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Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides
Tracers and Timers of Terrestrial Processes

by Klaus Froehlich

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-09-23
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 9780080913292
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

TENR - Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation

TENR - Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation
A Book

by Anselmo Salles Paschoa,F. Steinhausler

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-12-31
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN : 9780080914183
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book on TENR discusses the basic Physics and Chemistry principles of natural radiation. The current knowledge of the biological effects of natural radiation is summarized. A wide variety of topics, from cosmic radiation to atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic radiation is addressed, including radon, thoron, and depleted uranium. Issues like terrorism and geochronology using natural radiation are also examined. Comprehensive global TENR data assembly Critical assessment of the significant radiological impact of TENR on man and the environment as compared to radiological impact from man-made sources in nuclear technology and nuclear medicine Illustration of the importance of TENR for the future conceptual development of radiation protection

Tropical Radioecology

Tropical Radioecology
A Book

by John R. Twining

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 0080450164
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrates radioecological information into the most recent radiological consequences modelling and best-practice probabilistic ecological risk analysis methodology, given the need to understand the implications of enhanced socio-economic development in the world's tropical regions.

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management
A Book

by Deborah Oughton,Sven Ove Hansson

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-09-07
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 0080914292
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management provides a comprehensive treatment of the major ethical and social issues resulting from the use of ionizing radiation. It covers topics such as nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste treatment, nuclear bomb testing, nuclear safety management, stakeholder engagement, cleanup after nuclear accidents, ecological risks from radiation, environmental justice, health and safety for radiation workers, radiation dose standards, the ethics of clinical radiology, and the principles of radiation protection and their ethical underpinnings. With authors ranging from philosophers to radiation protection officials and practitioners, the book spans from theoretical to practical implications of this important area of radiation risk assessment and management. Covers all the major social and ethical issues in relation to radiation protection Information is easily accessible and non-technical Authors include leading radiation protection officials as well as specialists who are more independent of the radiation protection system, thus presenting both authoritative and more critical views Includes theoretical perspectives as well as practical experience

Principles of Alluvial Fan Morphology

Principles of Alluvial Fan Morphology
A Book

by Dan Bowman

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-11-09
  • Pages : 151
  • ISBN : 9402415580
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book offers a comprehensive overview of the alluvial fan phenomena, including all terminology, morphology, sedimentology, controlling factors, processes and the human impact. It combines the knowledge dispersed widely in existing literature with regional case studies, color figures and photographs. The chapters provide a useful basis to understand alluvial fans and a selection of papers attached to each chapter offers additional, more focused reading. This volume is aimed at engineers, planners and especially students in earth sciences.

Micropollutants in Large Lakes

Micropollutants in Large Lakes
From Potential Pollution Sources to Risk Assessments

by Nathalie Chevre

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-03-14
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 2889144283
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Scientists, regulators, and the general public are now more and more aware of the chemicals present in surface waters worldwide. Agrochemicals, such as herbicides or insecticides, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics can be detected at low to medium concentrations in seas, groundwaters and rivers. Among freshwaters, lakes are of particular concern. These large reservoirs are used as sources of food and drinking water, but also serve for recreational activities. This book aims in presenting insights into the physical, chemical, and ecological dynamics of large lakes that enable proposing recommendations for sustainable lake management regarding chemicals. Lake Geneva, Switzerland, is used as a case study, but the developed methodologies and tools can be useful for lake water quality management in general. A first chapter is dedicated to the chemicals entering the lake through agriculture. These are mainly pesticides. After a review of the different types of compounds, the authors present the main pathways these compounds follow to enter the lake. The case of glyphosate, an herbicide largely used worldwide, is presented. A second chapter illustrates the urban source of pollutants with the case of pharmaceuticals and biocides. Two models are presented that allow estimating the load and the dynamic of these chemicals that may exit from an urban catchment and therefore reach a lake. Special attention will be paid to the ‘end of pipe’ removal of these compounds at a WWTP. A third chapter is dedicated to the lake circulation. The aim of this chapter is to present an overall description of the lake’s hydrodynamics, which is driven by three factors: wind, temperature and Coriolis forces. To achieve this aim, a hydrodynamic model is presented that allows describing the behavior of the top layer of the lake based on the wind direction. The importance of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for characterizing the sources of water and the mixing processes in the lake is also described. The next chapters are dedicated to a Bay, called the Vidy Bay, that receives the treated effluents of the largest wastewater treatment plant of the lake catchment. This latter represents therefore one of the major point sources of contaminants for lake Geneva. These two chapters will focus on the various processes that control the transfer of chemicals (associated to particles or in a dissolved state) discharged into the bay and transported to the lake’s main water body. Then, a next chapter focuses on one major issue of chemicals in aquatic systems like lakes, i.e. the risk of the mixture of chemicals. The evaluation of the risk of mixture is not trivial and the models that allow doing it are presented in a critical way. Their validity as predictive tools is illustrated with the example of herbicides mixture in Lake Geneva. A final chapter synthesizes the main findings and discusses some recommendations for the management of large lakes regarding micropollution.

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis

Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis
Volume 2: Radioanalytical Applications

by Michael F. L'Annunziata

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-03-07
  • Pages : 1074
  • ISBN : 0128143967
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis: Radiation Physics and Detectors, Volume One, and Radioanalytical Applications, Volume Two, Fourth Edition, constitute an authoritative reference on the principles, practical techniques and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity - everything from the very low levels encountered in the environment, to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, and fuel cycle facilities, and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. It includes sample preparation techniques for all types of matrices found in the environment, including soil, water, air, plant matter and animal tissue, and surface swipes. Users will find the latest advances in the applications of radioactivity analysis across various fields, including environmental monitoring, radiochemical standardization, high-resolution beta imaging, automated radiochemical separation, nuclear forensics, and more. Spans two volumes, Radiation Physics and Detectors and Radioanalytical Applications Includes a new chapter on the analysis of environmental radionuclides Provides the latest advances in the applications of liquid and solid scintillation analysis, alpha- and gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometric analysis, Cherenkov counting, flow-cell radionuclide analysis, radionuclide standardization, aerosol analysis, high-resolution beta imaging techniques, analytical techniques in nuclear forensics, and nuclear safeguards Describes the timesaving techniques of computer-controlled automatic separation and activity analysis of radionuclides Provides an extensive table of the radiation characteristics of most radionuclides of interest for the radioanalytical chemist

World Soil Resources and Food Security

World Soil Resources and Food Security
A Book

by Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 574
  • ISBN : 1439844518
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Soil-The Basis of All Terrestrial LifeAncient civilizations and cultures-Mayan, Aztec, Mesopotamian, Indus, and Yangtze-were built on good soils, surviving only as long as soils had the capacity to support them. In the twenty-first century, productive soil is still the engine of economic development and essential to human well-being. The quality of

Nuclear Geophysics

Nuclear Geophysics
Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Science

by V.I. Ferronsky

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-01-13
  • Pages : 522
  • ISBN : 331912451X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fundamentals of methods in nuclear geophysics and their practical applications in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, agriculture and environmental science are discussed in this book. The methods and apparatus based on absorption and scattering of gamma and neutron radiation for determination of density and soil moisture in natural conditions are presented in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. The theoretical fundamentals and installations of the penetration logging techniques where gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron logging in combination with static penetration form common complexes for engineering geology and hydrogeology exploration without boring holes are described. The developed constructions and practical use penetration logging installations for applications on land and marine shelves are described in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8. The physical fundamentals for the use of the natural stable and radioactive isotopes for study of the global hydrological cycle are provided. The experimental data, origin and distribution of cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes in the oceans, atmospheric moisture, surface and underground waters are presented in Chapters 9, 10, and 11. The sources and conditions of the radioactive contamination of the natural waters are discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers who use nuclear geophysics methods in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeoecology. Lecturers, students, and postgraduates in these subjects will also find it useful.

Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition

Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition
An Archaeological Perspective

by R.E. Taylor,MacCurdy Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology Ofer Bar-Yosef,Ofer Bar-Yosef

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2016-06-03
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 1315421208
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume is a major revision and expansion of Taylor’s seminal book Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective. It covers the major advances and accomplishments of the 14C method in archaeology and analyzes factors that affect the accuracy and precision of 14C-based age estimates. In addition to reviewing the basic principles of the method, it examines 14C dating anomalies and means to resolve them, and considers the critical application of 14C data as a dating isotope with special emphasis on issues in Old and New World archaeology and late Quaternary paleoanthropology. This volume, again a benchmark for 14C dating, critically reflects on the method and data that underpins, in so many cases, the validity of the chronologies used to understand the prehistoric archaeological record.

Land Degradation and Desertification: Assessment, Mitigation and Remediation

Land Degradation and Desertification: Assessment, Mitigation and Remediation
A Book

by Pandi Zdruli,Marcello Pagliai,Selim Kapur,Angel Faz Cano

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2010-07-20
  • Pages : 660
  • ISBN : 9789048186570
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Land Degradation and Desertification: Assessment, Mitigation, and Remediation reports research results in sustainable land management and land degradation status and mitigation in 36 countries around the world. It includes background papers with continental and international perspectives dealing with land degradation and desertification studies. The book assembles various topics of interest for a large audience. They include carbon sequestration and stocks, modern techniques to trace the trends of land degradation, traditional and modern approaches of resource-base conservation, soil fertility management, reforestation, rangeland rehabilitation, land use planning, GIS techniques in desertification risk cartography, participatory ecosystem management, policy analyses and possible plans for action. Various climatic domains in Africa, Asia, Europe and The Americas are covered. The book will be of interest to a variety of environmental scientists, agronomists, national and international policy makers and a number of organizations dealing with sustainable management of natural resources.

Soil-Specific Farming

Soil-Specific Farming
Precision Agriculture

by Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-08-20
  • Pages : 431
  • ISBN : 1482245345
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Faced with challenges of resource scarcity and environmental degradation, it is important to adopt innovative farming systems that maximize resource efficiency while protecting the environment. Soil-Specific Farming: Precision Agriculture focuses on principles and applications of soil-specific farming, providing information on rapidly evolving agricultural technologies. It addresses assessments of soil variability and application of modern innovations to enhance use efficiency of fertilizers, irrigation, tillage, and pesticides through targeted management of soils and crops. This book provides the technological basis of adopting and promoting precision agriculture (PA) for addressing the issues of resource scarcity, environmental pollution, and climate change. It focuses specifically on PA technologies and discusses historical evolution, soil variability at different scales, soil fertility and nutrient management, water quality, land leveling techniques, and special ecosystems involving small landholders and coastal regions. Highlighting the scale-related issues and concerns of small landholders, the text details the efficient use of resources on the basis of soil/field variability and site-specific conditions. It examines how PA technology can increase productivity, enhance profitability, and minimize environmental degradation. Woven throughout is the theme of sustainable use of resources.

Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science

Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-03-25
  • Pages : 3888
  • ISBN : 0444536426
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The second revised edition of the Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, provides both students and professionals with an up-to-date reference work on this important and highly varied area of research. There are lots of new articles, and many of the articles that appeared in the first edition have been updated to reflect advances in knowledge since 2006, when the original articles were written. The second edition will contain about 375 articles, written by leading experts around the world. This major reference work is richly illustrated with more than 3,000 illustrations, most of them in colour. Research in the Quaternary sciences has advanced greatly in the last 10 years, especially since topics like global climate change, geologic hazards and soil erosion were put high on the political agenda. This second edition builds upon its award-winning predecessor to provide the reader assured quality along with essential updated coverage Contains 357 broad-ranging articles (4310 pages) written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource for information in the field. Facilitates teaching and learning The first edition was regarded by many as the most significant single overview of Quaternary science ever, yet Editor-in-Chief, Scott Elias, has managed to surpass that in this second edition by securing even more expert reviews whilst retaining his renowned editorial consistency that enables readers to navigates seamlessly from one unfamiliar topic to the next

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment
Influence of chemical speciation and plant uptake on radionuclide migration

by Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-10-30
  • Pages : 273
  • ISBN : 331922171X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

The British National Bibliography

The British National Bibliography
A Book

by Arthur James Wells

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Government Reports Annual Index

Government Reports Annual Index
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1984
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1966
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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International Aerospace Abstracts

International Aerospace Abstracts
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1967
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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