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Epigenetics of the Immune System

Epigenetics of the Immune System
A Book

by Dieter Kabelitz,Jaydeep Bhat

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-06-04
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 0128179651
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Epigenetics of the Immune System focuses on different aspects of epigenetics and immunology, providing readers with the fundamental mechanisms relating to epigenetics and the immune system. This book provides in-depth information on immune cells as a toolbox in deciphering systematically regulated mechanisms using "omics" and computational biology approaches. In addition, the book presents the translational importance of epigenetics and the immune system in our understanding of pathophysiology in diseases and its therapeutic applications. Provides an overview of most important immune mechanisms, the current status of epigenetics, and how both of them are brought together Presents key principles of immune mechanisms in epigenetics, presenting current findings and key principles Features in-depth chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers and specialists in immunology, translational medicine and epigenetics Merges two very large areas, covering the unique interrelatedness of epigenetics and immunology

The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity

The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity
A Book

by Rongxin Zhang

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-04-25
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0128099283
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Epigenetics of Autoimmunity covers a topic directly related to translational epigenetics. Via epigenetic mechanisms, a number of internal and external environmental risk factors, including smoking, nutrition, viral infection and the exposure to chemicals, could exert their influence on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Such factors could impact the epigenetic mechanisms, which, in turn, build relationship with the regulation of gene expression, and eventually triggering immunologic events that result in instability of immune system. Since epigenetic aberrations are known to play a key role in a long list of human diseases, the translational significance of autoimmunity epigenetics is very high. To bridge the gap between environmental and genetic factors, over the past few years, great progress has been made in identifying detailed epigenetic mechanisms for autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, with rapid advances in technological development, high-throughput screening approaches and other novel technologies support the systematic investigations and facilitate the epigenetic identification. This book covers autoimmunity epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective and several chapters are presented that provide advances in wide-spread disorders or diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes (T1DM), systemic sclerosis (SSc), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). These emerging epigenetic studies provide new insights into autoimmune diseases, raising great expectations among researchers and clinicians. This seminal book on this topic comprehensively covers the most recent advances in this exciting and rapidly developing new science. They might reveal not only new clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression, but also novel targets for potential epigenetic therapeutic treatment. Provides the accurate and cutting-edge information on autoimmunity epigenetics Wide coverage appeals to those interested in fundamental epigenetics and inheritance to those with more clinical interests Critical reviews of the mean of deriving and analysing autoimmunity epigenetics information as well as its translational potential Up-to-date coverage of emerging topics in autoimmunity epigenetics

Epigenetics in Psychiatry - Characterization of the Immune System and Its Methylome in Depressed Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy

Epigenetics in Psychiatry - Characterization of the Immune System and Its Methylome in Depressed Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy
A Book

by Nicole Katherin Moschny

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Human Epigenetics: How Science Works

Human Epigenetics: How Science Works
A Book

by Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-09-24
  • Pages : 153
  • ISBN : 3030229076
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The view “It’s all in our genes and we cannot change it” developed in the past 150 years since Gregor Mendel’s experiments with flowering pea plants. However, there is a special form of genetics, referred to as epigenetics, which does not involve any change of our genes but regulates how and when they are used. In the cell nucleus our genes are packed into chromatin, which is a complex of histone proteins and genomic DNA, representing the molecular basis of epigenetics. Our environment and lifestyle decisions influence the epigenetics of our cells and organs, i.e. epigenetics changes dynamically throughout our whole life. Thus, we have the chance to change our epigenetics in a positive as well as negative way and present the onset of diseases, such a type 2 diabetes or cancer. This textbook provides a molecular explanation how our genome is connected with environmental signals. It outlines that epigenetic programming is a learning process that results in epigenetic memory in each of the cells of our body. The central importance of epigenetics during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation as well as in the process of aging and the risk for the development of cancer are discussed. Moreover, the role of the epigenome as a molecular storage of cellular events not only in the brain but also in metabolic organs and in the immune system is described. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook “Human Epigenomics” (ISBN 978-981-10-7614-8). The first five chapters explain the molecular basis of epigenetics, while the following seven chapters provide examples for the impact of epigenetics in human health and disease.

Epigenetics for Beginners and Intermediate (2 Books in 1)

Epigenetics for Beginners and Intermediate (2 Books in 1)
How Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth + Exploration DNA

by Frank Brown

  • Publisher : Youcanprint
  • Release : 2021-09-15
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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You Are About To Develop A Comprehensive Understanding Of The Concept Of Epigenetics, Its Place In Modern Day Medicine, And Health Optimization And Why It Is Literally Changing How We Approach The Treatment Of Various Health Problems! Modern research has now confirmed that the behavior of your genes doesn't always depend on their DNA sequence, but also on factors referred to epigenetics, and that changes in these factors can play a critical role in disease, life structures, behavior and all aspects of life. And that's not all; research also shows that therapies based on these factors have proven effective in reversing some conditions, boosting the immune system, optimizing psychology and human adaptation. Epigenetics have thus taken the center stage in understanding human biology at a deeper level, life, and evolution. But what are epigenetics, and how to they work? How does the environment affect them, and how is this "remembered" in the body? How does epigenetic therapy work? What does it treat? Isn't it risky? What is the relationship between epigenetics and the human psychology? How can we benefit from the discovery and understanding of epigenetics? If you have these and other related questions, this 2 in 1 book is for you so keep reading. Here is a bit of what you'll learn from this 2 in 1 book: • What epigenetics are, why they're important and how they work • How epigenetics relate with our experiences • How cells divide, and how genes control the growth and division of cells • The difference between the DNA, gene and chromosomes • The existing evidence of epigenetic changes, including in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance • The ins and outs of epigenetics mechanisms • The types of epigenetic therapies available today, including their risks, benefits and research on them • The effect of epigenetic control in transcriptional regulation in pluripotency and early differentiation, DNA methylation and Demethylation, nucleosome remodeling and chromatin looping • How epigenetics work at the molecular level and the effect of DNA damage in epigenetic change • The functions of epigenetics, and how they boost mindfulness training, healthy eating and exercise • How epigenetic therapy and modifications affects diabetic retinopathy, emotional disorders, cardiac dysfunction, cancer and schizophrenia, mesothelioma and many more • How epigenetic modifications are used in understanding plant and animal evolution • How epigenetic mechanisms are used in understanding human adaptation, boosting memory formation, growth and reinforcing infant neurobehavior. • The role of epigenetic mechanisms in maternal care • The role of environmental chemicals in epigenetics • How epigenetics are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, drug formation, human development, the development of Hox genes and many more. • The role of environmental exposures in pathophysiology of IPF • Modulation of epigenetic marks by environmental exposures • How epigenetic regulation affects the immune system …And so much more! Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate in epigenetics, you will find this book educative, as you learn the A-Z of factors that are quickly changing our understanding of the structure of life. Don't wait…. Scroll up and click Buy Now with 1-Click or Buy Now to get started!

The Ageing Immune System and Health

The Ageing Immune System and Health
A Book

by Valquiria Bueno,Janet M. Lord,Thomas A. Jackson

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-10-03
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 3319433652
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The present book intends to provide an update on immunosenescence and how deficiencies in the immune system contribute to a higher susceptibility to infections, decline in organ function, reduced vaccination responses, age-related disease and the ageing process itself, negatively affecting longevity. Our focus is on the main changes in immune system cells and their products occurring during the ageing process and the possible consequences for health and disease. This includes: discussion of the modulatory and/or suppressive mechanisms associated with the alterations in T regulatory cells, B regulatory cells and Myeloid Derived Suppressor cells; changes in the immune system observed in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, lung disease and frailty will also be discussed. Most importantly we provide recent literature information about possible interventions (focusing on physical activity) that could alleviate the negative effects of immunosenescence. The Ageing Immune System and Health is a comprehensive guide on the field intended to all physicians, researchers, professors and students interested on relationship between immune system, ageing and health.

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating Normal and Aberrant Blood Cell Development

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating Normal and Aberrant Blood Cell Development
A Book

by Constanze Bonifer,Peter N. Cockerill

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2014-03-12
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 3642451985
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During vertebrate hematopoiesis many specialized cell types are formed with vastly different functions such as B cells, T cells, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. To tightly control the enormous proliferative potential of developing blood cells, an intricately balanced signaling and transcription network has evolved that ensures that the different cell types are formed at the right time and in the right numbers. Intricate regulatory mechanisms ensure that blood cells function properly and have a determined life span. Moreover, in the adaptive immune system, long-lived memory cells have evolved that ensure that when pathogens have been seen once they will never cause a problem again. In this book we will therefore make a journey from asking how more primitive organisms use the epigenetic regulatory machinery to balance growth with differentiation control towards digging deep into what controls the function of specialized cells of the human immune system. We will first discover that flies make blood but exist without blood vessels, why fish make blood cells in the kidney and which precise genetic circuitries are required for these developmental pathways. We will then learn the regulatory principles that drive the differentiation of mature blood cells from stem cells and what controls their function in mammals. In the process, we will find out what unites hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells. Finally, we will shed light on the molecular mechanisms that either alter hematopoietic cell differentiation or lead to the development of cells with impaired function.

Transcriptional and Chromatin Regulation in Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells

Transcriptional and Chromatin Regulation in Adaptive and Innate Immune Cells
A Book

by Keiko Ozato,Dinah S. Singer

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-05-22
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889637239
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Transcription depends on an ordered sequence of events, starting with (i) setting of the enhancer and chromatin environment, (ii) assembly of DNA binding and general transcription factors, (iii) initiation, elongation, processing of mRNA and termination, followed by (iv) creation of epigenetic marks and memory formation. Highlighting the importance of these activities, more than 10% total genes are dedicated to regulating transcriptional mechanisms. This area of research is highly active and new insights are continuously being added to our knowledge. Cells of the immune system have unique features of gene regulation to support diverse tasks required for innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity involves the recognition of external infectious and noxious agents as well as internal cancer cell components, and the elimination of these agents by non-specific mechanisms. Adaptive immunity involves gene rearrangement to achieve highly specific T and B cell responses, imparting the capability of self and non-self discrimination. This requires transcription and epigenetic regulation. Adaptive immunity also employs epigenetic memory, enabling recapitulation of prior transcription. Recent advances in nuclear architecture, chromatin structure, and transcriptional regulation have provided new insights into immune responses. The increased understanding of these molecular mechanisms is now affording opportunities to improve therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Differential Expression of the GM-CSF Gene in the Immune System is Regulated by Epigenetic Factors

Differential Expression of the GM-CSF Gene in the Immune System is Regulated by Epigenetic Factors
A Book

by Owen Ralph Sprod

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 334
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Genie in Your Genes

Genie in Your Genes
A Book

by Dawson Church

  • Publisher : Hay House, Inc
  • Release : 2018-09-02
  • Pages : 395
  • ISBN : 1604152397
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Your genes respond to your thoughts, emotions and beliefs. The way you use your mind shapes your brain, turning genes on and off in ways that can dramatically affect your health and wellbeing. In this best-selling, award-winning book, researcher Dawson Church reveals the exciting applications of the new science of Epigenetics (epi=above, i.e. control above the level of the gene) to healing. Citing hundreds of scientific studies, and telling the stories of dozens of people who have used his ideas for their own healing, he shows how you can apply these discoveries in your own life. He explains how electromagnetic energy flows in your body and affects your cells, and how the new fields of energy medicine and energy psychology can help cases that are beyond the reach of conventional medicine. He shows how your hormonal, neurological, connective tissue, and neurotransmitter systems all work in harmony to conduct a coordinated flow of information throughout your body. As you take conscious control of the process, you produce a positive effect on your health, becoming an "epigenetic engineer" of your own wellbeing. Practical and scientific, this book has transformed the lives of tens of thousands of people. This new edition is updated with the latest research and clinical breakthroughs.

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies
Aspects of epigenetic, mucosal and systemic immune mediators in allergy development and prevention

by Johanna Huoman

  • Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
  • Release : 2020-10-15
  • Pages : 107
  • ISBN : 9179297870
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The prevalence of allergic diseases has in the past century increased among children in affluent societies. Underlying causes are incompletely disentangled, but decreased diversity in environmental and microbial exposures could drive allergy development. Allergic individuals possess imbalanced immune responses, skewed in favour of Th2 cells along with lesser Th1 and Treg responses. As allergy development early in life increases the risk of developing further allergic manifestations later, early prevention is key. Thus, interventions in pregnancy, early life and childhood may modulate immunity towards tolerance, although underpinnings of immune maturation and modulation in allergy prevention throughout childhood are not entirely understood. In this thesis, these questions are addressed in children with a high propensity of developing allergic disease or who already have manifested allergies. Chemokines are crucial for immune cell recruitment to the allergic reaction site, and associate with allergy development in childhood. In Paper I, circulating levels of the allergy-related chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were studied in the natural course of allergic disease. Elevated levels of the Th2/Treg-regulated chemokine CCL18 in infancy and childhood associated with development of asthma and/or sensitisation. Moreover, this finding conferred higher odds of developing asthma and sensitisation from early school age until adolescence. Additionally, increased levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 after birth, and decreased levels of CXCL11 at birth, preceded asthma development later in life. Hence, Paper I showed that circulating chemokine levels in different ways precede allergy development. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, comprise a link between the genetic setup and environmental exposures, and regulate processes such as Th cell differentiation. Perinatal treatment with Lactobacillus reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids prevent development of some IgE-mediated manifestations. However, the drivers of the immunostimulating and pro-resolving effects of these treatments are sparsely examined. In Papers II and III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ cells upon pre-and postnatal L. reuteri supplementation alone or in combination with ?-3 fatty acids were studied. In Paper II, the greatest epigenome wide differential methylation was evident at birth, mainly directed towards hypomethylation, indicating transcriptional availability of affected genes. Network analyses revealed several immune related pathways, and a relationship of differentially methylated genes to allergy development. Thus, prenatal L. reuteri treatment seemingly poises Th cells towards immune activation at birth, possibly influencing immune maturation as well as allergy development in the child. In Paper III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns were surveyed at birth. In this on-going trial, mothers are treated during the latter half of pregnancy with a combination of L. reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids. Four different treatment groups were studied, and the largest differential methylation was seen in the double active treatment group. In contrast to Paper II, most CpGs and genes were hypermethylated, indicating repressed gene transcription. In line with Paper II, network analyses showed that T cell and immune mediated pathways were affected by treatment, and synergistic effects of the double treatment were indicated. Taken together, prenatal treatment with L. reuteri and/or ?-3 fatty acids altered the epigenome to different extents at birth, mainly towards hypermethylation, and often affected immune related pathways. Immunomodulatory effects of sublingual immunotherapy in children and adolescents are scarcely investigated. In Paper IV, circulating and salivary immune mediators were investigated in timothy grass-pollen allergic children treated with sublingual immunotherapy. Actively treated children had elevated levels of timothy grass pollen-specific IgA antibodies in saliva, along with increased circulating levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11, both after treatment ending and two years later. Taken together, sublingual immunotherapy modulates local and peripheral immune responses in children with timothy grass pollen-induced allergy, by augmenting Th1-responses, lessening Th2-responses and inducing immunomodulatory responses, suggesting induction of tolerance, also partly in the long-term. Altogether, the studies in this thesis have shown altered immune regulation in children developing allergies. Moreover, immunomodulatory effects of prenatal treatment with probiotics and ?-3 fatty acids, and sublingual immunotherapy in children with grass pollen-induced allergic disease, were revealed. DNA methylation patterns and immunologic mediators in blood and saliva could potentially serve as appropriate biomarkers for allergic disease. Long term health benefits can be reached by intervening early in life, and further knowledge about the mechanisms behind this could promote the prevention of allergic diseases and hence improve the quality of life for children and adolescents. Förekomsten av allergiska sjukdomar, som böjveckseksem, hösnuva och astma, har under det senaste århundradet ökat markant bland barn i industrialiserade samhällen. De bakomliggande orsakerna är inte helt klarlagda, men samhälleliga förändringar har minskat vår mångfaldiga exponering för bakterier, virus och parasiter. Detta skulle kunna ligga till grund för immunförsvarets felaktiga reaktion mot egentligen ofarliga ämnen som ses vid allergier. Hos allergiska individer är immunförsvaret obalanserat, med en relativ övervikt av det så kallade Thjälpar- 2 (Th2)-svaret gentemot Th1- och det regulatoriska T-cells (Treg)-svaret. Allergiska sjukdomar utvecklas ofta tidigt i livet, vilket ökar risken för att utveckla vidare allergier senare i livet. Därför är det viktigt att motverka den allergiska marschens framfart tidigt genom förebyggande behandlingar. Ett tillvägagångsätt är att påbörja behandling under graviditeten och tidiga barndomen hos barn med hög risk för att bli allergiska, då grunden för immunsystemet läggs redan under fosterlivet. För redan utvecklade allergier är det tänkbart att omforma dessa immunsvar med immunterapi, som kan minska symptom av befintliga allergier samtidigt som det är möjligt att motverka utvecklingen av senare allergier. Det är dock inte helt klarlagt hur immunutmognaden under barndomen är reglerad, eller hur dessa typer av behandlingar skulle kunna påverka allergiutveckling under den perioden. I denna avhandling undersöks immunutmognad vid allergiutveckling hos barn, och möjliga immunmodulerande förebyggande behandlingar hos barn med genetisk benägenhet att bli allergiska eller som redan utvecklat allergisk sjukdom. För att celler ska rekryteras till platsen för en allergisk reaktion krävs bland annat s.k. kemokiner. I det fö

Epigenetics Explained. How Modern Biology is Changing the Concepts of Genetics and Inheritance. How the environment can affect our genes.

Epigenetics Explained. How Modern Biology is Changing the Concepts of Genetics and Inheritance. How the environment can affect our genes.
A Book

by Frank Brown

  • Publisher : Youcanprint
  • Release : 2021-09-15
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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You Are About To Develop A Comprehensive Understanding Of The Concept Of Epigenetics, Its Place In Modern Day Medicine, And Health Optimization And Why It Is Literally Changing How We Approach The Treatment Of Various Health Problems! Modern research has now confirmed that the behavior of your genes doesn't always depend on their DNA sequence, but also on factors referred to epigenetics, and that changes in these factors can play a critical role in disease, life structures, behavior and all aspects of life. And that's not all; research also shows that therapies based on these factors have proven effective in reversing some conditions, boosting the immune system, optimizing psychology and human adaptation. Epigenetics have thus taken the center stage in understanding human biology at a deeper level, life, and evolution. But what are epigenetics, and how to they work? How does the environment affect them, and how is this "remembered" in the body? How does epigenetic therapy work? What does it treat? Isn't it risky? What is the relationship between epigenetics and the human psychology? How can we benefit from the discovery and understanding of epigenetics? If you have these and other related questions, this 2 in 1 book is for you so keep reading. Here is a bit of what you'll learn from this 2 in 1 book: • What epigenetics are, why they're important and how they work • How epigenetics relate with our experiences • How cells divide, and how genes control the growth and division of cells • The difference between the DNA, gene and chromosomes •The existing evidence of epigenetic changes, including in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance • The ins and outs of epigenetics mechanisms • The types of epigenetic therapies available today, including their risks, benefits and research on them • The effect of epigenetic control in transcriptional regulation in pluripotency and early differentiation, DNA methylation and Demethylation, nucleosome remodeling and chromatin looping • How epigenetics work at the molecular level and the effect of DNA damage in epigenetic change • The functions of epigenetics, and how they boost mindfulness training, healthy eating and exercise • How epigenetic therapy and modifications affects diabetic retinopathy, emotional disorders, cardiac dysfunction, cancer and schizophrenia, mesothelioma and many more • How epigenetic modifications are used in understanding plant and animal evolution • How epigenetic mechanisms are used in understanding human adaptation, boosting memory formation, growth and reinforcing infant neurobehavior. • The role of epigenetic mechanisms in maternal care • The role of environmental chemicals in epigenetics • How epigenetics are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, drug formation, human development, the development of Hox genes and many more. • The role of environmental exposures in pathophysiology of IPF • Modulation of epigenetic marks by environmental exposures • How epigenetic regulation affects the immune system …And so much more! Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate in epigenetics, you will find this book educative, as you learn the A-Z of factors that are quickly changing our understanding of the structure of life. Don't wait…. Scroll up and click Buy Now with 1-Click or Buy Now to get started!

Epigenetics for Intermediate. The Most Comprehensive Exploration of the Practical, Social and Ethical Impact of DNA on Our Society and Our World

Epigenetics for Intermediate. The Most Comprehensive Exploration of the Practical, Social and Ethical Impact of DNA on Our Society and Our World
A Book

by Frank Brown

  • Publisher : Youcanprint
  • Release : 2021-09-15
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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You Are About To Develop An Insider Understanding Of Epigenetics, Including Their Relationship With The DNA, Environmental Factors, Human Development And Evolution; Their Role In Human Mental And Physical Health, Including Their Use In The Treating Of Different Conditions And Diseases Along With The Most Current Epigenetic Practices And Research! What started as a broad research focused on combining genetics and developmental biology during the mid-twentieth century has evolved into the field we currently refer to as epigenetics- the mechanism of gene control that can either promote or repress gene expression without altering the genetic coding of the organism. Today, we know that the environment factors and individual lifestyles can have a direct interaction with epigenetic change, which can be reflected at various stages throughout the life of an individual and even in the later generations. You've heard that a mother's exposure to pollution can affect her child's asthma susceptibility, haven't you? No? How about the argument that a child's mental fitness can be (epigenetically) influenced by his/her dad's diet? Epigenetic change, which has nothing to do with the changes to the underlying DNA sequence, does affect how cells read genes and this biological change is influenced by several factors which include environment, lifestyle and health state through a mechanisms including a popular one known as DNA methylation. But what is the relationship between the epigenetic change and physical and physiological conditions as regards to their onset and improvement? How are epigenetic modifications being used to understand our environment, society and increasing human adaptation? How exactly do epigenetic therapies work? How does DNA affect epigenetic changes? How can we exploit epigenetic mechanisms to understand life better and improve it? If you have these and other related questions, this book is for you. More precisely, you will learn: What epigenetics are and their role in developmental psychology The influence of epigenetics at the molecular level and the impact of DNA damage in epigenetic change How epigenetics are studied The functions and consequences of epigenetics, and their specific benefits in mindfulness training, healthy eating and physical activity How genes control the growth and division of cells The role of epigenetic therapy in diabetic retinopathy, emotional disorders, cardiac dysfunction, cancer and schizophrenia and many more How epigenetic modifications are used in cancer treatment, and plant and animal evolution How epigenetic mechanisms are used in processes including human adaptation, memory formation, growth and infant neuro-behavior. How epigenetic mechanisms are used in maternal care How environmental chemical exposures affect epigenetics The role of epigenetics in neurodegenerative diseases, drug formation, human development, the development of Hox genes and many more The role of environmental exposures in pathophysiology of IPF Modulation of epigenetic marks by environmental exposures How epigenetic regulation affects the immune system …And so much more! So if you've been exposed to the concept of epigenetics as a novel way of understanding disorders, inheritance and evolution and wondered what it's really all about and how it's related with environmental exposure and different therapy practices, this book is all you need! Scroll up and click Buy Now With 1-Click or Buy Now to get started!

Liver Immunology

Liver Immunology
Principles and Practice

by M. Eric Gershwin,John M. Vierling,Atsushi Tanaka,Michael P. Manns

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-11-03
  • Pages : 633
  • ISBN : 3030517098
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The third edition of this acclaimed work provides clinicians and investigators with a wealth of state-of-the-art information that will lead to fresh approaches in thinking about liver physiology and liver diseases. Developed by a panel of renowned international authors, this edition outlines a range of important advances in our understanding of the liver’s role as an immune organ and the functions of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of all liver diseases. Indeed, the liver is a vitally important immune organ producing liver-derived products that can trigger the innate and adaptive immune system to initiate, mediate, regulate, and resolve systemic inflammation. The book begins with an analysis of the core concepts of immunology, including the definition of autoimmunity and its unique application to the liver, a tolerogenic organ. Subsequent chapters then explore the biological elements of liver diseases caused by epigenetics, genetics, and innate and adaptive immunity. Specific clinical presentations and aspects of liver diseases are also examined, such as Hepatitis C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and parasitic infections. Closing chapters then discuss liver diseases among specific populations, including pediatrics, those with comorbidities and preexisting conditions, pregnant women, and finally patients with transplanted organs. A timely and invaluable update to the clinical literature, Liver Immunology: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, is once again a comprehensive work that will not only enhance the understanding of liver diseases but also provide the kind of novel insights that greatly accelerates the evidence-based care of children and adults afflicted with these diseases. This volume is again a must-read for clinicians at all levels, for investigators and for students.

Identifying Epigenetic Associations with Cell Type and Gestational Age in the Neonatal Immune System

Identifying Epigenetic Associations with Cell Type and Gestational Age in the Neonatal Immune System
A Book

by Olivia Mae De Goede

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Aging Immune System and Health

The Aging Immune System and Health
A Book

by Valquiria Bueno,Rafael Solana,Annemieke Boots

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-01-15
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889633616
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The world population presents an increased percentage of individuals over 65 years old and the fastest growing subgroup is over 85 years old. The increase in life expectancy observed in the last century has not been synonymous with extra years lived in good health (disability-free years). Population studies have shown that as individuals age, they can present a great heterogeneity of ability and health. Therefore, aging has been associated for some individuals with disabilities and hospitalizations. Deaths related to infectious pathogens are increased in the aging population mainly due to pneumonia and influenza whereas Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, among other viruses seem to contribute to the low-grade inflammatory process observed (inflammaging). Aging is a complex and multifactorial process in which functions of the organism are adjusted (remodelled) in order to deal with damaging events during life. One of the most important changes in aging individuals occurs in the immune system (innate and adaptive responses) with consequences such as poor response to new infections and vaccinations; increased susceptibility to cancer development and autoimmune diseases; frailty, and organ dysfunction. In addition, it has been proposed that immunosenescence not only reflects the aging of the organism but also contributes to this process. Bone marrow presents decreased hematopoiesis, the thymus undergoes involution and lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen) also present reduced functionality. Therefore, cells derived, matured, or residing in these tissues decline in number and function. These changes have been identified in experimental models, in vitro conditions, peripheral blood, and biopsies via biomarkers such as cell phenotype, stimulus-induced proliferation, cytokines and antibodies levels. Telomere length and telomerase activity also decline in bone marrow-derived and peripheral blood cells and have been shown to play a role in immunosenescence. More recently, the investigation of short non-coding RNA molecules (microRNAs; miRNAs) pointed to this system as a possible control of aging-related mechanisms. Data obtained on these markers for aging individuals could lead to the generation of a marker panel for pathology prediction, to indicate interventions, and to evaluate the efficacy of interventions. Interventions such as nutrition supplements, exercise, vaccination (different dose, concentration of antigen, adjuvants) have been proposed to circumvent age-related diseases. Considering the heterogeneity in the aging process, further investigation is vital before the indication of interventions for aging individuals. As the extension of life expectancy is a reality, it is a challenge to understand how the aging population copes with the remodelling of the organism and how interventions could provide longevity in good health.

Human Epigenetics

Human Epigenetics
How Science Works

by Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9783030229085
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The view "Its all in our genes and we cannot change it" developed in the past 150 years since Gregor Mendels experiments with flowering pea plants. However, there is a special form of genetics, referred to as epigenetics, which does not involve any change of our genes but regulates how and when they are used. In the cell nucleus our genes are packed into chromatin, which is a complex of histone proteins and genomic DNA, representing the molecular basis of epigenetics. Our environment and lifestyle decisions influence the epigenetics of our cells and organs, i.e. epigenetics changes dynamically throughout our whole life. Thus, we have the chance to change our epigenetics in a positive as well as negative way and are able to prevent the onset of diseases, such a type 2 diabetes or cancer. This book provides a molecular explanation how our genome is connected with environmental signals. It outlines that epigenetic programming is a learning process that results in epigenetic memory in each of the cells forming our body. The central importance of epigenetics during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation as well as in the process of aging and the risk for the development of cancer are discussed. Moreover, the role of the epigenome as a molecular storage of cellular events not only in the brain but also in metabolic organs and in the immune system is described. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook "Human Epigenomics" (ISBN 978-981-10-7614-8). The first five chapters explain the molecular basis of epigenetics, while the following seven chapters provide examples for the impact of epigenetics in human health and disease.

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Two Primary Immunodeficiencies

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Two Primary Immunodeficiencies
Hyper-IgM Syndrome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 178
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The proper function of the immune system requires complex regulatory mechanisms and a highly strict balance in the amount and function of immune and non-immune elements. Part of the primary immunodeficiencies result from mutations in specific genes and their clinical manifestations can be recapitulated through the generation of knockout mice models that support the role of these genes. However, an important number of these disorders cannot be explained by genetic alterations and, to date, there is not an alternative explanation to understand it. This makes difficult the diagnosis process, the establishment of prognosis markers and complicates the finding of specific treatments or the improvement of the existing ones. Epigenetic mechanisms, mainly DNA methylation and histone modifications, are elements of gene control and have emerged to provide explanation to a wide variety of diseases including those related to the immune system. For that reason, this doctoral thesis was focused on investigating the influence of the epigenetic mechanisms in two primary immunodeficiencies: Hyper-IgM Syndrome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency. This was achieved by the establishment of the following specific objectives: 1. To investigate the influence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), commonly mutated in Hyper-IgM Syndrome, in the setting of epigenetic modifications in an inducible B cell model. 2. To analyze the effects of AID mutations in the acquisition of epigenetic alterations. 3. To determine the participation of epigenetic alterations in CVID by focusing on the DNA methylation profiling of B cells isolated from monozygotic twins discordant for CVID. 4. To expand the results obtained with monozygotic twins discordant for CVID in three different B cell subsets from a cohort of healthy donors and CVID patients.

Host and Microbe Adaptations in the Evolution of Immunity

Host and Microbe Adaptations in the Evolution of Immunity
A Book

by Larry J. Dishaw,Gary W. Litman

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-12-31
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889630226
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The evolution of metazoans has been accompanied by new interfaces with the microbial environment that include biological barriers and surveillance by specialized cell types. Increasingly complex organisms require increased capacities to confront pathogens, achieved by co-evolution of recognition mechanisms and regulatory pathways. Two distinct but interactive forms of immunity have evolved. Innate immunity, shared by all metazoans, is traditionally viewed as simple and non-specific. Adaptive immunity possesses the capacity to anticipate new infectious challenges and recall previous exposures; the most well-understood example of such a system, exhibited by lymphocytes of vertebrates, is based on somatic gene alterations that generate extraordinary specificity in discrimination of molecular structures. Our understanding of immune phylogeny over the past decades has tried to reconcile immunity from a vertebrate standpoint. While informative, such approaches cannot completely address the complex nature of selective pressures brought to bear by the complex microbiota (including pathogens) that co-exist with all metazoans. In recent years, comparative studies (and new technologies) have broadened our concepts of immunity from a systems-wide perspective. Unexpected findings, e.g., genetic expansions of innate receptors, high levels of polymorphism, RNA-based forms of generating diversity, adaptive evolution and functional divergence of gene families and the recognition of novel mediators of adaptive immunity, prompt us to reconsider the very nature of immunity. Even fundamental paradigms as to how the jawed vertebrate adaptive immune system should be structured for “optimal” recognition potential have been disrupted more than once (e.g., the discovery of the multicluster organization and germline joining of immunoglobulin genes in sharks, gene conversion as a mechanism of somatic diversification, absence of IgM or MHC II in certain teleost fishes). Mechanistically, concepts of innate immune memory, often referred to as “trained memory,” have been realized further, with the development of new discoveries in studies of epigenetic regulation of somatic lineages. Immune systems innovate and adapt in a taxon-specific manner, driven by the complexity of interactions with microbial symbionts (commensals, mutualists and pathogens). Immune systems are shaped by selective forces that reflect consequences of dynamic interactions with microbial environments as well as a capacity for rapid change that can be facilitated by genomic instabilities. We have learned that characterizing receptors and receptor interactions is not necessarily the most significant component in understanding the evolution of immunity. Rather, such a subject needs to be understood from a more global perspective and will necessitate re-consideration of the physical barriers that afford protection and the developmental processes that create them. By far, the most significant paradigm shifts in our understanding of immunity and the infection process has been that microbes no longer are considered to be an automatic cause or consequence of illness, but rather integral components of normal physiology and homeostasis. Immune phylogeny has been shaped not only by an arms race with pathogens but also perhaps by mutualistic interactions with resident microbes. This Research Topic updates and extends the previous eBook on Changing Views of the Evolution of Immunity and contains peer-reviewed submissions of original research, reviews and opinions.

Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation Relevant to Innate Responses Against Pathogens

Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation Relevant to Innate Responses Against Pathogens
A Book

by Clara Lorente-Sorolla Martínez-Acítores

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 165
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This doctoral thesis describes the participation of epigenetic mechanisms, and more specifically DNA methylation, in innate immune responses against pathogens.Innate immunity is the first barrier of defense against infection. Monocytes, which are part of this innate response, orchestrate the host's antimicrobial protective responses by phagocyting and releasing various inflammatory cytokines to kill microorganisms. In addition, monocytes differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells, which are also responsible for antigenic presentation and the consequent activation of adaptive responses. In recent years, it has been described that cells of the innate system have immune memory, responding in a more effective (trained immunity) or attenuated (endotoxin tolerance) way, against second infections. It is necessary to improve our knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that take place after an infection. The immune response is highly controlled and regulated by complex networks formed by signaling cascades, transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms, among others.Sepsis is defined as a life-threating organic dysfunction caused by a dysregulated response to infection. Immune response in sepsis is characterized by an initial systemic inflammation followed by a state of immunosuppression, in which the immune cells acquire a tolerated phenotype, thus constituting a pathological model for the study of innate memory. In this thesis, we have studied potential DNA methylation changes in monocytes from patients with sepsis. We have described for the first time the existence of DNA methylation alterations in patients with sepsis compared to healthy controls. In addition, we have observed that DNA methylation changes correlate with IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which are increased in patients with sepsis. Between genes that show altered methylation, we found some related to IL-1 and TLR signaling and the JAK/STAT pathway, relevant pathways in the immune response against infectious agents. Finally, we also found that methylation in relevant genes is associated with organ dysfunction in septic patients.In parallel, we have performed in vitro studies on monocytes after toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation to unravel the role of DNA methylation in the acquisition of innate memory. Statistical analysis of the data revealed specific demethylation after stimulation of TLRs. We have seen how genes relevant to monocyte function and physiology are regulated by DNA demethylation. In addition, we observed an overexpression of those genes that are specifically demethylated after LPS stimulation. The study of DNA methylation during these inflammatory processes may reveal new therapeutic strategies to reverse the immune tolerance state." -- TDX.