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Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
Current Issues

by Michael Fielding,Mike Fielding,Mike Farrimond

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 227
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is 25 years since the discovery that potentially harmful chemical by-products are generated by the disinfection of drinking water. Since then, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have had a significant impact on drinking water standards, treatment processes and monitoring. Regulators and water suppliers must find a balance between the need to prevent microbial contamination, and the desire to control the levels of DBPs in the water we drink. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues brings together contributions from regulators, researchers and water suppliers from Europe and North America to discuss the current situation and identify the main issues associated with reaching a cost-effective balance between microbial and chemical risks. Overviews of the latest research are presented alongside case studies of practical approaches taken by water companies and regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. Contributions are grouped into sections covering: DBP formation and occurrence; advances in analysis and monitoring; standards and regulation; balancing chemical and microbial risk; and control methods for DBPs. A final chapter pulls these strands together to provide a view of the way forward. Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: Current Issues is a unique collection of the views of key people, and as such will be essential reading for all those with an interest in this complex problem.

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
Formation, Analysis, and Control

by Yuefeng Xie

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2003-08-27
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 9780203486917
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The EPA has established regulations which classify four types of disinfection byproducts - TTHMs, haloacetic acids, bromate, and chlorite - and requires public water systems limit these byproducts to specific levels. Most of the information required to comply with these standards is either scattered throughout the literature or derived from confere

Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
A Book

by K Clive Thompson,Simon Gillespie,Emma Goslan

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2015-09-29
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 1782622713
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Covering the latest developments in themes related to water disinfection by-products, this book brings the reader right up to date. Stemming from an international conference, contributions are from decision-makers, regulators and the relevant scientific community. Coverage includes emerging disinfection by-products, water treatment, water recycling, monitoring, regulation and health and toxicology aspects. It will be of interest to water companies, public health professionals, drinking water quality regulators, suppliers of laboratory and on-line monitoring equipment, analytical chemists, and academic and industry researchers working in the area of disinfection by-products.

Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water

Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
Occurrence, Formation, Health Effects, and Control

by Tanju Karanfil,Stuart W. Krasner,Yuefeng Xie,Paul Westerhoff

  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 365
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since their discovery, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have become one of the major driving forces in drinking water regulations, research and water utility operations throughout the world. The list of DBPs that can occur in treated drinking waters has grown from a few trihalomethanes to a long list of halogenated and non-halogenated organic or inorganic compounds. This list is expected to continue to grow as the analytical techniques are improved, as more information on their toxicity is developed, and as more occurrence studies are conducted. This book documents the latest DBP research findings, including emerging issues and state-of-the-art studies. Specifically, papers on the occurrence, formation, control, and health effects of emerging (unregulated) halogenated (e.g., brominated) and nonhalogenated (e.g., nitrosamines) DBPs (e.g., emerging nitrogenous vs. regulated carbonaceous DBPs) are presented. In addition to the characterization and reactivity of natural organic matter to form DBPs, new studies on algal organic matter and treated wastewater as sources of DBPs and their precursors are discussed.

Control of Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water Systems

Control of Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water Systems
A Book

by Anastasia Nikolau,Luigi Rizzo,Hüseyin Selcuk

  • Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 583
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been an issue of major concern during several decades. The formation of many DBPs species during water disinfection has been documented, while new by-products are still being detected, as the analytical instrumentation available becomes more accurate and sensitive. Most of the DBPs have been proven to have toxic effects on living organisms; therefore they pose risks to human health during drinking water consumption. The factors affecting their formation have been extensively investigated, their transport and fate have been studied, modelling efforts for several of them have been performed, in order to understand better their behaviour and therefore try to minimise their occurrence in waters. Techniques for their removal from water have also been applied, and a variety of disinfection methods or combinations of disinfecting agents have been investigated with the aim to produce safe drinking water containing the minimum possible concentrations of DBPs. This book deals with the advances in control of DBPs in drinking water systems. Further than an providing an overview of existing disinfection techniques and by-products, up-to-date information on the parameters affecting the procedures of DBPs formation, analytical methods for their determination, toxicity, regulation, it pays special emphasis on the advanced treatment methods applied recently for DBPs control and presents recent promising findings as well as case studies in this field, as the relevant research is proceeding, producing more knowledge and practical solutions in regard to the disinfected drinking water quality.

Formation and Control of Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water

Formation and Control of Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water
A Book

by Philip C. Singer

  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 424
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Written by more than 30 DBP experts, this technical and managerial reference tool provides essential background and addresses recent activities of the EPA and environmental consultants. It answers important questions, such as how to balance microbial and chemical risks, and includes information on new regulation and treatment costs.

Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

Analysis and Formation of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water
A Book

by Tarek Manasfi

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-04-14
  • Pages : 174
  • ISBN : 0444643435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume presents recent advances in the identification and quantification of inorganic and organic disinfection by-products (DPBs) resulting from the unwanted reactions between chemical disinfectant (chlorine, dioxide chlorine, chloramine, ozone) and inorganic and/or organic matter present in water, during drinking or wastewater treatment. DBPs target and non-target analyses are reviewed according to chemical treatment applied and to the origin of water treated (natural surface and or underground water, saline water, wastewater). The book begins with a review on the most recent non-target approaches and strategies able to characterize DBP mixtures and discover new DBPs by use of low, high, and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, followed by a second chapter dedicated to the analysis of inorganic chloramines in waters by use of on-site and/or lab-analytical methods (and specific attention to standard chloramines preparation). The third chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge for the mechanisms of dioxide chlorine oxidation and byproduct formation, as the fourth one presents fundamental and practical aspects regarding ozonation processes in drinking water treatment. The fifth chapter focuses on the reactivity of halides ions with common oxidants and natural organic matter (mechanisms and kinetics) and on the increase of toxicity in so-treated waters, while proposing solutions to mitigate their occurrences. Finally, the last chapter is dedicated to the chemical risk mitigations of water reuse by use of advanced water treatment trains (mainly based on membrane technologies). Researchers will find a valuable resource to a breath of topics for DBP formation, identification and quantification, and for DPB mitigation.

Disinfection By-Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control

Disinfection By-Products in Water TreatmentThe Chemistry of Their Formation and Control
A Book

by Roger A. Minear,Gary Amy

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 1995-12-18
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 9781566701365
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By-Products in Water Treatment describes new government regulations related to disinfection by-products. It explains the formation of microorganism by-products during water treatment and the methods employed to control them. The book includes several chapters on chlorine by-products and discusses techniques for the removal of chloroform from drinking water. It also describes gamma radiation techniques for removing microorganic by-product precursors from natural waters and the removal of bromate from drinking water.

Uncharted Waters

Uncharted Waters
Non-target analysis of disinfection by-products in drinking water

by Anna Andersson

  • Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
  • Release : 2021-02-15
  • Pages : 65
  • ISBN : 9179296947
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are potentially toxic compounds formed when drinking water is treated with disinfectants, such as chlorine or chloramine. A large proportion of the exposure to DBPs is still unknown and the health risks observed through epidemiological studies cannot be explained by DBPs known today. In this thesis, a part of the unknown DBP fraction is investigated, covering a wide range of non-volatile, chlorine/bromine-containing DBPs. The goals were to investigate how the compositions of these DBPs differ between water treatment plants, how their occurrence changes in the distribution system until reaching consumers and how new treatment techniques can reduce their formation and toxicity. To analyze unknown DBPs, a non-targeted approach adopting ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), was used, where the mass of molecules is measured with such accuracy that the elemental composition of individual DBPs can be calculated. A panel of bioassays was used to assess the combined toxic effects from these DBP mixtures. The results show that the formation of these DBPs to a large extent was specific to each water treatment plant and that local conditions influenced DBP formation, based on e.g., the abundance of organic material with certain chemical structures, bromide and disinfection procedure and agent (chlorine or chloramine). The DBPs were detected in both chlorinated and chloraminated water and in all tap water samples, demonstrating that they are part of human exposure. The number of DBP formulae decreased and the DBP composition changed between drinking water treatment and consumer taps, suggesting that DBP exposure to consumers is not necessarily resembling measurements at the treatment plants. Evaluation of new treatment techniques showed that suspended ion exchange and ozonation have potential to decrease the formation and toxic effects of DBPs and that the removal of organic matter can influence qualitative aspects of DBP formation, such as the proportions of chlorine-containing (less toxic) versus bromine-containing (more toxic) DBPs. Through increased knowledge about the role and relevance of non-volatile DBPs, this work can contribute to future monitoring and actions to reduce the health risks associated with DBPs in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. Desinfektionsbiprodukter (DBP:s) är potentiellt giftiga ämnen som bildas när dricksvatten renas med desinfektionsmedel såsom hypoklorit eller monokloramin. En stor del av exponeringen är ännu okänd och hittills kända DBP:s kan inte förklara de hälsorisker som förknippats med klorerat dricksvatten i epidemiologiska studier. I avhandlingen undersöks en relativt okänd fraktion av DBP:s som utgörs av icke-flyktiga, klor/brom-innehållande ämnen. Målen var att undersöka hur dessa DBP:s varierar mellan olika vattenverk, om de förekommer hos konsumenter och hur nya vattenreningstekniker kan minska dess bildandning och relaterad toxicitet. För att mäta okända DBP:s användes ultrahögupplöst masspektrometri (Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)), med vilken massan hos molekyler kan bestämmas så exakt att atomsammansättningen för enskilda DBP:s kan räknas ut. En serie effektbaserade metoder som bygger på biologiska testsystem användes för att mäta kombinerade toxiska effekter från de studerade biprodukterna. Resultaten visar att största delen av bildade DBP:s var unik för varje vattenverk och att lokala förutsättningar påverkar vilka DBP:s som bildas, till exempel om det finns organiskt material med särskilda kemiska strukturer, bromid eller vilket desinfektionsmedel (klor eller kloramin) som används. De studerade biprodukterna detekterades både i klorerat och kloraminerat dricksvatten och i samtliga kranvatten, vilket innebär att de bidrar till konsumenters exponering. Antalet detekterade DBP:s minskade och sammansättningen ändrades mellan vattenverk och konsument, vilket innebär att DBP exponeringen hos konsumenter inte är densamma som mäts på vattenverken. En utvärdering av nya reningstekniker visade att suspenderat jonbyte och ozonering har potential att minska bildning och relaterad toxisk effekt från DBP:s och att borttagning av organiskt material kan påverka kvalitativa aspekter av DBP bildning, såsom proportionerna av klorerade (mindre toxiska) och bromerade (mer toxiska) DBP:s. Genom ökad insikt om icke-flyktiga DBP:s roll och relevans kan detta arbete bidra till att förbättra framtida uppföljning och insatser för att minska hälsorisker kopplade till DBP:s i klorerat eller kloraminerat dricksvatten.

Method 326.0 determination of inorganic oxyhalide disinfection byproducts in drinking water using ion chromatography incorporating the addition of a suppressor acidified postcolumn reagent for trace bromate analysis.

Method 326.0 determination of inorganic oxyhalide disinfection byproducts in drinking water using ion chromatography incorporating the addition of a suppressor acidified postcolumn reagent for trace bromate analysis.
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 1428905227
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disinfection By-products

Disinfection By-products
Current Perspectives

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 1989
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection By-products Characterization and Control in Drinking Water

Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection By-products Characterization and Control in Drinking Water
A Book

by Sylvia E. Barrett,Stuart W. Krasner,Gary L. Amy

  • Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 425
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There are many by-products of water disinfection that are still not fully understood and can be potentially harmful. In this volume all the current research in this area is discussed, along with an examination of the role of NOM (natural organic matter) and its relationship to DBP (disinfection by-product) formation and control in drinking water. Understanding the relationship of NOM to DBP may well lead to new techniques for analyzing and treating water and enable reasonable choices to be made for source-water protection, treatment plant process optimization, and distribution system operation to control DBP's. This volume emphasizes the characterization and reactivity of polar natural organic matter. It examines analytical methods which better characterize NOM and determines some of the polar and nonvolatile DBP forms. It presents innovative new methods, sich as capillary electrophoresis for haloacetic aceids and LC/MS for the identification of polar dinking water DBPs.

Identification and Occurrence of Ozonation By-Products in Drinking Water

Identification and Occurrence of Ozonation By-Products in Drinking Water
A Book

by William Glaze,Howard S. Weinberg

  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 255
  • ISBN : 9780898676914
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With the discovery of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated disinfection by-products, many utilities are considering alternative oxidants and disinfectants to chlorine. One such alternative is ozonation. However, almost no information exists on the by-products produced upon ozonation. This report describes methods for ozonation by-product analysis and the results of a by-products survey of facilities using ozonation on the full or pilot scale. -- Foreword.

Health Effects of Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products

Health Effects of Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products
A Book

by Richard J. Bull

  • Publisher : Amer Water Works Assn
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A state-of-the-science review of the toxicological effects of disinfectants and their by-products, this report considers the implications of these effects upon anticipated regulations. It considers both the residual concentrations of disinfectants that remain when water is consumed and the formation of disinfection by- products, focusing on factors most likely to affect the development of maximum contaminant levels and the consequential effect on the use of disinfectants. Order by catalog number: 90577 DJ. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Water Encyclopedia, Water Quality and Resource Development

Water Encyclopedia, Water Quality and Resource Development
A Book

by Jay H. Lehr,Jack Keeley,Jane Lehr,Thomas B. Kingery

  • Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
  • Release : 2005-06
  • Pages : 736
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume deals with the big picture of regional water supplies, how they become contaminated, how they can be protected and how they can best serve the surrounding populations and industries. Significant focus is placed upon the natural chemistry of available water supplies and its biological impacts. Case studies from regions around the world offer an excellent picture of the world's water resources.

Environment Reporter

Environment Reporter
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Draft Program Environmental Impact Report for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's Water System Improvement Program

Draft Program Environmental Impact Report for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's Water System Improvement Program
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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EPA Publications Bibliography

EPA Publications Bibliography
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Southwest Hydrology

Southwest Hydrology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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California Water Plan Update

California Water Plan Update
A Book

by California. Department of Water Resources

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1994
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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