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Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems

Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems
A Book

by Eugene Barsky

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-08-15
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 012821662X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems formalizes our understanding of many complex processes, including the development of the methodology of analytical computation of complex processes as applied in many industries, such as ore processing, or more generally, in areas of natural sciences. The adequacy of the results of these calculations is confirmed by numerous experimental data obtained both on pilots and industrial facilities. The book also provides a thorough analysis of the underlying physical foundations of entropy performed from new standpoints that are of interest to theoreticians studying contemporary expositions. Provides methodologies for controlling and optimizing complex processes in branches of industry that involve transformation of materials or substances Describes entropy as the universal characteristic of a stochastic process independent of the system Introduces a new definition of entropy specifically related to dynamical phenomena

Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems

Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems
A Book

by Eugene Barsky

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-07-21
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 0128225394
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Entropy of Complex Processes and Systems formalizes our understanding of many complex processes, including the development of the methodology of analytical computation of complex processes as applied in many industries, such as ore processing, or more generally, in areas of natural sciences. The adequacy of the results of these calculations is confirmed by numerous experimental data obtained both on pilots and industrial facilities. The book also provides a thorough analysis of the underlying physical foundations of entropy performed from new standpoints that are of interest to theoreticians studying contemporary expositions. Provides methodologies for controlling and optimizing complex processes in branches of industry that involve transformation of materials or substances Describes entropy as the universal characteristic of a stochastic process independent of the system Introduces a new definition of entropy specifically related to dynamical phenomena

Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems

Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems
A Book

by Stefan Thurner,Rudolf Hanel,Peter Klimek

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2018-09-05
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 0192555073
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a comprehensive introduction to quantitative approaches to complex adaptive systems. Practically all areas of life on this planet are constantly confronted with complex systems, be it ecosystems, societies, traffic, financial markets, opinion formation and spreading, or the internet and social media. Complex systems are systems composed of many elements that interact strongly with each other, which makes them extremely rich dynamical systems showing a huge range of phenomena. Properties of complex systems that are of particular importance are their efficiency, robustness, resilience, and proneness to collapse. The quantitative tools and concepts needed to understand the co-evolutionary nature of networked systems and their properties are challenging. The book gives a self-contained introduction to these concepts, so that the reader will be equipped with a toolset that allows them to engage in the science of complex systems. Topics covered include random processes of path-dependent processes, co-evolutionary dynamics, dynamics of networks, the theory of scaling, and approaches from statistical mechanics and information theory. The book extends beyond the early classical literature in the field of complex systems and summarizes the methodological progress made over the past 20 years in a clear, structured, and comprehensive way.

Complexity and Complex Chemo-Electric Systems

Complexity and Complex Chemo-Electric Systems
A Book

by Stanislaw Sieniutycz

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-03-01
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0128236361
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Complexity and Complex Chemo-Electric Systems presents an analysis and synthesis of chemo-electric systems, providing insights on transports in electrolytes, electrode reactions, electrocatalysis, electrochemical membranes, and various aspects of heterogeneous systems and electrochemical engineering. The book describes the properties of complexity and complex chemo-electric systems as the consequence of formulations, definitions, tools, solutions and results that are often consistent with the best performance of the system. The book handles cybernetics, systems theory and advanced contemporary techniques such as optimal control, neural networks and stochastic optimizations (adaptive random search, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing). A brief part of the book is devoted to issues such as various definitions of complexity, hierarchical structures, self-organization examples, special references, and historical issues. This resource complements Sieniutycz’ recently published book, Complexity and Complex Thermodynamic Systems, with its inclusion of complex chemo-electric systems in which complexities, emergent properties and self-organization play essential roles. Covers the theory and applications of complex chemo-electric systems through modeling, analysis, synthesis and optimization Provides a clear presentation of the applications of transport theory to electrolyte solutions, heterogeneous electrochemical systems, membranes, electro-kinetic phenomena and interface processes Includes numerous explanatory graphs and drawings that illustrate the properties and complexities in complex chemo-electric systems Written by an experienced expert in the field of advanced methods in thermodynamics and related aspects of macroscopic physics

Advances in Data-Based Approaches for Hydrologic Modeling and Forecasting

Advances in Data-Based Approaches for Hydrologic Modeling and Forecasting
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9814464759
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Complexity Science, Living Systems, and Reflexing Interfaces: New Models and Perspectives

Complexity Science, Living Systems, and Reflexing Interfaces: New Models and Perspectives
New Models and Perspectives

by Orsucci, Franco

  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release : 2012-09-30
  • Pages : 466
  • ISBN : 1466620781
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There are new and important advancements in today’s complexity theories in ICT and requires an extraordinary perspective on the interaction between living systems and information technologies. With human evolution and its continuous link with the development of new tools and environmental changes, technological advancements are paving the way for new evolutionary steps. Complexity Science, Living Systems, and Reflexing Interfaces: New Models and Perspectives is a collection of research provided by academics and scholars aiming to introduce important advancements in areas such as artificial intelligence, evolutionary computation, neural networks, and much more. This scholarly piece will provide contributions that will define the line of development in complexity science.

Universal Concept of Complexity by the Dynamic Redundance Paradigm

Universal Concept of Complexity by the Dynamic Redundance Paradigm
Causal Randomness, Complete Wave Mechanics, and the Ultimate Unification of Knowledge

by Andrei P. Kirilyuk

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 548
  • ISBN : 9789660001169
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermodynamics in Materials Science

Thermodynamics in Materials Science
A Book

by Robert DeHoff

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2006-03-13
  • Pages : 624
  • ISBN : 1420005855
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermodynamics in Materials Science, Second Edition is a clear presentation of how thermodynamic data is used to predict the behavior of a wide range of materials, a crucial component in the decision-making process for many materials science and engineering applications. This primary textbook accentuates the integration of principles, strategies, a

Sustainability Calling

Sustainability Calling
Underpinning Technologies

by Pierre Massotte,Patrick Corsi

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-08-05
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 1119145376
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses the key concepts of the technologies that underpin the drive towards sustainability in today’s complex world. The authors propose an integrated view of the frontiers facing any organization nowadays – whether an enterprise, an administration or any human collective construction – that operates with a goal, a mission or an objective. While a unified approach still seems unachievable, the authors have nevertheless tackled the amalgamation of the underpinning elements (theories, domains of expertise and practice) and propose a model for assimilating the new concepts with a global view to design the sustainable organizations of the future. The book paves a way towards a general convergence theory, which will manifest, as a by-product, genuine sustainability. Furthermore, and due to the fact that the same main principles apply, the book redesigns the notion of “competitiveness”, which today is too often simply reduced to profitability.

Nonlinear Analysis for Human Movement Variability

Nonlinear Analysis for Human Movement Variability
A Book

by Nicholas Stergiou

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-09-03
  • Pages : 394
  • ISBN : 1315362376
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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How Does the Body’s Motor Control System Deal with Repetition? While the presence of nonlinear dynamics can be explained and understood, it is difficult to be measured. A study of human movement variability with a focus on nonlinear dynamics, Nonlinear Analysis for Human Movement Variability, examines the characteristics of human movement within this framework, explores human movement in repetition, and explains how and why we analyze human movement data. It takes an in-depth look into the nonlinear dynamics of systems within and around us, investigates the temporal structure of variability, and discusses the properties of chaos and fractals as they relate to human movement. Providing a foundation for the use of nonlinear analysis and the study of movement variability in practice, the book describes the nonlinear dynamical features found in complex biological and physical systems, and introduces key concepts that help determine and identify patterns within the fluctuations of data that are repeated over time. It presents commonly used methods and novel approaches to movement analysis that reveal intriguing properties of the motor control system and introduce new ways of thinking about variability, adaptability, health, and motor learning. In addition, this text: Demonstrates how nonlinear measures can be used in a variety of different tasks and populations Presents a wide variety of nonlinear tools such as the Lyapunov exponent, surrogation, entropy, and fractal analysis Includes examples from research on how nonlinear analysis can be used to understand real-world applications Provides numerous case studies in postural control, gait, motor control, and motor development Nonlinear Analysis for Human Movement Variability advances the field of human movement variability research by dissecting human movement and studying the role of movement variability. The book proposes new ways to use nonlinear analysis and investigate the temporal structure of variability, and enables engineers, movement scientists, clinicians, and those in related disciplines to effectively apply nonlinear analysis in practice.

Foundations of Complex Systems

Foundations of Complex Systems
Emergence, Information and Prediction

by Gregoire Nicolis,Catherine Nicolis

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2012-03-08
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 9814458163
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a self-contained presentation of the physical and mathematical laws governing complex systems. Complex systems arising in natural, engineering, environmental, life and social sciences are approached from a unifying point of view using an array of methodologies such as microscopic and macroscopic level formulations, deterministic and probabilistic tools, modeling and simulation. The book can be used as a textbook by graduate students, researchers and teachers in science, as well as non-experts who wish to have an overview of one of the most open, markedly interdisciplinary and fast-growing branches of present-day science. Contents:The Phenomenology of Complex Systems:Complexity, a New ParadigmSignatures of ComplexityOnset of ComplexityFour Case StudiesSumming UpDeterministic View:Dynamical Systems, Phase Space, StabilityLevels of DescriptionNormal FormsThe Limit of UniversalityDeterministic ChaosEmergenceCoupling-Induced ComplexityModeling Complexity Beyond Physical ScienceProbabilistic Description:Need for a Probabilistic ApproachProbability Distributions and Their Evolution LawsThe Retrieval of UniversalityComplexity in the Probabilistic DescriptionEmergence RevisitedTransitions Between StatesSimulating Complex SystemsDisorder-Generated ComplexityComplexity, Entropy and Information:Information EntropyDynamical EntropiesInformation Entropy ProductionLarge Deviations, Fluctuation Theorems and the Probabilistic Properties of Time SequencesAlgorithmic Complexity and ComputationDynamical Systems as Information Sources: Scaling Rules and SelectionFurther Information MeasuresSumming UpPrediction:Communicating with a Complex SystemClassical Approaches and Their LimitationsNonlinear Data AnalysisThe Monitoring of Complex FieldsThe Predictability HorizonRecurrenceExtreme EventsSelected Topics:The Arrow of TimeNanosystemsAtmospheric DynamicsClimate DynamicsNetworksPerspectives on Biological ComplexityEquilibrium Versus Nonequilibrium in Complexity and Self-OrganizationEpistemological Insights from Complex SystemsOutlook. The Future of Complexity Readership: Graduate students, researchers, academics and professionals interested in nonlinear science. Keywords:Nonlinear Dynamics;Chaos;Self-Organization;Emergence;Probability and Information;Predictability;Non-Equilibrium Systems;Irreversibility;Systems BiologyKey Features:A unique vision highlighting complexity as part of fundamental science and a clear, unifying presentation of the concepts and tools needed to analyze complex systemsIllustrates the interdisciplinary dimension of complexity research through representative examples pertaining to problems of current concernNew edition, including a large collection of exercises and problems with hints for solution and an updated survey of the literatureReviews: “The book can be used as a textbook by graduate students, researchers and teachers in science, as well as non-experts who wish to have an overview of the field.” Zentralblatt MATH

Astrophysical Concepts

Astrophysical Concepts
A Book

by Martin Harwit

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 653
  • ISBN : 1475729286
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This classic text - aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy - presents a wide range of concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasising physical concepts, it provides the student with a series of astrophysical sketches, concluding with a synthesis of all the subjects discussed in the book, sketching the history of the universe from its beginning to the formation of the Sun and the planets.

Unsaturated Soils

Unsaturated Soils
A fundamental interpretation of soil behaviour

by E. J. Murray,V. Sivakumar

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2010-06-17
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 9781444325041
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An understanding of the mechanical properties of unsaturated soilsis crucial for geotechnical engineers worldwide, as well as tothose concerned with the interaction of structures with the ground.This book deals principally with fine-grained clays and silts, orsoils containing coarser sand and gravel particles but with asignificant percentage of fines. The study of unsaturated soil is a practical subject, linkingfundamental science to nature. Soils in general are inherentlyvariable and their behaviour is not easy to analyse or predict, andunsaturated soils raise the complexity to a higher level. Evenamongst practicing engineers, there is often lack of awareness ofthe intricacies of the subject. This book offers a perspective ofunsaturated soils based on recent research and demonstrates howthis dovetails with the general discipline of soil mechanics. Following an introduction to the basic soil variables, thephases, the phase interactions and the relevance of soil structure,an up-to-date review of laboratory testing techniques is presented.This includes suction measurement and control techniques intriaxial cell testing. This is followed by an introduction tostress state variables, critical state and theoretical models inunsaturated soils. A detailed description of the thermodynamic principles asapplied to multi-phase materials under equilibrium conditionsfollows. These principles are then used to explore and develop afundamental theoretical basis for analysing unsaturated soils. Soilstructure is broken down into its component parts to developequations describing the dual stress regime. The critical statestrength and compression characteristics of unsaturated soils areexamined and it is shown how the behaviour may be viewed as athree-dimensional model in dimensionless stress-volume space. Theanalysis is then extended to the work input into unsaturated soilsand the development of conjugate stress, volumetric andstrain-increment variables. These are used to examine themicromechanical behaviour of kaolin specimens subjected to triaxialshear strength tests and lead to observations not detectable byother means. Unsaturated Soils: A fundamental interpretation of soilbehaviour covers a rapidly advancing area of study, researchand engineering practice and offers a deeper appreciation of thekey characteristics of unsaturated soil. It provides students andresearchers with a framework for understanding soil behaviour anddemonstrates how to interpret experimental strength and compressiondata. provides engineers with a deeper appreciation of keycharacteristics of unsaturated soils covers a rapidly advancing area of study, research andengineering practice provides students and researchers a framework for understandingsoil behaviour shows how to interpret experimental data on strength andcompression the limited number of books on the subject are all out ofdate

A Concise Introduction to the Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

A Concise Introduction to the Statistical Physics of Complex Systems
A Book

by Eric Bertin

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-09-28
  • Pages : 77
  • ISBN : 9783642239236
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This concise primer (based on lectures given at summer schools on complex systems and on a masters degree course in complex systems modeling) will provide graduate students and newcomers to the field with the basic knowledge of the concepts and methods of statistical physics and its potential for application to interdisciplinary topics. Indeed, in recent years, statistical physics has begun to attract the interest of a broad community of researchers in the field of complex system sciences, ranging from biology to the social sciences, economics and computer science. More generally, a growing number of graduate students and researchers feel the need to learn some basic concepts and questions originating in other disciplines without necessarily having to master all of the corresponding technicalities and jargon. Generally speaking, the goals of statistical physics may be summarized as follows: on the one hand to study systems composed of a large number of interacting ‘entities’, and on the other to predict the macroscopic (or collective) behavior of the system considered from the microscopic laws ruling the dynamics of the individual ‘entities’. These two goals are, to some extent, also shared by what is nowadays called ‘complex systems science’ and for these reasons, systems studied in the framework of statistical physics may be considered as among the simplest examples of complex systems—allowing in addition a rather well developed mathematical treatment.

Life and Process

Life and Process
Towards a New Biophilosophy

by Spyridon A. Koutroufinis

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2014-05-21
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 3110352591
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Alfred North Whitehead is arguably the most original 20th-century philosopher of nature and metaphysics. In recent decades a number of physicists have produced ground-breaking new theories in fundamental physics influenced by his process philosophy. In contrast, few biologists are even aware that Whitehead’s radical rethinking of the Cartesian assumptions implicit in 19th-century sciences might be relevant to their enterprise. This book seeks to fill this gap by exploring how Whitehead’s process ontology might provide a new philosophical foundation for the biosciences of the 21st century. The central premise shared by all of the volume’s authors is the idea that all living processes are irreducible processes. Each chapter focuses on assumptions implicit in some of the core concepts of biology– such as organism, evolution, information, and teleology – that play crucial explanatory roles in the biosciences, but as metaphysical concepts fall outside its purview. The authors each identify important shortcomings implicit in contemporary biological paradigms and show how an approach grounded in a process-oriented metaphysics can avoid them.

Energy Optimization in Process Systems

Energy Optimization in Process Systems
A Book

by Stanislaw Sieniutycz,Jacek Jezowski

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-05-06
  • Pages : 768
  • ISBN : 9780080914428
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite the vast research on energy optimization and process integration, there has to date been no synthesis linking these together. This book fills the gap, presenting optimization and integration in energy and process engineering. The content is based on the current literature and includes novel approaches developed by the authors. Various thermal and chemical systems (heat and mass exchangers, thermal and water networks, energy converters, recovery units, solar collectors, and separators) are considered. Thermodynamics, kinetics and economics are used to formulate and solve problems with constraints on process rates, equipment size, environmental parameters, and costs. Comprehensive coverage of dynamic optimization of energy conversion systems and separation units is provided along with suitable computational algorithms for deterministic and stochastic optimization approaches based on: nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, variational calculus, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory, Pontryagin's maximum principles, and special methods of process integration. Integration of heat energy and process water within a total site is shown to be a significant factor reducing production costs, in particular costs of utilities for the chemical industry. This integration involves systematic design and optimization of heat exchangers and water networks (HEN and WN). After presenting basic, insight-based Pinch Technology, systematic, optimization-based sequential and simultaneous approaches to design HEN and WN are described. Special consideration is given to the HEN design problem targeting stage, in view of its importance at various levels of system design. Selected, advanced methods for HEN synthesis and retrofit are presented. For WN design a novel approach based on stochastic optimization is described that accounts for both grassroot and revamp design scenarios. Presents a unique synthesis of energy optimization and process integration that applies scientific information from thermodynamics, kinetics, and systems theory Discusses engineering applications including power generation, resource upgrading, radiation conversion and chemical transformation, in static and dynamic systems Clarifies how to identify thermal and chemical constraints and incorporate them into optimization models and solutions

Grammar Of Complexity: From Mathematics To A Sustainable World

Grammar Of Complexity: From Mathematics To A Sustainable World
A Book

by Volchenkov Dimitri

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2018-01-17
  • Pages : 284
  • ISBN : 981323251X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book is an introduction, for both graduate students and newcomers to the field of the modern theory of mesoscopic complex systems, time series, hypergraphs and graphs, scaled random walks, and modern information theory. As these are applied for the exploration and characterization of complex systems. Our self-consistent review provides the necessary basis for consistency. We discuss a number of applications such diverse as urban structures and musical compositions. Contents: Perplexity of ComplexityPreliminaries: Permutations, Partitions, Probabilities and InformationTheory of Extreme EventsStatistical Basis of Inequality and Discounting the Future and InequalityElements of Graph Theory. Adjacency, Walks, and EntropiesExploring Graph Structures by Random WalksWe Shape Our Buildings: Thereafter They Shape UsComplexity of Musical Harmony Readership: Graduate student in information theory, complex systems and mathematical modeling. Keywords: Complex Systems and Processes;Extreme Events;Discounting the Future and Inequality;Urban Environments;Complexity of Musical HarmonyReview: Key Features: The book provides the unique treatment of the modern theory of mesoscopic complex systems, time series, hypergraphs and graphs, scaled random walks, and modern information theory as applied for exploration and characterization of complex systemsThe book shows how the concepts of complexity theory is applicable to the problem fo survival, urban studies, income inequality, musical harmonyThe book might be used as recommended reading for a course

Stochastic Equations for Complex Systems

Stochastic Equations for Complex Systems
Theoretical and Computational Topics

by Stefan Heinz,Hakima Bessaih

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-05-06
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 3319182064
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mathematical analyses and computational predictions of the behavior of complex systems are needed to effectively deal with weather and climate predictions, for example, and the optimal design of technical processes. Given the random nature of such systems and the recognized relevance of randomness, the equations used to describe such systems usually need to involve stochastics. The basic goal of this book is to introduce the mathematics and application of stochastic equations used for the modeling of complex systems. A first focus is on the introduction to different topics in mathematical analysis. A second focus is on the application of mathematical tools to the analysis of stochastic equations. A third focus is on the development and application of stochastic methods to simulate turbulent flows as seen in reality. This book is primarily oriented towards mathematics and engineering PhD students, young and experienced researchers, and professionals working in the area of stochastic differential equations and their applications. It contributes to a growing understanding of concepts and terminology used by mathematicians, engineers, and physicists in this relatively young and quickly expanding field.

The Oxford Handbook of Cyber Security

The Oxford Handbook of Cyber Security
A Book

by Paul Cornish

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2021-11-04
  • Pages : 880
  • ISBN : 0198800681
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Oxford Handbook of Cyber Security presents forty-eight chapters examining the technological, economic, commercial, and strategic aspects of cyber security, including studies at the international, regional, amd national level.

Earth

Earth
Evolution of a Habitable World

by Jonathan I. Lunine

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2013-04-08
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1107328160
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fully updated throughout, including revised illustrations and new images from NASA missions, this new edition provides an overview of Earth's history from a planetary science perspective for Earth science undergraduates. Earth's evolution is described in the context of what we know about other planets and the cosmos at large, from the origin of the cosmos to the processes that shape planetary environments and from the origins of life to the inner workings of cells. Astronomy, Earth science, planetary science and astrobiology are integrated to give students the whole picture of how the Earth has come to its present state and an understanding of the relationship between key ideas in different fields. The book presents concepts in nontechnical language and mathematical treatments are avoided where possible. New end-of-chapter summaries and questions allow students to check their understanding and critical thinking is emphasized to encourage students to explore ideas scientifically for themselves.