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Evolution of Dental Tissues and Paleobiology in Selachians

Evolution of Dental Tissues and Paleobiology in Selachians
A Book

by Gilles Cuny,Guillaume Guinot,Sebastien Enault

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-11-21
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 0081011407
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chondrichthyans possess unique anatomical features compared to other vertebrates, in particular a fully cartilaginous skeleton and a permanently renewed dentition. These characteristics make the fossilization of whole bodies difficult and consequently their fossil record consists mainly of a large number of isolated teeth. The study of their dentition is therefore of primary interest for our understanding of the evolution of this group. Beyond the dental morphology, the structure of the tissues composing the dentition has proved an important source of information, sometimes difficult to interpret, on the eating habits and the paleobiology of these animals. This book makes a thorough review of the existing theories in this field of research as well as introducing new elements from more recent studies. Through close reference to the fossil record of ancient selachians it examines what the study of dental tissue in cartilaginous fish can tell us about the evolution and the past biology of these animals, as well as what we can learn about the evolution of teeth themselves. Focuses on the evolution of the teeth microstructure of the cartilaginous fishes Offers a complete overview of the terminology used to describe fish tooth microstructures Offers an overview of convergent enameloid microstructures between actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) and chondrichthyans to enable better understanding of the evolution of this kind of tissue Highlights the importance of isolated fossil teeth to understand the evolution of whole clades Discusses the use of isolated fossil teeth to understand the evolution of whole clades

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Palaeobiology of Giant Flightless Birds

Palaeobiology of Giant Flightless Birds
A Book

by Delphine Angst,Eric Buffetaut

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-11-16
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 0081011431
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fossil record of giant flightless birds extends back to the Late Cretaceous, more than 70 million years ago, but our understanding of these extinct birds is still incomplete. This is partly because the number of specimens available is sometimes limited, but also because widely different approaches have been used to study them, with sometimes contradictory results. This book summarizes the current knowledge of the paleobiology of seven groups of giant flightless birds: Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes, Dromornithidae, Phorusrhacidae, Brontornithidae, Gastornithidae and Gargantuavis. The first chapter presents the global diversity of these birds and reviews the tools and methods used to study their paleobiology. Chapters 2 to 8 are each dedicated to one of the seven groups of extinct birds. Finally, a conclusion offers a global synthesis of the information presented in the book in an attempt to define a common evolutionary model. Focuses on the giant flightless birds that evolved independently in different parts of the world since the Cretaceous period Covers a number of different families with different evolutionary histories, providing a source of interesting comparisons Provides emphasis on the palaeobiology of these birds, including their evolution, adaptations, mode of life, ecology and extinction

Evolutionary Biology

Evolutionary Biology
Volume 22

by Max K. Hecht,Bruce Wallace,Sir Ghillean T. Prance

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN : 146130931X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Evolutionary Biology, of which this is the twenty-second volume, continues to offer its readers a wide range of original articles, reviews, and commentaries on evolution, in the broadest sense of that term. The topics of the reviews range from anthropology, molecular evolution, and paleobiology to principles of systematics. In recent volumes, a broad spectrum of articles have appeared on such subjects as asymmetric sexual isolation, biochemical systematics in plants, species selection, DNA hybridization and phylogenetics, modes of evolution in Pleistocene rodents, and development and evolution of the vertebrate limb. We have also attempted to provide a forum for con flicting ideas. Articles such as these, often too long for standard journals, are the material for Evolutionary Biology. The editors continue to solicit manuscripts on an international scale in an effort to see that everyone ofthe many facets of biological evolution is covered. Manuscripts should be sent to anyone of the following: Max K. Hecht, Department of Biology, Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367; Bruce Wallace, Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacks burg, Virginia 24061; GhilleanT. Prance, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458. The Editors vii Contents 1. Phylogeny of Early Vertebrate Skeletal Induction and Ossification Patterns ....................................... 1 John G. Maisey Introduction: The Fossil Record.. .. .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 ..

The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs

The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs
Faunal Change Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

by Kevin Padian

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 1988-09-30
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9780521367790
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Around 210 million years ago, life on Earth experienced sweeping changes. Many archaic reptiles and mammalian predecessors became extinct and were replaced by dinosaurs, pterosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, mammals, and essentially all of the major modern vertebrate groups except the birds. This period of change, which took place over a period of approximately five to ten million years, ushered in the beginning of the 'Age of Dinosaurs,' a period that lasted 160 million years to the end of the Cretaceous 65 million years ago. In the past decade, paleontologists have come to know a great deal more about this crucial interval of time. New discoveries, ideas, and insights from scientists in many related- disciplines have created new paradigms about the beginning of the 'Age of Dinosaurs.' What were the animals that preceded the dinosaurs like? How did the dinosaurs originate, and what do we know of their early history? Was their ascent tied to evolutionary innovations, global climatic and ecological changes, or just chance factors? How do paleontologists decide about the evidence preserved in the fossil record, and what areas now require major thought and reevaluation? In this book, 31 specialists in the paleontology of this era consider these and other questions related to Late Triassic and Early Jurassic times - the beginning of the 'Age of Dinosaurs,' its fauna, flora, climate, stratigraphic relationships, and major evolutionary changes. The book is divided into sections on background, Late Triassic taxa and faunas, changes across the boundary, Early Jurassic taxa and faunas, and major macroevolutionary patterns. This comprehensive volume is richly illustrated and is intended for students and professionals in the areas of paleontology, evolutionary biology, geology, and vertebrate zoology. Introductory and summary chapters are provided to acquaint the non-specialist with the issues and the setting of this interval of time in which the ancestral components of the modem fauna, as well as the Dinosauria, first appeared to rule the Earth.

Evolution and Development of Fishes

Evolution and Development of Fishes
A Book

by Zerina Johanson,Charlie Underwood,Martha Richter

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2019-01-10
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 1107179440
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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World-class palaeontologists and biologists summarise the state-of-the-art on fish evolution and development.

Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan

Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan
Nihon Koseibutsu Gakkai Hōkoku Kiji

by Nihon Koseibutsu Gakkai

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1995
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Contributions to Late Cretaceous Paleontology and Stratigraphy of New Mexico

Contributions to Late Cretaceous Paleontology and Stratigraphy of New Mexico
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1985
  • Pages : 79
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The biology of Latimeria chalumnae and evolution of coelacanths

The biology of Latimeria chalumnae and evolution of coelacanths
A Book

by J.A. Musick,Michael N. Bruton,E.K. Balon

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 446
  • ISBN : 9401131945
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fluorine and Health

Fluorine and Health
Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals

by Alain Tressaud,Gunter Haufe

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-06-06
  • Pages : 816
  • ISBN : 9780080558110
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fluorine and Health presents a critical multidisciplinary overview on the contribution of fluorinated compounds to resolve the important global issue of medicinal monitoring and health care. The involved subjects are organized in three thematic parts devoted to Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Materials and Pharmaceuticals. Initially the key-position of partially fluorinated low molecular weight compounds labelled either with the natural 19F-isotope for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or labelled with the radioactive [18F]-isotope for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is highlighted. Both non-invasive methods belong to the most challenging in vivo imaging techniques in oncology, neurology and in cardiology for the diagnosis of diseases having the highest mortality in the industrialized countries. The manifold facets of fluorinated biomaterials range from inorganic ceramics to perfluorinated organic molecules. Liquid perfluorocarbons are suitable for oxygen transport and as potential respiratory gas carriers, while fluorinated polymers are connected to the pathology of blood vessels. Another important issue concerns the application of highly fluorinated liquids in ophthalmology. Moreover, fluorine is an essential trace element in bone mineral, dentine and tooth enamel and is applied for the prophylaxis and treatment of dental caries. The various origins of human exposure to fluoride species is detailed to promote a better understanding of the effect of fluoride species on living organisms. Medicinally relevant fluorinated molecules and their interactions with native proteins are the main focus of the third part. New molecules fluorinated in strategic position are crucial for the development of pharmaceuticals with desired action and optimal pharmacological profile. Among the hundreds of marketed active drug components there are more than 150 fluorinated compounds. The chapters will illustrate how the presence of fluorine atoms alters properties of bioactive compounds at various biochemical steps, and possibly facilitate its emergence as pharmaceuticals. Finally the synthetic potential of a fluorinase, the first C-F bond forming enzyme, is summarized. - New approach of topics involving chemistry, biology and medicinal techniques - Transdisciplinar papers on fluoride products - Importance of fluoride products in health - Updated data on specific topics

Handbook of Paleoichthyology

Handbook of Paleoichthyology
A Book

by Henri Cappetta

  • Publisher : Lubrecht & Cramer Limited
  • Release : 2004-01
  • Pages : 193
  • ISBN : 9783899370461
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Visual System in Vertebrates

The Visual System in Vertebrates
A Book

by F. Crescitelli

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-12-11
  • Pages : 815
  • ISBN : 3642664687
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The vertebrate eye has been, and continues to be, an object of interest and of inquiry for biologists, physicists, chemists, psychologists, and others. Quite apart from its important role in the development of ophthalmology and related medical disciplines, the vertebrate eye is an exemplar of the ingenuity of living systems in adapting to the diverse and changing environments in which vertebrates have evolved. The wonder is not so much that the visual system, like other body systems, has been able to adapt in this way, but rather that these adaptations have taken such a variety of forms. In a previous volume in this series (VII/I) Eakin expressed admiration for the diversity of invertebrate photoreceptors. A comparable situation exists for the vertebrate eye as a whole and one object of this volume is to present to the reader the nature of this diversity. One result of this diversification of ocular structures and properties is that the experimental biologist has available a number of systems for study that are unique or especially favorable for the investigation of particular questions in visual science or neurobiology. This volume includes some examples of progress made by the use of such specially selected vertebrate systems. It is our hope that this comparative approach will continue to reveal new and useful preparations for the examination of important questions.

Assembling the Tree of Life

Assembling the Tree of Life
A Book

by Joel Cracraft,Michael J. Donoghue

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • Release : 2004-07-22
  • Pages : 576
  • ISBN : 0195172345
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides a synthesis of knowledge about the history of life. This work treats the major groups of organisms. It is useful for evolutionary biologists, taxonomists, ecologists interested in biodiversity, and for organismic biologists, botanists, and microbiologists.

Feeding in Vertebrates

Feeding in Vertebrates
Evolution, Morphology, Behavior, Biomechanics

by Vincent Bels,Ian Q. Whishaw

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-04-23
  • Pages : 865
  • ISBN : 3030137392
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides students and researchers with reviews of biological questions related to the evolution of feeding by vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Based on recent technical developments and novel conceptual approaches, the book covers functional questions on trophic behavior in nearly all vertebrate groups including jawless fishes. The book describes mechanisms and theories for understanding the relationships between feeding structure and feeding behavior. Finally, the book demonstrates the importance of adopting an integrative approach to the trophic system in order to understand evolutionary mechanisms across the biodiversity of vertebrates.

Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands

Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands
A Book

by Chandrakasan Sivaperuman,A. Velmurugan,Awnindra Kumar Singh,I. Jaisankar

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-04-05
  • Pages : 805
  • ISBN : 0128130652
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands provides comprehensive information on climate change, biodiversity, possible impacts, adaptation measures and policy challenges to help users rehabilitate and preserve the natural resources of tropical islands. While biodiversity and climate change of tropical islands has previously received less attention, it is ironically one of the most vulnerable regions in this regard. The core content of the work derives largely from the ideas and research output from various reputed scientists and experts who have recorded climate change impacts on aquatic and coastal life in tropical regions. Contributors have direct working experience with the tribes in some of the tropical islands. All of their expertise and information is compiled and presented in the work, including coverage related to climate change. This work highlights the ever-growing need to develop and apply strategies that optimize the use of natural resources, both on land and in water and judicious use of biodiversity. It functions as a critical resource on tropical island biodiversity for researchers, academicians, practitioners and policy makers in a variety of related disciplines. Covers a huge range of biodiversity documentation, conservation measures and strategies that can be applied to various sectors, from forests to agriculture Brings together expertise from researchers in the area who have direct experience in the regions described Contains a wealth of field research related to biodiversity conservation and its applications from a variety of tropical islands

Heads, Jaws, and Muscles

Heads, Jaws, and Muscles
Anatomical, Functional, and Developmental Diversity in Chordate Evolution

by Janine M. Ziermann,Raul E. Diaz Jr,Rui Diogo

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-01-23
  • Pages : 303
  • ISBN : 3319935607
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The vertebrate head is the most complex part of the animal body and its diversity in nature reflects a variety of life styles, feeding modes, and ecological adaptations. This book will take you on a journey to discover the origin and diversification of the head, which evolved from a seemingly headless chordate ancestor. Despite their structural diversity, heads develop in a highly conserved fashion in embryos. Major sensory organs like the eyes, ears, nose, and brain develop in close association with surrounding tissues such as bones, cartilages, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Ultimately, this integrated unit of tissues gives rise to the complex functionality of the musculoskeletal system as a result of sensory and neural feedback, most notably in the use of the vertebrate jaws, a major vertebrate innovation only lacking in hagfishes and lampreys. The cranium subsequently further diversified during the major transition from fishes living in an aquatic environment to tetrapods living mostly on land. In this book, experts will join forces to integrate, for the first time, state-of-the-art knowledge on the anatomy, development, function, diversity, and evolution of the head and jaws and their muscles within all major groups of extant vertebrates. Considerations about and comparisons with fossil taxa, including emblematic groups such as the dinosaurs, are also provided in this landmark book, which will be a leading reference for many years to come.

Living Fossils

Living Fossils
A Book

by N. Eldredge,S. M. Stanley

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 291
  • ISBN : 1461382718
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The case history approach has an impressive record of success in a variety of disciplines. Collections of case histories, casebooks, are now widely used in all sorts of specialties other than in their familiar appli cation to law and medicine. The case method had its formal beginning at Harvard in 1871 when Christopher Lagdell developed it as a means of teaching. It was so successful in teaching law that it was soon adopted in medical education, and the collection of cases provided the raw material for research on various diseases. Subsequently, the case history approach spread to such varied fields as business, psychology, management, and economics, and there are over 100 books in print that use this approach. The idea for a series of Casehooks in Earth Science grew from my experience in organizing and editing a collection of examples of one variety of sedimentary deposits. The prqject began as an effort to bring some order to a large number of descriptions of these deposits that were so varied in presentation and terminology that even specialists found them difficult to compare and analyze. Thus, from the beginning, it was evident that something more than a simple collection of papers was needed. Accordingly, the nearly fifty contributors worked together with George de Vries Klein and me to establish a standard format for presenting the case histories.

Late Cretaceous/Paleogene West Antarctica Terrestrial Biota and its Intercontinental Affinities

Late Cretaceous/Paleogene West Antarctica Terrestrial Biota and its Intercontinental Affinities
A Book

by Marcelo Reguero,Francisco Goin,Carolina Acosta Hospitaleche,Tania Dutra,Sergio Marenssi

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-19
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 9400754914
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the most intriguing paleobiogeographical phenomena involving the origins and gradual sundering of Gondwana concerns the close similarities and, in most cases, inferred sister-group relationships of a number of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrate taxa, e.g., dinosaurs, flying birds, mammals, etc., recovered from uppermost Cretaceous/ Paleogene deposits of West Antarctica, South America, and NewZealand/Australia. For some twenty five extensive and productive investigations in the field of vertebrate paleontology has been carried out in latest Cretaceous and Paleogene deposits in the James Ross Basin, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), West Antarctica, on the exposed sequences on James Ross, Vega, Seymour (=Marambio) and Snow Hill islands respectively. The available geological, geophysical and marine faunistic evidence indicates that the peninsular (AP) part of West Antarctica and the western part of the tip of South America (Magallanic Region, southern Chile) were positioned very close in the latest Cretaceous and early Paleogene favoring the “Overlapping” model of South America-Antarctic Peninsula paleogeographic reconstruction. Late Cretaceous deposits from Vega, James Ross, Seymour and Snow Hill islands have produced a discrete number of dinosaur taxa and a number of advanced birds together with four mosasaur and three plesiosaur taxa, and a few shark and teleostean taxa.

The Ecology of Large Herbivores in South and Southeast Asia

The Ecology of Large Herbivores in South and Southeast Asia
A Book

by Farshid Ahrestani,Mahesh Sankaran

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-04-02
  • Pages : 257
  • ISBN : 9401775702
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Large terrestrial mammalian herbivores play critical roles in ecosystems by acting as regulators of energy and nutrient cycles, modulators of plant community composition and grassland-woodland transitions, agents of seed dispersal, and as prey for large carnivores. Though large herbivores represent a prominent component of mammalian assemblages throughout South and Southeast Asia, little is known about their roles in ecosystems in the region. This volume presents, for the first time, a collection of studies on the ecology of the rich and diverse large herbivore assemblages of South and Southeast Asia. Prepared by experts on herbivores of the region, it covers a comprehensive range of topics, including their evolutionary history, behavioural, nutritional, and population ecology, patterns of diversity across environmental gradients, roles as seed dispersers and regulators of plant growth, community compositions, and their conservation in the face of hunting and global change.

Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates

Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates
Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects

by Mogens L. Glass,Stephen C. Wood

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2009-07-24
  • Pages : 546
  • ISBN : 9783540939856
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hopefully, this book will be taken off of the shelf frequently to be studied carefully over many years. More than 40 researchers were involved in this project, which examines respiration, circulation, and metabolism from ?sh to the land vertebrates, including human beings. A breathable and stable atmosphere ?rst appeared about 500 million years ago. Oxygen levels are not stable in aquatic environments and exclusively water-breathing ?sh must still cope with the ever-changing levels of O 2 and with large temperature changes. This is re?ected in their sophisticated count- current systems, with high O extraction and internal and external O receptors. 2 2 The conquest for the terrestrial environment took place in the late Devonian period (355–359 million years ago), and recent discoveries portray the gradual transitional evolution of land vertebrates. The oxygen-rich and relatively stable atmospheric conditionsimpliedthatoxygen-sensingmechanismswererelativelysimpleandl- gain compared with acid–base regulation. Recently, physiology has expanded into related ?elds such as biochemistry, molecular biology, morphology and anatomy. In the light of the work in these ?elds, the introduction of DNA-based cladograms, which can be used to evaluate the likelihood of land vertebrates and lung?sh as a sister group, could explain why their cardio-respiratory control systems are similar. The diffusing capacity of a duck lung is 40 times higher than that of a toad or lung?sh. Certainly, some animals have evolved to rich high-performance levels.