diet:microbe interactions in the gut providing a new valuable tool to assist the nutrition and gut microbiome communities.Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest.

The Gut Microbiome, An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, E-Book

The Gut Microbiome, An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, E-Book
A Book

by Eamonn M.M. Quigley

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2017-02-09
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN : 0323509975
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Dr. Quigley has created a must-have reference on the gut microbiome for the practicing gastroenterologist. A leader in the field of human physiology and digestive disorders, he has laid out the basics on this increasingly important topic, devoting articles to the organization and biology of the human gut microbiome as well as its diagnostic potential. Top international authors have presented articles that discuss the intersection of the gut microbiome and diet and the gut-brain axis. Clinical implications of the gut microbiome are discussed with disease states like IBD, GI cancer, and liver diseases. Finally, the issue ends with the cutting-edge clinical innovation of fecal microbial transplantation. This issue bridges the gap between science and clinical practice and should be an important reference to practicing gastroenterologists.

Host-microbe-diet Interplay

Host-microbe-diet Interplay
Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota in Relation to Health

by Inés Martínez Ramos

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 273
  • ISBN : 9781267582324
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Vertebrates are associated with trillions of bacteria, with the densest populations residing in the large intestine. The symbiosis between vertebrates and their gut microbiota has resulted in important implications of the gut microbiome on host health. Diet is an important factor that shapes gut microbiota composition, and because of the interplay between host-microbiome-diet, dietary strategies that modulate gut microbiome structure are deemed a relevant tool to improve host health. However, gaps in knowledge exist with respect to these interactions, and it is essential to obtain a mechanistic understanding of how these relations take place to develop successful therapeutic strategies that target the gut microbiome. In order to address these gaps, human trials were performed to assess the impact of primary components of the human diet, resistant starches and whole grains, on the gut microbiota. Overall, the impact of diet was temporal and varied across subjects. Resistant starches substantially modulated the gut bacterial community of the subject population, especially increasing the abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis . Ruminococcus bromii , Eubacterium rectale , and Parabacteroides distasonis were also significantly enriched. Dietary incorporation of whole grains increased the proportions of Eubacterium rectale and acetogens such as Blautia wexlerae . Of note, whole grains significantly improved inflammation and glycemic parameters. The shifts in Eubacterium rectale correlated with glycemic improvements. Moreover, distinct abundances of Dialister were determined among subjects that differed in terms of their inflammatory improvement. To gain mechanistic insight on the host-microbe-diet interplay, animal experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of grain sorghum lipids and plant sterol esters in the context of dyslipidemia. Significant and consistent alterations in gut microbiota composition were detected in both experiments, especially involving shifts in Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae abundance, which displayed remarkable correlations to host cholesterol markers. Mathematical modeling of these associations revealed them to be inhibitory interactions, suggesting that changes in host metabolism affected gut microbiome structure through an antimicrobial effect of cholesterol, which was conformed in vitro against selected gut microbes. In conclusion, the studies presented in this dissertation allowed new insights on the impact of diet on the gut microbiota and its consequences for health.

The Enteric Microbiota

The Enteric Microbiota
A Book

by Francisco Guarner

  • Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • Release : 2011-12-13
  • Pages : 100
  • ISBN : 1615041982
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The human gut is the natural habitat for a diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem having an important impact on health and disease. Bacteria have lived in and on animal hosts since multicellular life evolved about 1 billion years ago. Hosts provide habitat and nutrition to the microbial communities and derive many benefits from their guests that contribute with metabolic (recovery of energy and nutrients), defensive (barrier effect against invaders) and trophic (immune regulation, neuro-endocrine development) functions. Several disease states or disorders have been associated with changes in the composition or function of the enteric microbiota, including inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Probiotics and prebiotics can be used to improve symbiosis between enteric microbiota and host, or correct states of dysbiosis. Table of Contents: Microbial Communities / Host-Microbe Interactions in the Gut / Composition of the Human Enteric Microbiota / Acquisition of the Enteric Microbiota / Dysfunction of the Enteric Microbiota / Therapeutic Manipulation of the Enteric Microbiota / References / Author Biography

P2-20-02 - The Profile of Bile Acids and Their Sulfate Metabolites in Post-prandial Human Serum Suggest Sex-related Differences

P2-20-02 - The Profile of Bile Acids and Their Sulfate Metabolites in Post-prandial Human Serum Suggest Sex-related Differences
A Book

by Maria Ulaszewska

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Diet:gut microbiota interactions are likely to play a key role in influencing hepatic bile acids (BAs) neosynthesis and production of secondary and tertiary BAs in the intestine. There are few studies exploring how diet:microbe interactions can modulate BAs profile in humans. In this work developed an isotopic dilution LCu2013ESI-MS/MS method for a comprehensive analysis of BAs in human serum. We applied this method to study the kinetics of serum BAs after ingestion of two varieties of blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosumand Vaccinium myrtillus. We used a combination of quantitative (LC-TripleQuad) and qualitative (LC-HR-Orbitrap) analysis for discover new BAs isomers. Their presence was confirmed by fragmentation pattern similarities with analytical standards and mass accuracy measurements in full scan and MS/MS modes. In XX health subjects, XX male and XY female, BAs concentrations in serum were measured up to 6h postprandial following consumption of two types of blueberry (25 g). For the first time sulfates conjugated forms of BAs were measured and quantified using deuterated bile acids internal standards. We separated forty nine bile acids and quantified them at trace nM levels. A strategy of scheduled/ unscheduled injections of real samples allowed us to find additional BAs isomers not a priori included in the method, while high resolution full scan and MS/MS fragmentation analysis confirmed their structural adherence to the bile acid family.Postprandial BA profiles showed high inter-individual variation, both in concentrations and composition of plasma BAs in fasting and postprandial state. However, measured values were consistent with previous reports. We found differences in BA concentrations and time to reach maximum postprandial concentrations between males and females. Males had higher plasma BA concentrations than females, and reached maximum levels more quickly than females. Despite high inter-individual variability we found three distinct subgroups through hierarchical clustering suggesting possible metabotypes in postprandial plasma BAs responses. These findings open new perspectives in understanding of bile acid homeostasis, individual BA responses to foods, possibly including sex specific effects, and warrant further studies on the metabolic and inflammatory consequences of dietary modification of plasma BA profiles given the signaling potential of BA through nuclear receptors (e.g. FXR, VDR, PXR) and bile acid receptors (TGR5).Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest'.

Insights into Microbe-Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems: Strategies to be Competitive

Insights into Microbe-Microbe Interactions in Human Microbial Ecosystems: Strategies to be Competitive

by Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán,Nuria Salazar

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-12-01
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 288945052X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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All parts of our body having communication with the external environment such as the skin, vagina, the respiratory tract or the gastrointestinal tract are colonized by a specific microbial community. The colon is by far the most densely populated organ in the human body. The pool of microbes inhabiting our body is known as “microbiota” and their collective genomes as “microbiome”. These microbial ecosystems regulate important functions of the host, and their functionality and the balance among the diverse microbial populations is essential for the maintenance of a “healthy status”. The impressive development in recent years of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods have made possible to determine the gut microbiome composition. This, together with the application of other high throughput omic techniques and the use of gnotobiotic animals has greatly improved our knowledge of the microbiota acting as a whole. In spite of this, most members of the human microbiota are largely unknown and remain still uncultured. The final functionality of the microbiota is depending not only on nutrient availability and environmental conditions, but also on the interrelationships that the microorganisms inhabiting the same ecological niche are able to establish with their partners, or with their potential competitors. Therefore, in such a competitive environment microorganisms have had to develop strategies allowing them to cope, adapt, or cooperate with their neighbors, which may imply notable changes at metabolic, physiological and genetic level. The main aim of this Research Topic was to contribute to better understanding complex interactions among microorganisms residing in human microbial habitats.

Understanding and Exploiting Host-Commensal Interactions to Combat Pathogens

Understanding and Exploiting Host-Commensal Interactions to Combat Pathogens
A Book

by Sudhanshu Shekhar,Fernanda Cristina Petersen,Xi Yang

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-01-14
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889633365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Trillions of commensal microbes reside on and inside the human body, including the intestinal and respiratory tracts, which encompass various microbial taxa, such as bacteria, fungi, archea and viruses. The close proximity of microbes with the host provides an opportunity to continually interact with each other. Advances in research approaches, including high-throughput sequencing, have allowed us to study host and commensal microbes at the genetic and functional levels. Recent studies suggest that commensal microbes play a crucial role in the development of the host’s immune system and induce innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens. It is also becoming apparent that the gut commensals are endowed with a capacity to alter immune responses in organs beyond the intestine, such as the lungs, highlighting the significance of the gut commensals in controlling systemic immunity. On the other hand, the host’s immune system possesses the ability to shape the repertoire of commensal microbes and contribute to the establishment of beneficial relationships with them. A better understanding of host-commensal interactions will be important for designing effective vaccines and therapeutics against pathogens. This Research Topic sheds light on our current understanding of the interplay between the host’s immune system and commensal microbes and how this interplay can be exploited for prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategies against pathogens.

Bioactive Compounds in Fermented Foods

Bioactive Compounds in Fermented Foods
Health Aspects

by Amit Kumar Rai,Anu Appaiah K. A.

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2021-11-29
  • Pages : 414
  • ISBN : 042965121X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The volume reviews different types of bioactive components associated with food fermentation and their impact on human health. The diversity of microorganism responsible for the production of different types of fermented foods and beverages includes bacteria, yeasts, and fungi. Biotransformation of food constituent by microorganisms occurs during fermentation processes for the production of fermented food and in the gastrointestinal tract by gut microorganisms. This biotransformation results in production of specific bioactive compounds that are responsible for a wide range of health benefits. The bioactive compounds discussed in this book includes polyphenols, bioactive peptides, fibrinolytic enzymes, gama-amino butyric acids (GABA) exopolysaccharides, probiotic, prebiotic, symbiotic and antinutritional factors. These bioactive compounds are responsible for health benefits such as antioxidant, antihypertension, antimicrobial, cholesterol lowering, anticancer, obesity and antithrombotic properties. Advanced research in the field of food fermentation and their health benefits have resulted in commercialization of some of the fermented foods as functional foods. The traditional fermented foods consumed in different parts of the world and their health benefits are discussed in detail and the book concludes with recent advances in microbial transformation during gut fermentation and their impact on human health. There has been increasing interest among researchers on the proposed title in the last decade and the book brings updated information on research and advances in different types of health benefits exhibited by bioactive compounds in a wide range of fermented foods.

Prebiotics and Probiotics Science and Technology

Prebiotics and Probiotics Science and Technology
A Book

by Dimitris Charalampopoulos,Robert A. Rastall

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2009-08-12
  • Pages : 1262
  • ISBN : 0387790578
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A comprehensive overview on the advances in the field, this volume presents the science underpinning the probiotic and prebiotic effects, the latest in vivo studies, the technological issues in the development and manufacture of these types of products, and the regulatory issues involved. It will be a useful reference for both scientists and technologists working in academic and governmental institutes, and the industry.

Primary Care Nutrition

Primary Care Nutrition
Writing the Nutrition Prescription

by David Heber,Zhaoping Li

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-07-14
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 1351648209
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book contains the necessary knowledge and tools to incorporate nutrition into primary care practice. As a practical matter, this effort is led by a dedicated primary care physician with the help of motivated registered dietitians, nurses, psychologists, physical therapists, and office staff whether within a known practice or by referral to the community. It is essential that the nutrition prescription provided by the physician be as efficient as possible. While many team members have superior knowledge in the areas of nutrition, exercise, and psychology, the health practitioner remains the focus of patient confidence in a therapy plan. Therefore, the endorsement of the plan rather than the implementation of the plan is the most important task of the physician. This book proposes a significant change in attitude of primary health care providers in terms of the power of nutrition in prevention and treatment of common disease. It features detailed and referenced information on the role of nutrition in the most common conditions encountered in primary care practice. In the past, treatment focused primarily on drugs and surgery for the treatment of disease with nutrition as an afterthought. Advanced technologies and drugs are effective for the treatment of acute disease, but many of the most common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer are not preventable with drugs and surgery. While there is mention of prevention of heart disease, this largely relates to the use of statins with some modest discussion of a healthy diet. Similarly, prevention of type 2 diabetes is the early introduction of metformin or intensive insulin therapy.

Microbial Diversity in Ecosystem Sustainability and Biotechnological Applications

Microbial Diversity in Ecosystem Sustainability and Biotechnological Applications
Volume 1. Microbial Diversity in Normal & Extreme Environments

by Tulasi Satyanarayana,Bhavdish Narain Johri,Subrata Kumar Das

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-07-17
  • Pages : 635
  • ISBN : 9811383154
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses microbial diversity in various habitats and environments, its role in ecosystem maintenance, and its potential applications (e.g. biofertilizers, biocatalysts, antibiotics, other bioactive compounds, exopolysaccharides etc.). The respective chapters, all contributed by renowned experts, offer cutting-edge information in the fields of microbial ecology and biogeography. The book explains the reasons behind the occurrence of various biogeographies and highlights recent tools (e.g. metagenomics) that can aid in biogeography studies by providing information on nucleic acid sequence data, thereby directly identifying microorganisms in various habitats and environments. In turn, the book describes how human intervention results in depletion of biodiversity, and how numerous hotspots are now losing their endemic biodiversity, resulting in the loss of many ecologically important microorganisms. In closing, the book underscores the importance of microbial diversity for sustainable ecosystems.

Dietary Polyphenols

Dietary Polyphenols
Metabolism and Health Effects

by Francisco A . Tomás-Barberán,Antonio González-Sarrías,Rocío García-Villalba

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-10-20
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 1119563712
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Presents recent research on metabolism and the health effects of polyphenols Consumer interest in the health benefits of many phenolic compounds found in plant foods and derivatives has grown considerably in recent years, giving rise to an increased demand for functional foods. Although preclinical and observational studies have promoted the protective properties of polyphenols for a range of chronic diseases, evidence has shown that most dietary polyphenols have little bioavailability. Once ingested, most of them are metabolized by either the intestinal enzymes or by the gut microbiota and then undergo extensive phase-II metabolism reaching significant concentrations of conjugated metabolites. They remain in the systemic circulation and target systemic tissues where trigger biological effects. The polyphenol-derived metabolites produced in humans are dependent upon the composition of the gut microbiota and the subject genetics. Thus all the metabolites do not show the same biological activity in different individuals. To fully understand the health effects of polyphenols, further clinical investigations are required. Dietary Polyphenols describes the latest findings on the polyphenol metabolism and reviews the current evidence on their health effects and that of their bioavailable metabolites. Emphasizing the importance of interindividual variability and the critical role of gut microbiota, this authoritative volume features contributions from recognized experts in the field, exploring specific families of extractable and non-extractable phenolic compounds that exhibit potential health effects. Topics include structural diversity of polyphenols and distribution in foods, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of phenolics, metabolism, and gastrointestinal absorption of various metabolites and their health effects. This comprehensive volume: Discusses the bioavailability, bioaccessibility, pharmacokinetics studies, and microbial metabolism of different groups of phenolic compounds Examines the interaction between polyphenols and gut microbiota Describes analytical methods for identifying and quantifying polyphenols in foods and biological samples Reviews recent epidemiological and clinical intervention studies showing protective effects of polyphenols Dietary Polyphenols: Metabolism and Health Effects is an important resource for scientists working in the area of dietary polyphenols and health effects, microbiota, and their interaction with other nutritional compounds, and for health professionals, nutritionists, dieticians, and clinical researchers with interest in the role of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases

Bifidobacteria and Their Role in the Human Gut Microbiota. 2nd Edition

Bifidobacteria and Their Role in the Human Gut Microbiota. 2nd Edition
A Book

by Francesca Turroni,David Berry,Marco Ventura

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-02-14
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN : 2889633543
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The human intestine is home of an almost inconceivable large number of microorganisms. The human gut microbiota can therefore be pictured as an organ placed within a host organism. The human gut microbiome, which in total may contain >100 times the number of genes present in our genome, endows us with functional features that we did not have to evolve ourselves. It is recognized that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health and disease. In fact, gut bacteria other than metabolize dietary components, may play complex roles such as modulation of the immune system and in reduction of gut infections. Variations in the presence and/or abundance of certain components of the intestinal microbiota have repeatedly been observed in patients that suffer from atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, infectious colitis, colon cancer and diabetes. In this context, bifidobacteria represent one of the most common bacterial members of the human gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are anaerobic, Gram-positive, irregular or branched rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the gastro-intestinal tracts (GIT) of humans, especially during the first stages of life and most animal and insects. Bifidobacterial fluctuations seem directly associated with health effects and for these reasons they are being exploited as health-promoting or probiotic bacteria. However, despite the extensive commercial exploitation of bifidobacteria as probiotic bacteria, little is known about their impact or dependency on other members of the human gut microbiota or on their host. Genome analyses have highlighted the existence of gene repertoires encoding products that are responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria to the human intestine and intense research efforts at international level are ongoing to understand the molecular details of these interactions. Specifically, the molecular interactions that are presumed to exist between bifidobacteria and the human host, as well as interactions between different residents of intestinal microbiota are the main topic of bifidobacterial research communities.

The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Dysbiosis

by Martin H. Floch,Yehuda Ringel,W. Allen Walker

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-11-16
  • Pages : 442
  • ISBN : 0128040629
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implications for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis is a one-stop reference on the state-of-the-art research on gut microbial ecology in relation to human disease. This important resource starts with an overview of the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, Ileum, and colon. The book then identifies what a healthy vs. unhealthy microbial community looks like, including methods of identification. Also included is insight into which features and contributions the microbiota make that are essential and useful to host physiology, as is information on how to promote appropriate mutualisms and prevent undesirable dysbioses. Through the power of synthesizing what is known by experienced researchers in the field, current gaps are closed, raising understanding of the role of the microbiome and allowing for further research. Explains how to modify the gut microbiota and how the current strategies used to do this produce their effects Explores the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target Provides the synthesis of existing data from both mainstream and non-mainstream sources through experienced researchers in the field Serves as a ‘one-stop’ shop for a topic that’s currently spread across a number of various journals

Beneficial Microorganisms in Medical and Health Applications

Beneficial Microorganisms in Medical and Health Applications
A Book

by Min-Tze Liong

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-12-12
  • Pages : 261
  • ISBN : 3319232134
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume is devoted to the application of microorganisms in medical treatment and health protection. Topics discussed include the role of probiotics in immune modulation, in prevention of influenza, and in atopic dermatitis. Further chapters cover aspects such as the relation of the gut microbiome and stress, the immune system, the regulation of inflammation, the benefits of Bifidobacterium for infants, and bacteriocin in medical applications, as well as the use of in vitro models of the gastrointestinal tract, omics approaches for targeting microbial health potential and the production of hepatitis B vaccines. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists working in the fields of clinical medicine, applied microbiology, pharmacy and public health.

Dietary Modulation of Host-Microbe Interactions

Dietary Modulation of Host-Microbe Interactions
A Book

by Kourtney P. Nickerson

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 126
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disease affecting an estimated 1.3 million individuals in the United States alone, with worldwide incidence rapidly rising. Crohn's Disease (CD), one subtype of IBD, is believed to arise in response to environmental priming resulting in inappropriate immune responses against commensal bacteria in a genetically susceptible individual. While the scientific community has made great progress in understanding the genetics and altered immune responses observed in CD patients, little is known about the environmental factors important in shaping disease. Sugar consumption and artificial sweeteners, as well as a "Western" diet, are environmental factors associated with onset of CD. We broadly hypothesized that diet was driving changes in bacterial adhesion promoting disease onset. We identified a polymer of glucose, maltodextrin (MDX), that modulates both bacterial interaction with the environment as well as cellular response to intracellular bacteria. MDX was identified as a phenotype-enhancing compound after panels of Escherichia coli species were subjected to an array of polysaccharides. Strains of adherent-invasive E. coli have been isolated from inflamed lesions of CD patients, while changes in spatial organization of the CD microbiome results in a bacterial biofilm adherent to the intestine epithelium. E. coli species exhibit significant increases in bacterial adhesion after exposure to MDX and isolation of bacterial DNA from ileal CD patients had higher levels of the gene MalX, a bacterial gene require for metabolism of MDX. These data suggests the polysaccharide MDX can promote E. coli adhesion and may influence bacterial populations in CD patients.Genetic studies have identified clusters of CD-associated genes in antibacterial pathways; therefore we looked at the effect of cellular MDX in the context of intracellular bacterial clearance. Exposure of cells to MDX impaired intracellular Salmonella clearance through alterations in trafficking resulting in enhanced Salmonella viability. Similar results were observed in mice infected with Salmonella, 100-fold more viable bacteria recovered from the cecum of MDX fed mice. Our work identifies a role for the polysaccharide MDX in shaping host-microbial interactions which may be important for development of chronic disease states like CD.

Analysis in Nutrition Research

Analysis in Nutrition Research
Principles of Statistical Methodology and Interpretation of the Results

by George Pounis

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-10-19
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 0128145579
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Analysis in Nutrition Research: Principles of Statistical Methodology and Interpretation of the Results describes, in a comprehensive manner, the methodologies of quantitative analysis of data originating specifically from nutrition studies. The book summarizes various study designs in nutrition research, research hypotheses, the proper management of dietary data, and analytical methodologies, with a specific focus on how to interpret the results of any given study. In addition, it provides a comprehensive overview of the methodologies used in study design and the management and analysis of collected data, paying particular attention to all of the available, modern methodologies and techniques. Users will find an overview of the recent challenges and debates in the field of nutrition research that will define major research hypotheses for research in the next ten years. Nutrition scientists, researchers and undergraduate and postgraduate students will benefit from this thorough publication on the topic. Provides a comprehensive presentation of the various study designs applied in nutrition research Contains a parallel description of statistical methodologies used for each study design Presents data management methodologies used specifically in nutrition research Describes methodologies using both a theoretical and applied approach Illustrates modern techniques in dietary pattern analysis Summarizes current topics in the field of nutrition research that will define major research hypotheses for research in the next ten years

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research

Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research
A Book

by Jess Reed,Victor de Freitas,Stéphane Quideau

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-04-27
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 1119545943
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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RECENT ADVANCES IN POLYPHENOL RESEARCH Plant polyphenols are secondary metabolites that constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of natural products. They are essential plant components for adaptation to the environment and possess a large and diverse range of biological functions that provide many benefits to both plants and humans. Polyphenols, from their structurally simplest forms to their oligo/polymeric versions (i.e. tannin and lignin), are phytoestrogens, plant pigments, antioxidants, and structural components of the plant cell wall. The interaction between tannins and proteins is involved in plant defense against predation, cause astringency in foods and beverages, and affect the nutritional and health properties of human and animal food plants. This seventh volume of the highly regarded Recent Advances in Polyphenol Research series is edited by Jess Dreher Reed, Victor Armando Pereira de Freitas, and Stéphane Quideau, and brings together chapters written by some of the leading experts working in the polyphenol sciences today. Topics covered include: Chemistry and physicochemistry Biosynthesis, genetics and metabolic engineering Roles in plants and ecosystems Food, nutrition and health Applied polyphenols Distilling the most recent and illuminating data available, this new volume is an invaluable resource for chemists, biochemists, plant scientists, pharmacognosists and pharmacologists, biologists, ecologists, food scientists and nutritionists.

Functional Foods in Cancer Prevention and Therapy

Functional Foods in Cancer Prevention and Therapy
A Book

by Yearul Kabir

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-04
  • Pages : 508
  • ISBN : 0128161515
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Functional Foods in Cancer Prevention and Therapy presents the wide range of functional foods associated with the prevention and treatment of cancer. In recent decades, researchers have made progress in our understanding of the association between functional food and cancer, especially as it relates to cancer treatment and prevention. Specifically, substantial evidence from epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies show that various food components may alter cancer risk, the prognosis after cancer onset, and the quality of life after cancer treatment. The book documents the therapeutic roles of well-known functional foods and explains their role in cancer therapy. The book presents complex cancer patterns and evidence of the effective ways to control cancers with the use of functional foods. This book will serve as informative reference for researchers focused on the role of food in cancer prevention and physicians and clinicians involved in cancer treatment.