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Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System
Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Impact

by J. David Sweatt,Michael J. Meaney,Eric J. Nestler,Schahram Akbarian

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2012-12-31
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 0123944058
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System addresses current understanding of the roles of epigenetic processes at the molecular/cellular level, their impact on neural development and behavior, and the potential roles of these mechanisms in neurological and psychiatric disorders. This award-winning volume spans molecular epigenetics, development, cellular physiology and biochemistry, synaptic and neural plasticity, and behavioral models, and is unique in covering epigenetically based disorders of the central nervous system. Behavioral epigenetics is the study of how environmental factors alter behavior, addressing the fundamental mechanisms that shape development and individual vulnerability/resilience to adverse behavioral outcomes. By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in epigenetic modulation, researchers may be able to develop targeted therapies for those individuals in whom it malfunctions. Edited by the most highly regarded leaders in the field, this book offers a comprehensive review of behavioral epigenetics and a balanced treatment of the strengths and weaknesses in experimentation in this area. Covering background material as well as topics of current interest, it serves both as a cutting-edge resource and a foundational reference. The book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the links between gene regulation and behavior, as will clinicians dealing with disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - Highly Commended, Neurology, British Medical Association BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - First Prize, Neurology, British Medical Association 2013 PROSE Award winner for Best in Reference Works and Best Single Volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers Presents a unified view of epigenetic mechanisms from behavior to genes and everything in between Discusses clinically relevant disorders in the context of epigenetics research, making the volume appealing to clinicians as well as basic scientists Provides numerous practical examples for the new investigator to facilitate implementation of research in neuroepigenetics

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Neural Plasticity

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Neural Plasticity
A Book

by Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún,Reinhard Schliebs,Merce Pallàs

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-09-20
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889630005
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neural plasticity is a unique and adaptive feature of nervous system, which allows neurons to reorganize their interactions in response to a stimulation (intrinsic or extrinsic) to maintain their function. For these reasons, epigenetics emerges as a potential field for developing strategies to modulate changes in pathological situation because extrinsic factors and pharmacological tools can modify neural functioning in organisms during their life. Diet, exercise, environmental aspects, stressors or drugs are available to alter those mechanisms. Epigenetic involves certain molecular signaling pathways, as DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, and the emerging non-coding small RNA, mainly microRNA, as a commanders of a number of translation processes. As most of molecular nervous cell alterations, epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in neural plasticity. This eBook collects the burgeoning advances in epigenetic mechanisms, focusing on new insights into cellular and molecular neurobiological mechanisms that underlie brain functioning in health and pathological conditions. Contributions go from basic cellular mechanism to therapeutic opportunities to tackle the challenges on nervous central system development and neurodegeneration.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain
A Book

by Andrew J. Kennedy,Gabriella N. L. Chua

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-06
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 9780128164976
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetic mechanisms are the biological processes that determine how our genome is used and the same principle can be applied to our neuron genes. In recent findings in the field of neuroepigenetics, it has been determined that our genes encode our memories, transmit information about stressful events, and play apart in our addictions. This book helps to unlock these abstract processes, leading to improved individualized treatments.

Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Down Syndrome Brain

Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Down Syndrome Brain
A Book

by Jie Lu

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Down Syndrome Brain.

Epigenetics, Brain and Behavior

Epigenetics, Brain and Behavior
A Book

by Paolo Sassone Corsi,Yves Christen

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-10-19
  • Pages : 166
  • ISBN : 3642279139
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent years have seen spectacular advances in the filed of epigenetics. These have attracted the interest of researchers in many fields and evidence connecting epigentic regulation to brain functions has been accumulationg. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. A variety of studies have centered on the molcular mechanisms implicated in epigentic control and how these may operte in concert. It will be critical to unravel how specifity is achieved. The focus of this volume is on critical epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling events that occur in the nervous system and on the presumed mechanisms that operate within neurons to translate them into long-lasting neuronal responses.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain
A Book

by Andrew J. Kennedy,Gabriella N.L. Chua

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2022-12-01
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 0128169710
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Brain provides recent findings in the field of neuroepigenetics, covering how our genes encode our memories, transmit information about stressful events, and play a part in our addictions. This book helps to unlock these abstract processes, with a forward goal of improving individualized treatments. Discusses how the epigenome affects long-term memory, stress and addiction Reviews the concept of transgenerational memory Describes treatment options for the epigenome

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System

Epigenetic Regulation in the Nervous System
Chapter 5. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Learning and Memory

by Jeremy J. Day,J. David Sweatt

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2012-12-31
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 0128058404
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetic Information-processing Mechanisms in the Brain

Epigenetic Information-processing Mechanisms in the Brain
A Book

by Lawrence R. Edelstein,John Raymond Smythies,Denis Noble

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9781782520900
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain, Behavior and Epigenetics

Brain, Behavior and Epigenetics
A Book

by Arturas Petronis,Jonathan Mill

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-05-19
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 9783642174261
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomedical research in the first decade of the 21st century has been marked by a rapidly growing interest in epigenetics. The reasons for this are numerous, but primarily it stems from the mounting realization that research programs focused solely on DNA sequence variation, despite their breadth and depth, are unlikely to address all fundamental aspects of human biology. Some questions are evident even to non-biologists. How does a single zygote develop into a complex multicellular organism composed of dozens of different tissues and hundreds of cell types, all genetically identical but performing very different functions? Why do monozygotic twins, despite their stunning external similarities, often exhibit significant differences in personality and predisposition to disease? If environmental factors are solely the cause of such variation, why are similar differences also observed between genetically identical animals housed in a uniform environment? Over the last couple of decades, epigenetics has undergone a significant metamorphosis from an abstract developmental theory to a very dynamic and rapidly developing branch of molecular biology. This volume represents a compilation of our current understanding about the key aspects of epigenetic processes in the brain and their role in behavior. The chapters in this book bring together some of the leading researchers in the field of behavioral epigenetics. They explore many of the epigenetic processes which operate or may be operating to mediate neurobiological functions in the brain and describe how perturbations to these systems may play a key role in mediating behavior and the origin of brain diseases.

DNA Modifications in the Brain

DNA Modifications in the Brain
Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

by Timothy W. Bredy

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-01-05
  • Pages : 150
  • ISBN : 9780128015964
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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DNA Modifications in the Brain: Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression begins with an historical overview of the early discoveries surrounding DNA methylation in the mammalian brain and then explores the evidence supporting a role for this epigenetic mechanism in controlling gene expression programs across the lifespan in both normal and diseased states. Chapters describe new directions and technological advances, and provide an overview of what the future holds for this exciting new field. This book is ideal for medical, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, but is also a great resource for researchers who need a broad introduction to the dynamic nature of DNA that sheds light on evolving concepts of gene-environment interaction and their effects on adaptation and neuropsychiatric disease. Provides a comprehensive overview of the many facets of DNA modifications Discusses the impact of this dynamic epigenetic mechanism across brain development and lifespan at behavioral, cognitive, molecular and genetic levels Contains contributions by influential leaders in the field Edited by a Neuroscientist to further promote synthesis between epigenetics, neuroscience, and clinical relevance

Epigenetic Markers in the Postnatal Developing Rat Brain

Epigenetic Markers in the Postnatal Developing Rat Brain
A Book

by Rebecca Kaye Simmons

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 83
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetic mechanisms provide a critical and plausible mechanism by which genes and the environment can interact and have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders. In order to better understand how epigenetic mechanisms go awry in a diseased brain we must first understand how epigenetic mechanisms unfold during normal development. The present body of work begins to examine the role of DNA methylation in normal development and how it may contribute to a rodent model of emotion dysfunction. Using a variety of techniques, we evaluated the transcript, protein and functional output levels of DNA methyltransferase1, -3a, and -3b during several developmental timepoints in the hippocampus, amygdala and several other brain areas of normal rats as well as bred high novelty responding rats and bred low novelty responding rats. Our results lay an important foundation, paving the way for a series of new experiments that can investigate what happens when epigenetic processes go awry during critical neurodevelopmental periods.

The Impact of Aversive Caregiving on DNA Methylation in Blood and the Prefrontal Cortex

The Impact of Aversive Caregiving on DNA Methylation in Blood and the Prefrontal Cortex
A Book

by Hannah Duffy

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 59
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aversive caregiving causes epigenetic alterations that may lead to neurological and behavioral problems later in life. These issues presumably originate in the brain, and, as such, epigenetic changes within the brain would appear to be the most relevant to better understand the origin of and possible alleviation of these issues. However, it is difficult to study epigenetics in the brain in living humans, so many researchers rely on epigenetic alterations in peripheral tissues to be an indication of aberrant epigenetic mechanisms within the brain. The reliability of using such epigenetic changes in the periphery as a proxy for that of the brain is still largely unknown. Rodent models provide a much-needed mechanism of testing whether epigenetic alterations in peripheral tissues like blood mirror that of the brain. The current study used a rodent model to examine changes in DNA methylation at two regions (exons IV and IX) of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene in both the prefrontal cortex and blood following aversive caregiving. DNA methylation increased in response to aversive caregiving at exons IV and IX in both the prefrontal cortex and blood. Despite the similar group trends in both tissues in response to aversive caregiving, no correlations were found between DNA methylation in the brain and the blood. Data overall indicate that Bdnf DNA methylation in the blood and brain tissue is similarly responsive to early-life experiences, but the correlational analyses suggest that this relationship varies at the individual subject level.

Epigenetic pathways in PTSD: how traumatic experiences leave their signature on the genome

Epigenetic pathways in PTSD: how traumatic experiences leave their signature on the genome
A Book

by Tania L Roth,David M Diamond,Karestan C Koenen

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-04-14
  • Pages : 158
  • ISBN : 2889194582
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This research topic focuses on epigenetic components of PTSD. Epigenetic mechanisms are a class of molecular mechanisms by which environmental influences, including stress, can interact with the genome to have long-term consequences for brain plasticity and behavior. Articles herein include empirical reports and reviews that link stress and trauma with epigenetic alterations in humans and animal models of early- or later-life stress. Themes present throughout the collection include: DNA methylation is a useful biomarker of stress and treatment outcome in humans; epigenetic programming of stress-sensitive physiological systems early in development confers an enhanced risk on disease development upon re-exposure to trauma or stress; and, long-lived fear memories are associated with epigenetic alterations in fear memory and extinction brain circuitry.

The Genetics and Epigenetics of Sex Differences in the Brain

The Genetics and Epigenetics of Sex Differences in the Brain
A Book

by Negar Montakhab Ghahramani

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 219
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The major drivers underlying sexually dimorphic brain development are gonadal hormones, namely testosterone (T). During the perinatal sensitive period, a time when the embryonic brain is maximally sensitive to changes in the levels of gonadal hormones, exposure to T has permanent organizing effects on the brain, the molecular basis of which is not known. One potential mechanism for the long term permanence may be DNA methylation. To examine the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to both the establishment and maintenance of sex differences, I compared the methylomes of male, female, and female mice treated with testosterone. Methylation maps were generated for sexually dimorphic brain regions such as the striatum at postnatal day 4 (PN4) during the sensitive period and PN60 during adulthood using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. I found that testosterone altered the methylation of a few genes during the sensitive period but a much greater number in adulthood. I next investigated whether administration of a single dose of testosterone to females on the day of birth could induce a shift in DNA methylation from a female-typical to a more male-typical pattern. The results demonstrated that the masculinizing effect of testosterone was mostly evident at PN60 but not at PN4. This observation provided a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying organizational effects of testosterone because contrary to the expectation that testosterone leaves a strong, stable imprint shortly after exposure, testosterone effects on DNA methylation were not immediately evident but emerged later. Based on these data, I concluded that sex differences in methylation are not the result of the immediate early actions of testosterone on the brain. Rather, the neural molecular patterns found in adults are conditioned by early hormonal exposures, the effects of which might emerge over a period of time. Gene Ontology analysis on the set of genes whose methylation was altered by testosterone revealed a significant enrichment of genes belonging to signaling components associated with dopamine modulation as well as movement disorders that display a male-bias. These data are consistent with striatum's role in regulation of movement. In addition to assessing the contribution of hormones to brain sexual differentiation, I also investigated the impact of sex chromosomes on sex differences in brain and behavior. To test for sex chromosome effects, I used the four core genotypes mouse model and found sex differences in expression of a subset of striatal genes caused by XX vs. XY differences in mice with the same gonadal type. Moreover, comparison of animals with different numbers of sex chromosomes in a novel mouse model of Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), the Sex Chromosome Trisomy Model, indicated that presence of an additional X chromosome and/or its interaction with the Y in XXY male mice can contribute to some of the behavioral and molecular phenotypes observed in KS. Interestingly, analysis of striatal transcriptome in KS mice revealed a feminized molecular signature in the brain of KS male mice. Such information is crucial knowledge in elucidating not only the pathophysiology of KS, but also the origin of sex differences in brain and behavior. Altogether, my work demonstrates the significance of genetics and epigenetics in the process of brain development as it relates to sex. The results presented in this dissertation suggest that (1) the sex chromosomes carry genes that could influence brain function and behavior; and (2) the long lasting effects of steroid hormones on the brain could be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation.

Behavioral Neurogenomics

Behavioral Neurogenomics
A Book

by Elisabeth B. Binder,Torsten Klengel

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-12-12
  • Pages : 259
  • ISBN : 3030312658
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a unique overview on the most recent developments in initially diverse areas of behavioral genomic research that now start to intertwine to provide more detailed insights into the complex nature of behavior in health and disease. It focuses on our current understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of brain function and how they contribute to the complex formation of behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. Readers experience diverse perspectives of the contributing authors starting from the genetic viewpoint and the effort to establish functional connection between genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes. Particular attention is given to the broad spectrum of epigenetic mechanisms and behavior. The chapter 'Role of MicoRNAs in Anxiety and Anxiety-Related Disorders' is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com

Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics

Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics
Volume 4: Handbook of Stress

by George Fink

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-10-24
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 0128131578
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This fourth volume in the Handbook of Stress series, Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics, deals with the influence that genetics, epigenetics, and genomics have on the effects of and responses to stress. Chapters refer to epigenetic mechanisms that involve DNA methylation, histone modification, and/or noncoding RNA-associated gene activation or silencing. There is also coverage of epigenetic mechanisms in stress-related transgenerational transmission of characteristics, and how these may help explain heritability in some complex human diseases. The Handbook of Stress series, comprised of self-contained volumes that each focus on a specific stress area, covers the significant advances made since the publication of Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Stress (2000 and 2007). Volume 4 is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, faculty and clinicians interested in stress genetics, epigenetics and genomics involved in neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, biomedicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry and the social sciences. Articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors representing outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter fully vetted for reliable expert knowledge Richly illustrated with explanatory figures and tables Each chapter includes a boxed “Key points call out section Affordably priced, self-contained volume for readers specifically interested in stress genetics and epigenetics, removing the need to purchase the whole Handbook series

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion

Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion
A Book

by Nelson R. Cabej

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-10-12
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 0128143126
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Cambrian Explosion provides readers with a basic biological knowledge and epigenetic explanation of the biological puzzle of the Cambrian explosion, the unprecedented rapid diversification of animals that began 542 million years ago. During an evolutionarily instant of ~10 million years, which represents only 0.3% of the time of existence of life on Earth, or less than 2% of the time of existence of metazoans, all of the 30 extant body plans, major animal groups (phyla) and several extinct groups appeared. The work helps address this phenomena and tries to answer remaining questions for evolutionary biology, epigenetics, and scientific researchers. The book recognizes and presents objective representations of alternative theories for epigenetic evolution in this period, with the author drawing on his epigenetic theory of evolution to explain the causal basis of the Cambrian explosion. Both empirical evidence and theoretical arguments are presented in support of this thought-provoking epigenetic theory. Explains the Cambrian explosion from an entirely epigenetic view Takes a causal rather than descriptive approach to the phenomenon Allows for a broad readership, including those with only a basic biological knowledge, while maintaining scientific rigor

The Epigenetics of Suicide

The Epigenetics of Suicide
The Impact of Early-life Adversity on Brain DNA Methylation Signature

by Benoit Labonté

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Suicide is a problem resulting from the interaction between several factors. Among these factors, early-life adversity, characterized by child sexual and physical abuse as well as parental neglect, is one of the strongest risk factors for depression and suicidal behaviors. While it is clear that child abuse increases the risk for depression and suicide, the mechanisms mediating these effects are still unknown. Recent evidences suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in mediating the effects of early-life adversity on behavior. Early-life stress in animals has been shown to alter DNA methylation in genes regulatory regions what, in turn, has been associated with changes in gene expression and behavioral modifications. Importantly, similar changes have been reported in several genes in the human brain. However, although epigenetic modifications have been found in several genes, the extent of epigenetic changes induced by early-life adversity is still unknown and their impacts on increasing suicide risk are unclear. This thesis aims at expanding our understanding of suicide by investigating one potential mechanism by which early-life adversity may increase vulnerability to mood disorders and suicide, namely epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We first expanded our characterization of DNA methylation alterations induced by early and adult-life stress in the regulatory regions of the glucocorticoid receptor gene which is one of the most consistent alterations associated with stress, depression and suicidal behaviors. We then opted for a genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation alterations found in the brains of suicide completers with and without a history of child abuse using microarray analyses focusing on gene promoters throughout the genome. Our findings revealed several DNA methylation alterations in genes with known roles on behavioral regulation and identified several new genes and networks which may be specifically altered by early-life adversity. We also characterized the functional impact of these alterations on gene expression and promoter transcriptional activity. Overall, this work identifies and characterizes the molecular mechanisms by which environment induces behavioral changes conferring vulnerability toward mood disorders and suicidal behaviors. " --

Stress and Epigenetics in Suicide

Stress and Epigenetics in Suicide
A Book

by Vsevolod Rozanov

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-02-13
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 0128052864
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Stress and Epigenetics in Suicidediscusses the central role of epigenetic modifications in suicidal behavior. As early-life stress and an individual's ability to cope with such stressors, combined with psychological factors, social factors, and existential and cognitive factors can predispose young people to suicidal behavior and put them at added risk of suicidal behavior later in life, this book provides readers with an overview of the neurobiology of stress, an introduction to the epigenetic changes induced by stress, and an understanding of how vulnerability and resilience to stress are built. It integrates these mechanisms into a biobehavioral model of suicide based on epigenetic marks, gene-environment interactions, and other stressors. More importantly, it provides future direction for research and discusses potential interventions. This book is an ideal and trusted resource for researchers and clinicians who are interested in learning how the environment can affect behavior through genetics, and for those seeking the development of new methods for suicide prevention. Explores the neurobiology of stress and stress-related epigenetics, including discussion of the role of stress-induced epigenetic changes in behavioral, emotional, and cognitive mechanisms and whether these epigenetic marks are transgenerational Provides compelling biobehavioral models of suicide based on genetics, epigenetics, and behavioral adjustment Integrates social, psychological, and existential influences, giving readers a better understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of suicide risk factors Presents future directions for suicide-prevention strategies that incorporate recent research on genomics and stress resilience

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity - Evidence and Debate

Epigenetics and Neuroplasticity - Evidence and Debate
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-11-05
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 0128010851
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The ‘epi-(Greek for ‘over’, ‘above’)genome’, with its rich cache of highly regulated, structural modifications—including DNA methylation, histone modifications and histone variants—defines the moldings and three-dimensional structures of the genomic material inside the cell nucleus and serves, literally, as a molecular bridge linking the environment to the genetic materials in our brain cells. Due to technological and scientific advances in the field, the field of neuroepigenetics is currently one of the hottest topics in the basic and clinical neurosciences. The volume captures some of this vibrant and exciting new research, and conveys to the reader an up-to-date discussion on the role of epigenetics across the lifespan of the human brain in health and disease. Topics cover the entire lifespan of the brain, from transgenerational epigenetics to neurodevelopmental disease to disorders of the aging brain. All chapters are written with dual intent, to provide the reader with a timely update on the field, and a discussion of provocative or controversial findings in the field with the potential of great impact for future developments in the field.