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Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules
A Book

by Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2019-04-15
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 0128115459
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Photovoltaic Module Reliability

Photovoltaic Module Reliability
A Book

by John H. Wohlgemuth

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-01-08
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 1119459028
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides practical guidance on the latest quality assurance and accelerated stress test methods for improved long-term performance prediction of PV modules This book has been written from a historical perspective to guide readers through how the PV industry learned what the failure and degradation modes of PV modules were, how accelerated tests were developed to cause the same failures and degradations in the laboratory, and then how these tests were used as tools to guide the design and fabrication of reliable and long-life modules. Photovoltaic Module Reliability starts with a brief history of photovoltaics, discussing some of the different types of materials and devices used for commercial solar cells. It then goes on to offer chapters on: Module Failure Modes; Development of Accelerated Stress Tests; Qualification Testing; and Failure Analysis Tools. Next, it examines the use of quality management systems to manufacture PV modules. Subsequent chapters cover the PVQAT Effort; the Conformity Assessment and IECRE; and Predicting PV Module Service Life. The book finishes with a look at what the future holds for PV. A comprehensive treatment of current photovoltaic (PV) technology reliability and necessary improvement to become a significant part of the electric utility supply system Well documented with experimental and practical cases throughout, enhancing relevance to both scientific community and industry Timely contribution to the harmonization of methodological aspects of PV reliability evaluation with test procedures implemented to certify PV module quality Written by a leading international authority in PV module reliability Photovoltaic Module Reliability is an excellent book for anyone interested in PV module reliability, including those working directly on PV module and system reliability and preparing to purchase modules for deployment.

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials
A Book

by Robert J. Herling

  • Publisher : ASTM International
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 234
  • ISBN : 9780803124073
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells
A Book

by Frederik C. Krebs

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-04-23
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 1119952514
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules
A Book

by Abdulkerim Gok

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2020-01-08
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN : 1789848229
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies

Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies
Photophysics and Devices

by Carl S. Ponseca

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2020-01-31
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 1000021769
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The need to address the energy problem and formulate a lasting solution to tame climate change has never been so urgent. The rise of various renewable energy sources, such as solar cell technologies, has given humanity a glimpse of hope that can delay the catastrophic effects of these problems after decades of neglect. This review volume provides in-depth discussion of the fundamental photophysical processes as well as the state-of-the-art device engineering of various emerging photovoltaic technologies, including organic (fullerene, non-fullerene, and ternary), dye-sensitized (ruthenium, iron, and quantum dot), and hybrid metal-halide perovskite solar cells. The book is essential reading for graduate and postgraduate students involved in the photophysics and materials science of solar cell technologies.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules
A Book

by Peter Hacke

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

ASHRAE Handbook

ASHRAE Handbook
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems and equipment

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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New Electric Power Technologies

New Electric Power Technologies
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1985
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Science and Engineering of Materials

The Science and Engineering of Materials
A Book

by Donald R. Askeland,Frank Haddleton,Phil Green,Howard Robertson

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 854
  • ISBN : 1489928952
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Science and Engineering of Materials, Third Edition, continues the general theme of the earlier editions in providing an understanding of the relationship between structure, processing, and properties of materials. This text is intended for use by students of engineering rather than materials, at first degree level who have completed prerequisites in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. The author assumes these stu dents will have had little or no exposure to engineering sciences such as statics, dynamics, and mechanics. The material presented here admittedly cannot and should not be covered in a one-semester course. By selecting the appropriate topics, however, the instructor can emphasise metals, provide a general overview of materials, concentrate on mechani cal behaviour, or focus on physical properties. Additionally, the text provides the student with a useful reference for accompanying courses in manufacturing, design, or materials selection. In an introductory, survey text such as this, complex and comprehensive design problems cannot be realistically introduced because materials design and selection rely on many factors that come later in the student's curriculum. To introduce the student to elements of design, however, more than 100 examples dealing with materials selection and design considerations are included in this edition.

NCPV Photovoltaics Program Review

NCPV Photovoltaics Program Review
Proceeding of the 15th Conference

by National Center for Photovoltaics (U.S.),National Photovoltaics Program (U.S.),Ncpv Program Review Meeting

  • Publisher : American Institute of Physics
  • Release : 1999-03-12
  • Pages : 833
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This proceedings volume compiles 123 papers that were presented orally or as posters at the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) Program Review Meeting, held in Denver, Colorado, on September 8-11, 1998. The purpose of this meeting was to highlight the advances made in various areas of photovoltaics by and through the NCPV during the period of December 1997 to September 1998. Topics covered ranged from research in crystalline silicon and thin-film technologies, to manufacturing of photovoltaic modules, to applications of and markets for photovoltaic products.

12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review

12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review
Proceedings of the Conference Held in Denver, CO, October 1993

by National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Photovoltaic Program. Review Meeting,National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.),National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.).

  • Publisher : American Institute of Physics
  • Release : 1994
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Annotation The Photovoltaics (PV) Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is part of The US Dept. of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program. These proceedings of the 12th NREL PV Program Review Meeting, comprise presentations by invited speakers from private industry, universities, federal laboratories, and representatives of other countries, on such topics as material growth and characterization; single and multijunction devices; cell processing; PV manufacturing; module reliability and field testing; system engineering and applications; and markets and user perspectives. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review

12th NREL Photovoltaic Program Review
Proceedings of the Conference held in Denver, CO, October 1993

by R. Noufi,H.S. Ullal

  • Publisher : American Institute of Physics
  • Release : 2000-04-14
  • Pages : 624
  • ISBN : 9781563963155
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Annotation The Photovoltaics (PV) Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is part of The US Dept. of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program. These proceedings of the 12th NREL PV Program Review Meeting, comprise presentations by invited speakers from private industry, universities, federal laboratories, and representatives of other countries, on such topics as material growth and characterization; single and multijunction devices; cell processing; PV manufacturing; module reliability and field testing; system engineering and applications; and markets and user perspectives. No subject index. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review

13th NREL Photovoltaics Program Review
Proceedings of the Conference Held in Lakewood, CO, May, 1995

by Harin S. Ullal,Edwin C. Witt

  • Publisher : American Institute of Physics
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 652
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This work represents recent progress in photovoltaics technology including progress made in such areas as amorphous silicon, crystalline silican, cadmium telluride, and so on. Special focus is given to PV applications for rural electrifications.

Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Photovoltaic Solar Energy
From Fundamentals to Applications

by Ang?le Reinders,Pierre Verlinden,Alexandre Freundlich

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-02-06
  • Pages : 718
  • ISBN : 111892746X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of existing PV technologies in conjunction with an assessment of technological developments. Key features: Written by leading specialists active in concurrent developments in material sciences, solar cell research and application-driven R&D. Provides a basic knowledge base in light, photons and solar irradiance and basic functional principles of PV. Covers characterization techniques, economics and applications of PV such as silicon, thin-film and hybrid solar cells. Presents a compendium of PV technologies including: crystalline silicon technologies; chalcogenide thin film solar cells; thin-film silicon based PV technologies; organic PV and III-Vs; PV concentrator technologies; space technologies and economics, life-cycle and user aspects of PV technologies. Each chapter presents basic principles and formulas as well as major technological developments in a contemporary context with a look at future developments in this rapidly changing field of science and engineering. Ideal for industrial engineers and scientists beginning careers in PV as well as graduate students undertaking PV research and high-level undergraduate students.

Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Modules and Their Applications

Fundamentals of Photovoltaic Modules and Their Applications
A Book

by G. N. Tiwari,Swapnil Dubey

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 402
  • ISBN : 1849730202
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Presently there is no single publication available which covers the topics related to photovoltaic (PV) or photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) technologies, thermal modelling, CO2 mitigation and carbon trading. This book disseminates the current knowledge in the fundamentals of solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) or photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) technologies, energy security and climate change and is aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students and professionals. The main emphasis of the book is on the design, construction, performance and application of PV and PV/T from the electricity and thermal standpoint. Hot topics covered in the book include: energy security of a nation, climate change, CO2 mitigation and carbon credit earned by using PV or PV/T technologies (Carbon Trading). This information will prove helpful in filling the gap between the researchers and professionals working on the application of photovoltaic and global climate change. It also covers economic, cost effective and sustainable aspects of photovoltaic technologies. The book gives a detailed history of the new technological developments in PV/T systems worldwide with system photographs and references and elaborates on the fundamentals of hybrid systems and their performances with thermal modelling. Energy and exergy analysis, techno-economic analysis and carbon trading are key chapters for research professionals. The book also includes important case studies to aid understanding of the subject for all readers.

Materials for Sustainable Energy

Materials for Sustainable Energy
A Collection of Peer-reviewed Research and Review Articles from Nature Publishing Group

by Vincent Dusastre

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 331
  • ISBN : 9814317640
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The search for cleaner, cheaper, smaller and more efficient energy technologies has to a large extent been motivated by the development of new materials. The aim of this collection of articles is therefore to focus on what materials-based solutions can offer and show how the rationale design and improvement of their physical and chemical properties can lead to energy-production alternatives that have the potential to compete with existing technologies. In terms of alternative means to generate electricity that utilize renewable energy sources, the most dramatic breakthroughs for both mobile (i.e., transportation) and stationary applications are taking place in the fields of solar and fuel cells. And from an energy-storage perspective, exciting developments can be seen emerging from the fields of rechargeable batteries and hydrogen storage.

Solar Panels and Photovoltaic Materials

Solar Panels and Photovoltaic Materials
A Book

by Beddiaf Zaidi

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-07-11
  • Pages : 158
  • ISBN : 1789234344
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite their wide availability and relatively low prices, the conventional energy sources have harmful consequences on the environment and are exhaustible. In order to circumvent these negative effects, the renewable energies in general and the photovoltaic energy in particular are becoming more and more attractive. Solar cell is an electrical device that converts light into electricity at the atomic level. These devices use inorganic or organic semiconductor materials that absorb photons with energy greater than their bandgap to promote energy carriers into their conduction band. They do not pollute the atmosphere by releasing harmful gases, do not require any fuel to produce electricity, and do not move parts so they are rugged. Solar panels have a very long life and do not need much maintenance.

Corrosion Abstracts

Corrosion Abstracts
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1987
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced Micro- and Nanomaterials for Photovoltaics

Advanced Micro- and Nanomaterials for Photovoltaics
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-05-25
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 0128145021
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanomaterials are becoming increasingly important photovoltaic technologies from absorbers to contacts. This book is dedicated to describing the novel materials and technologies for photovoltaics that derive from these new and novel approaches in solar technologies. We have collected a set of renowned experts in their respective fields as authors and their expertise covers a broad set of areas including novel oxides, quantum dots, CZTS and organic solar cells, as well as light management and reliability testing. The organization of the book is divided into three sections; the first part deals with emerging photovoltaic absorbers and absorber approaches, the second part is focused on novel solar cell architectures and device concepts and components; and the last part is focused on their integration into module technologies. The first chapter is an introduction to the basics of solar cells technology facilitating an understanding by the non-expert of the following chapters. The book is intended for academics and professionals, at the research and R&D level in materials and devices, who are looking for opportunities for applications in the solar materials, devices and modules areas. Hopefully it will serve as a reference for students and professionals looking into the potential and development of novel photovoltaic technologies, researchers looking into the development of innovative projects, and teachers in the field of energy and sustainability. Showcases a range of cutting-edge photovoltaic materials and devices, exploring their special properties and how they are best used Assesses the challenges of fabricating solar cell devices using nanotechnology Explores how producing cheaper modules, increasing reliability and increasing efficiency have led to new applications for photovoltaic devices