Download Drug Discovery Approaches for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders Ebook PDF

Drug Discovery Approaches for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders

Drug Discovery Approaches for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders
Alzheimer's Disease

by Adeboye Adejare

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-09-20
  • Pages : 316
  • ISBN : 0128028114
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Drug Discovery Approaches for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Alzheimer’s Disease examines the drug discovery process for neurodegenerative diseases by focusing specifically on Alzheimer’s Disease and illustrating the paradigm necessary to ensure future research and treatment success. The book explores diagnosis, epidemiology, drug discovery strategies, current therapeutics, and much more to provide a holistic approach to the discovery, development, and treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Through its coverage of the latest research in targeted drug design, preclinical studies, and mouse and rat models, the book is a must-have resource for all pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacologists, neuroscientists, and clinical researchers working in this area. It illustrates why these drugs tend to fail at the clinical stage, and examines Alzheimer’s Disease within the overall context of improving the drug discovery process for the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders. Provides a compilation of chemical considerations required in drug discovery for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders Examines different classes of compounds currently being used in discovery and development stages Explores in vitro and in vivo models with respect to their ability to translate these models to human conditions Distills the most significant information across multiple areas of Alzheimer’s disease research to provide a single, comprehensive, and balanced resource

Drug Design and Discovery in Alzheimer’s Disease

Drug Design and Discovery in Alzheimer’s Disease
A Book

by Atta-ur-Rahman,Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-06-27
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128039604
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Drug Design and Discovery in Alzheimer’s Disease includes expert reviews of recent developments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neurodegenerative disease research. Originally published by Bentham as Frontiers in Drug Design and Discovery, Volume 6and now distributed by Elsevier, this compilation of the sixteen articles, written by leading global researchers, focuses on key developments in the understanding of the disease at molecular levels, identification and validation of molecular targets, as well as innovative approaches towards drug discovery, development, and delivery. Beginning with an overview of AD pharmacotherapy and existing blockbuster drugs, the reviews cover the potential of both natural and synthetic small molecules; the role of cholinesterases in the on-set and progression of AD and their inhibition; the role of beta-site APP clearing enzyme-1 (BACE-1) in the production of ß-amyloid proteins, one of the key reasons of the progression of AD; and other targets identified for AD drug discovery. Edited and written by leading experts in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disease drug development Describes existing drugs for AD and current molecular understanding of the condition Reviews recent advances in the field, including coverage of cholinesterases, BACE-1, and other drug development targets

Neurodegenerative Disorders as Systemic Diseases

Neurodegenerative Disorders as Systemic Diseases
A Book

by Keiji Wada

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-10-21
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 4431545417
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book sheds new light on neurodegenerative disorders as systemic diseases. Classically, neuronal cell death was a hallmark of such disorders. However, it has become evident that neural dysfunction is more important in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. More recently, the prionoid-spreading hypothesis of disease-causing molecules has attracted a great deal of attention. Therapeutic strategies thus must be reconsidered in the light that neurodegenerative disorders are indeed systemic diseases. The first part of this book introduces the concept of neurodegeneration in biology and pathophysiology. The second part focuses on clinical evaluation and biomarkers from the perspective of this new concept, while the third summarizes the risk factors of neurodegeneration. The fourth part of this work indicates future directions of treatment, and the final part discusses health promotion for prevention and quality of life. This book will be of interest to both researchers and medical personnel, and provides a fresh approach to neurodegenerative diseases, paving the way to new research and improved quality of health care for patients.

Emerging Drugs and Targets for Parkinson's Disease

Emerging Drugs and Targets for Parkinson's Disease
A Book

by Ana Martinez,Carmen Gil

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2013-07-18
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 1849737355
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Affecting over 1.5 million people across the world, Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological condition characterized, in part, by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. It affects 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. As life expectancy is increasing, over the next few years the number of patients with Parkinson ́s disease will grow exponentially. To date, there are no available treatments that are capable of curing Parkinson ́s disease, and the current goal of therapy, dopamine replacement strategies, is to reduce symptoms. After several years of disease progression, treatment is complicated by the onset of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. This information reveals the great importance and social need of finding an effective therapeutic intervention for Parkinson ́s disease. This exemplary new book reviews some of the most outstanding examples of new drugs currently in pharmaceutical development or new targets currently undergoing the validation process to try to reach the Parkinson ́s drug market in the next few years as potential disease modifying drugs. Providing up to date and comprehensive coverage, this book is essential reading for researchers working in academia and industry in any aspect of medicinal chemistry or drug discovery.

Neurobiology of Huntington’s Disease

Neurobiology of Huntington’s Disease
Applications to Drug Discovery

by Donald C. Lo,Robert E. Hughes

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2010-07-02
  • Pages : 338
  • ISBN : 1420008250
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

In 1993, the genetic mutation responsible for Huntington’s disease (HD) was identified. Considered a milestone in human genomics, this discovery has led to nearly two decades of remarkable progress that has greatly increased our knowledge of HD, and documented an unexpectedly large and diverse range of biochemical and genetic perturbations that seem to result directly from the expression of the mutant huntingtin gene. Neurobiology of Huntington’s Disease: Applications to Drug Discovery presents a thorough review of the issues surrounding drug discovery and development for the treatment of this paradigmatic neurodegenerative disease. Drawing on the expertise of key researchers in the field, the book discusses the basic neurobiology of Huntington’s disease and how its monogenic nature confers enormous practical advantages for translational research, including the creation of robust experimental tools, models, and assays to facilitate discovery and validation of molecular targets and drug candidates for HD. Written to support future basic research as well as drug development efforts, this volume: Covers the latest research approaches in genetics, genomics, and proteomics, including high-throughput and high-content screening Highlights advances in the discovery and development of new drug therapies for neurodegenerative disorders Examines the practical realities of preclinical testing, clinical testing strategies, and, ultimately, clinical usage While the development of effective drug treatments for Huntington's disease continues to be tremendously challenging, a highly interactive and cooperative community of researchers and clinical investigators now brings us to the threshold of potential breakthroughs in the quest for therapeutic agents. The impressive array of drug discovery resources outlined in the text holds much promise for treating this devastating disease, providing hope to long-suffering Huntington’s disease patients and their families.

Animal and Translational Models for CNS Drug Discovery: Neurological disorders

Animal and Translational Models for CNS Drug Discovery: Neurological disorders
A Book

by Robert A. McArthur,Franco Borsini

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Phytochemicals as Lead Compounds for New Drug Discovery

Phytochemicals as Lead Compounds for New Drug Discovery
A Book

by Chukwuebuka Egbuna,Shashank Kumar,Jonathan C. Ifemeje,Shahira M. Ezzat,Saravanan Kaliyaperumal

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-09-07
  • Pages : 378
  • ISBN : 0128178914
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Phytochemicals as Lead Compounds for New Drug Discovery presents complete coverage of the recent advances in the discovery of phytochemicals from medicinal plants as models to the development of new drugs and chemical entities. Functional bioactive compounds of plant origin have been an invaluable source for many human therapeutic drugs and have played a major role in the treatment of diseases around the world. These compounds possess enormous structural and chemical diversity and have led to many important discoveries. This book presents fundament concepts and factors affecting the choice for plant-based products, as well as recent advances in computer-aided drug discovery and FDA drug candidacy acceptance criteria. It also details the various bioactive lead compounds and molecular targets for a range of life-threatening diseases including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Written by a global team of experts, Phytochemicals as Lead Compounds for New Drug Discovery is an ideal resource for drug developers, phytochemists, plant biochemists, food and medicinal chemists, nutritionists and toxicologists, chemical ecologists, taxonomists, analytical chemists, and other researchers in those fields. It will also be very valuable to professors, students, and researchers in this domain. Presents fundamental concepts and factors affecting choice for plant-based products Details the FDA drug candidacy acceptance criteria, including bottlenecks and way forward Highlights recent advances in computational-based drug discovery Focuses on the discovery of new drugs and potential druggable targets for the treatment of chronic diseases of world importance

Neurons

Neurons
Dendrites and Axons

by Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu,María Elena Hernández Aguilar

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2019-02-20
  • Pages : 128
  • ISBN : 1789851238
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The brain is the most complex structure that exists in the universe, consisting of neurons whose function is to receive information through dendrites and transmit information through the axon. In neurosciences one of the main problems that exists are neurodegenerative diseases for which until now there has been no cure. This book is mainly focused on updating the information on the signaling process carried out in the development of axons. Topics such as axon guidance and its interaction with the extracellular matrix are discussed. Other important topics are semaphorins and their relationship with neurodegenerative diseases, and the neurobiology of the gap junction in the dorsal root ganglion. Finally, the topic of bioelectrical interfaces destined to regenerate damaged nerves is covered. The information in this book will be very important both for researchers who work with these issues and doctoral students who are involved in neuroscience.

Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease

Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease
A Book

by Heiko Braak,Kelly Del Tredici

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-11-27
  • Pages : 119
  • ISBN : 3540798501
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The synucleinopathy sporadic Parkinson’s disease (sPD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder of the human nervous system after Alzheimer’s disease. The propensity for developing sPD exists in all ethnic groups worldwide, and the prevalence of the disorder increases considerably with age, thereby imposing an enormous social and economic burden on societies with increased life expectancy. The sPD-associated pathological process is progressive, does not go into remission, and can take decades to reach its culmination if it is not be terminated prematurely by death owing to other causes. Against the background of the normal morphology and anatomy, the authors analyze the pathoanatomy of sPD in the nervous system at various neuropathological stages and summarize the potential functional consequences of the lesions.

Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development

Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development
A Book

by Michael Decker

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-04-05
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 0081011180
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development reviews the principles, advantages, and limitations involved with designing these groundbreaking compounds. Beginning with an introduction to hybrid molecule design and background as to their need, the book goes on to explore a range of important hybrids, with hybrids containing natural products, molecules containing NO- and H2S-donors, dual-acting compounds acting as receptor ligands and enzyme inhibitors, and the design of photoresponsive drugs all discussed. Drawing on practical case studies, the hybridization of molecules for development as treatments for a number of key diseases is then outlined, including the design of hybrids for Alzheimer's, cancer, and malaria. With its cutting-edge reviews of breaking developments in this exciting field, the book offers a novel approach for all those working in the design, development, and administration of drugs for a range of debilitating disorders. Highlights an approach unimpaired by the limitations of the classical search for lead structures - one of the core problems in modern drug development processes, making the content of high relevance for both academic and non-academic drug development processes Pulls together research and design techniques in a novel way to give researchers the best possible platform from which to review the approaches and techniques applied Compares the advantages and disadvantages of these compounds Includes the very latest developments, such as photoactivatable and photo-responsive drugs

The Need for New Approaches in CNS Drug Discovery: Why Drugs Have Failed, and what Can be Done to Improve Outcomes

The Need for New Approaches in CNS Drug Discovery: Why Drugs Have Failed, and what Can be Done to Improve Outcomes
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Abstract: An important goal of biomedical research is to translate basic research findings into useful medical advances. In the field of neuropharmacology this requires understanding disease mechanisms as well as the effects of drugs and other compounds on neuronal function. Our hope is that this information will result in new or improved treatment for CNS disease. Despite great progress in our understanding of the structure and functions of the CNS, the discovery of new drugs and their clinical development for many CNS disorders has been problematic. As a result, CNS drug discovery and development programs have been subjected to significant cutbacks and eliminations over the last decade. While there has been recent resurgence of interest in CNS targets, these past changes in priority of the pharmaceutical and biotech industries reflect several well-documented realities. CNS drugs in general have higher failure rates than non-CNS drugs, both preclinically and clinically, and in some areas, such as the major neurodegenerative diseases, the clinical failure rate for disease-modifying treatments has been 100%. The development times for CNS drugs are significantly longer for those drugs that are approved, and post-development regulatory review is longer. In this introduction we review some of the reasons for failure, delineating both scientific and technical realities, some unique to the CNS, that have contributed to this. We will focus on major neurodegenerative disorders, which affect millions, attract most of the headlines, and yet have witnessed the fewest successes. We will suggest some changes that, when coupled with the approaches discussed in the rest of this special volume, may improve outcomes in future CNS-targeted drug discovery and development efforts. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "Beyond small molecules for neurological disorders". Highlights: CNS drug discovery and development has been problematic, particularly in the area of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. These difficulties have resulted in significant cutbacks in CNS drug programs. Drug targets must be better understood in terms of their role in normal CNS function and in disease. Animal models of disease and hypothetical drug regimens must better reflect the clinical condition. Unique combinations may have to be tested, including combinations of drugs which have not independently demonstrated efficacy. Clinical trials may have to be much longer.

Remington

Remington
The Science and Practice of Pharmacy

by Adeboye Adejare

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-11-03
  • Pages : 1030
  • ISBN : 0128223898
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Twenty Third Edition, offers a trusted, completely updated source of information for education, training, and development of pharmacists. Published for the first time with Elsevier, this edition includes coverage of biologics and biosimilars as uses of those therapeutics have increased substantially since the previous edition. Also discussed are formulations, drug delivery (including prodrugs, salts, polymorphism. With clear, detailed color illustrations, fundamental information on a range of pharmaceutical science areas, and information on new developments in industry, pharmaceutical industry scientists, especially those involved in drug discovery and development will find this edition of Remington an essential reference. Intellectual property professionals will also find this reference helpful to cite in patents and resulting litigations. Additional graduate and postgraduate students in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences will refer to this book in courses dealing with medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics. Contains a comprehensive source of principles of drug discovery and development topics, especially for scientists that are new in the pharmaceutical industry such as those with trainings/degrees in chemistry and engineering Provides a detailed source for formulation scientists and compounding pharmacists, from produg to excipient issues Updates this excellent source with the latest information to verify facts and refresh on basics for professionals in the broadly defined pharmaceutical industry

Index Medicus

Index Medicus
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's Disease
Targets for New Clinical Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies

by Renee D. Wegrzyn,Alan S. Rudolph

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-04-26
  • Pages : 298
  • ISBN : 1439827087
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

In recent years, a tremendous amount of effort has been focused on better understanding the fundamentals of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to facilitate early and accurate diagnosis and appropriately targeted therapeutic treatments. Alzheimer’s Disease: Targets for New Clinical, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Strategies provides a detailed synopsis of the current state of the art of diagnostics and therapeutics and identifies emerging technologies and molecules that show promise in the management and treatment of AD. With contributions from experts drawn from academia, clinical practice, and the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, the book explores: The basis of AD and the role of Aβ oligomers in development of disease Existing and emerging in vitro biomarker-based methodologies for the diagnosis of AD, focusing on genetic, biochemical, and conformational strategies In vivo imaging diagnostic approaches Evolving diagnostic criteria, health regulatory guidelines, biomarkers in clinical trials, and available and emerging therapies Recent progress in small-molecule disease-modifier drug discovery efforts for AD, specifically in the areas of Aβ, tau, and emerging neuroprotective/neurorepair approaches How a case study of AD raises issues regarding clinical and pathologic criteria, risk factors, and the amyloid hypothesis The molecular conformational factors that govern the pathogenicity of aggregating proteins, and how these factors could represent new targets for disease-modifying therapies The latest epidemiological, pathological, biochemical, and behavioral studies that may shed some light on the risk of developing AD and similar dementias after traumatic brain injury Examining current hypotheses and suggesting possible new approaches to therapeutic clinical applications, this volume paves the way for a robust pipeline of therapeutics to combat not only AD, but a whole host of other neurodegenerative diseases.

Emerging Drugs and Targets for Multiple Sclerosis

Emerging Drugs and Targets for Multiple Sclerosis
A Book

by Ana Martinez

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2019-06-28
  • Pages : 333
  • ISBN : 1788014502
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with a presumed autoimmune aetiology and few current effective treatments. Disease modifying therapies focus on the altering the natural course of relapsing and remitting MS, targeting the inflammatory response. Other targets involve tacking the cause of the disease – demyelination of axons through remyelination therapies. Due to several recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS new targets for remyelination and immunomodulation are rapidly emerging. This book provides a comprehensive overview of drug discovery and development for the molecular basis of the disease, from new targets to drugs currently in clinical development, cellular and animal disease models to biomarkers for diagnosis and assessment in clinical trials. Emerging Drugs and Targets for Multiple Sclerosis is an ideal reference for any student or researcher interested in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases and MS in particular.

Discovery and Development of Neuroprotective Agents from Natural Products

Discovery and Development of Neuroprotective Agents from Natural Products
A Book

by Goutam Brahmachari

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-05-18
  • Pages : 490
  • ISBN : 0128097698
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Discovery and Development of Neuroprotective Agents from Natural Products draws together global research on medicinal agents from natural sources as starting points for the design of neuroprotective drugs. From the prediction of promising leads and identification of active agents to the extraction of complex molecules, the book explores a range of important topics to support the development of safer, more economical therapeutics for these increasingly prevalent diseases. Beginning with an overview of current developments in the field, the book goes on to explore the identification, extraction and phytochemistry of such neuroprotective agents as antioxidants, biophenols and naturally occurring anti-inflammatory steroid analogues. Specific natural sources of bioactive agents are reviewed, and the development of these agents into therapeutics for a number of specific neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ischemic brain stroke, are discussed. Combining the expertise of specialists from around the world, this in the Natural Products Drug Discovery series aims to support and encourage researchers in the investigation of natural sources as starting points for the development of standardized, safe and effective neuroprotective drugs. Features chapters written by active researchers and leading global experts deeply engaged in the research field of natural product chemistry for drug discovery Includes comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge research advances in the design of drugs from natural products targeted at different kinds of neurodegenerative diseases Offers a practical review of identification, isolation and extraction techniques to support medicinal chemists in the lab

Current Topics in Malaria

Current Topics in Malaria
A Book

by Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016-11-30
  • Pages : 506
  • ISBN : 9535127896
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Computational and Experimental Approaches in Multi-target Pharmacology

Computational and Experimental Approaches in Multi-target Pharmacology

by Thomas J. Anastasio

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2017-08-24
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889452522
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The next frontier in pharmacology is the development of multi-target strategies in which pathological processes are controlled by pharmacologically manipulating them at many different points at once. Designing multi-target strategies will require deep understanding of the complex physiology that underlies pathological processes. It will also require the development of single drugs with multiple targets, or combinations of drugs with compatible pharmacokinetics that work synergistically to maximize desirable effects while minimizing unwanted side effects. This e-Book contains ten original articles, each addressing a different aspect of this challenge. Together they open new perspectives and show the way forward in the development of multi-target therapeutics.

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases
A Book

by Marie-Francoise Chesselet

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2000-10-19
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN : 1592590063
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

With the unprecedented identification of new mutation mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases and the emergence of common mechanisms among diseases that were once considered unrelated, neurobiologists are poised for the development of new therapies based on high throughput screenings and a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration. In Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, MD, PhD, and a panel of leading researchers and neurologists from industry and academia critically review the most recent advances from different yet complementary points of view. Focusing on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and CAG triplet repeat diseases, the authors show how studies of cellular and genetically engineered animal models have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and may lead to the development of new therapeutics. Topics include the role of Ab toxicity, glial cells, and inflammation in Alzheimer's disease; the formation of abnormal protein fragments across several diseases, the impact of dopamine and mitochondrial dysfunction on neurodegeneration; and the potential of genetics to identify the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Authoritative and insightful, Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases synthesizes the novel ideas and concepts now emerging to create a fresh understanding of neurodegenerative disorders, one that promises to lead to powerful new therapies that prevent, delay the onset, slow the progression, or even cure these cruel diseases.

Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases

Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases
A Book

by Gorazd Drevensek

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-05-02
  • Pages : 358
  • ISBN : 1789230144
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The book provides chapters on sex hormones and their modulation in neurodegenerative processes and pathologies, from basic molecular mechanisms, physiology, gender differences, to neuroprotection and clinical aspects for potential novel pharmacotherapy approaches. The book contains 14 chapters written by authors from various biomedical professions, from basic researchers in biology and physiology to medicine and veterinary medicine, pharmacologists, psychiatrist, etc. Chapters sum up the past and current knowledge on sex hormones, representing original new insights into their role in brain functioning, mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The book is written for a broad range of audience, from biomedical students to highly profiled medical specialists and biomedical researchers, helping them to expand their knowledge on sex hormones in neurodegenerative processes and opening new questions for further investigation.