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Extrusion of Polymers

Extrusion of Polymers
Theory & Practice

by Chan I. Chung

  • Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
  • Release : 2019-10-07
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 1569907382
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The author presents single-screw extrusion technology together with the relevant polymer fundamentals, with an emphasis on screw design. The presentation begins on a physical level, providing an in-depth conceptual understanding, followed by an analytical level with mathematical models. Practical applications of the mathematical models are illustrated by numerous examples. A brief description of twin-screw extrusion technology is also presented. New in the third edition: a novel patented barrier screw design that eliminates shortcomings of all previous barrier screw designs, more descriptive specific screw design guidelines, a scientifically designed pineapple mixing section, and general improvements and corrections. Contents: • Physical Description of Single-Screw Extrusion • Fundamentals of Polymers and Melt Rheology • Theories of Single-Screw Extrusion and Scale-Up • Screw Design and High Performance Screws • Gear Pumps, Static Mixers, and Dynamic Mixers • Die Design • Viscoelastic Effects in Melt Flow • Special Single-Screw Extruder with Channeled Barrel • Physical Description of Twin-Screw Extruders

Polymer Extrusion

Polymer Extrusion
A Book

by Pierre G. Lafleur,Bruno Vergnes

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-05-09
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 1118827171
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Extrusion is by far the most important and the oldest processing and shaping method for thermoplastic polymers. This process concerns almost all synthetic polymers, as well as elastomers or food materials. Single-screw extrusion is mainly used nowadays to manufacture finished goods or semi-finished products. More than 90 million tons of thermoplastics are therefore processed every year. Twin-screw extrusion may be divided into two systems: contra-rotating systems used within the context of PVC extrusion, for the manufacture of pipes or profiles; and co-rotating systems experiencing nowadays a very significant development, because of their significant adaptability and flexibility, which enables the manufacture of specific materials (polymer alloys, thermoplastic elastomers, filled polymers, nanocomposites). Extrusion is carried out by passing molten polymer through a tool called die that will give the product its final shape (films and sheets, rolled products, and electric cables). Thanks to the design of dies, we obtain at the output a product with controlled dimensions, uniform speeds and homogeneous temperatures. The book will discuss the same production types, but only in the case of coextrusion flows, i.e. multilayer stratified products. First of all, we will present in this book the physics of the mechanisms at stake, then propose more or less complex models in order to describe these mechanisms and then go forward in the interpretation of results and the control of condition flows.

Polymer Extrusion

Polymer Extrusion
A Book

by Chris Rauwendaal

  • Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
  • Release : 2014-01-16
  • Pages : 950
  • ISBN : 1569905169
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Initially published "to bridge the gap between theory and practice in extrusion," this 5th edition of Polymer Extrusion continues to serve the practicing polymer engineer and chemist, providing the theoretical and the practical tools for successful extrusion operations. In its revised and expanded form, it also incorporates the many new developments in extrusion theory and machinery over the last years. Contents · Different Types of Extruders · Extruder Hardware · Instrumentation and Control · Fundamental Principles · Important Polymer Properties · Functional Process Analysis · Extruder Screw Design · Die Design · Twin Screw Extruders · Troubleshooting Extruders · Modeling and Simulation of the Extrusion Process

Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology

Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology
A Book

by NicholasP. Cheremisinoff

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2017-10-02
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN : 1351423509
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Addressing the two major unit operations-mixing and extrusion-fundamental toprocessing elastomers and plastic materials, this reference summarizes design equationsthat can be employed effectively in scaling up product performance parameters, andcontains a thorough survey of rheological principles. In addition, the book provides awealth of practical information, relating molecular and compositional properties ofpolymers to processing characteristics and end-use properties so that engineers can selectpolymers suitable for specific equipment as well as products.Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology examines viscometric techniquesand demonstrates their importance to product quality assurance ... reviews design-relatedliterature/correlations and calculation procedures for mixing and extrusion ... definesneeds and precision standards for setting up a polymer processing laboratory so thatproduct quality control can be implemented in physical testing and processing research.. . plus more.Illustrated with over 200 diagrams, tables, and photographs that facilitate readers'understanding of the processes, Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology isan authoritative source for plastics, polymer, and chemical engineers, manufacturers ofplastics processing equipment, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in thesedisciplines.

Extrusion of Metals, Polymers, and Food Products

Extrusion of Metals, Polymers, and Food Products
A Book

by Sayyad Zahid Qamar

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-02-28
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 9535138375
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Extrusion is a very popular manufacturing process, especially because of its versatility in terms of materials and shapes. Representing the vast and multifaceted field of extrusion, this book contains write-ups on latest developments from experts in the field. Part (A) on Metal Extrusion contains chapters on spur gear manufacturing, stiff vacuum extrusion, and indirect extrusion for subsurface tubular expansion. Part (B) on Food and Polymer Extrusion includes chapters on extrusion cooking of functional foods, changes in nutritional properties in extrusion of cereals, physicochemical changes of starch in extrusion of corn flour, extruded aquaculture feed, optimal design of polymer extrusion dies, and extrusion cooking technology for food products.

Foam Extrusion

Foam Extrusion
Principles and Practice, Second Edition

by S.-T. Lee,Chul B. Park

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2014-04-07
  • Pages : 624
  • ISBN : 143989860X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Combining the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice delivers a detailed discussion of the theory, design, processing, and application of degradable foam extraction. In one comprehensive volume, the editors present the collective expertise of leading academic, research, and industry specialists while laying the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. To keep pace with significant improvements in foam extrusion technology, this Second Edition: Includes new chapters on the latest developments in processing/thermal management, rheology/melt strength, and biodegradable and sustainable foams Features extensive updates to chapters on extrusion equipment, blowing agents, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam, and microcellular innovation Contains new coverage of cutting-edge foaming mechanisms and technology, as well as new case studies, examples, and figures Capturing the interesting evolution of the field, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice, Second Edition provides scientists, engineers, and product development professionals with a modern, holistic view of foam extrusion to enhance research and development and aid in the selection of the optimal screw, die design, and foaming system.

Foam Extrusion

Foam Extrusion
Principles and Practice

by Shau-Tarng Lee

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2000-07-19
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 9781420014129
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice combines the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes in one comprehensive volume, joining scientific principles and engineering practice. Starting with the fundamentals and then moving to phase separation, the text lays the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. The last section of the book presents interesting foam extrusion developments, demonstrating how scientific findings can be applied to the engineering field, from principles to batch experimentation and continuous foaming. Each chapter concludes with a section of references for further study, and most include a nomenclature section and/or summary section as well. Drawing from the experience of the editor and the authors, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice captures the interesting evolution of foam extrusion, and offers a solid foundation for future developments. It is an informative guide for anyone involved with this field.

Reactive Extrusion

Reactive Extrusion
Principles and Applications

by Günter Beyer,Christian Hopmann

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2018-01-11
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 352734098X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This first comprehensive overview of reactive extrusion technology for over a decade combines the views of contributors from both academia and industry who share their experiences and highlight possible applications and markets. They also provide updated information on the underlying chemical and physical concepts, summarizing recent developments in terms of the material and machinery used. As a result, readers will find here a compilation of potential applications for reactive extrusion to access new and cost-effective polymeric materials, while using existing compounding machines.

Extrusion Coating

Extrusion Coating
A Process Manual

by B. H Gregory

  • Publisher : Trafford Publishing
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 217
  • ISBN : 1412040728
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This comprehensive study of extrusion coating technology describes the process and applications in detail, combining experimental data with computer modeling and the author's 30 years of experience. This methodology provides insight, clarity and assistance in problem solving, process optimization and new product development. The oportunities to exploit a wide range of polymers by the extrusion coater are discussed in detail. These include LDPE, HDPE, PP, ionomers, copolymers and blends and speciality materials, such as EVOH and PET.Everything you wanted to know about:Screw and die design for mono and coextrusion.Chill roll design and winders.Maximizing adhesion at high line speeds:- time in air gap and melt relaxation.Adhesion promotion:- corona, flame, ozone treatment and chemical primers.Feedblock and dual manifold coextrusion compared.Coextrusion:- control layer arrangement and eliminate interfacial instabilities.Optimize melt stability and minimize neck-in in air gap.Material selection:- polyethylenes, copolymers, ionomers, metallocenes, polypropylene etc.Substrates: pulp and paper, aluminium foil, plastic films etc.Applications for extrusion coatings and laminates.Minimize odor and off-taste and the scalping phenomenon in food packaging.Trouble shooting and many more insights.Target Audience: Engineers, marketers, technicians and students involved with the extrusion coating process.Table of Contents:The Extrusion Coating ProcessEquipment and Screw DesignDie DesignStretching Flows and Neck-InAdhesionCoextrusionAdhesion Promotion MethodsPolymers for Extrusion Coating: includes, coplymers, ionomers, PP, blends, metallocene PEsSpeciality Polymers: EVOH and PETImproving organoleptic propertiesSubstrates and Films for the EXtrusion CoaterExtrusion Coated Products and Applications

Plastics Profile Extrusion

Plastics Profile Extrusion
A Book

by R. J. Kent

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 136
  • ISBN : 9781859571439
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This review describes the changes in the industry over the last 5 years, concentrating on the screw extrusion process where the extruded product has a constant cross-section. Film and sheet production and pultrusion are not included in this review. Products and applications are reviewed in detail and major advances such as computer control, materials and speed and size issues are also covered. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Extruder Principles and Operation

Extruder Principles and Operation
A Book

by M.J. Stevens,J.A. Covas

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 494
  • ISBN : 940110557X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is intended to fill a gap between the theoretical studies and the practical experience of the processor in the extrusion of thermoplastic polymers. The former have provided a basis for numerical design of extruders and their components, but generally give scant attention to the practical performance, especially to the conflict between production rate and product quality. In practice extruders are frequently purchased to perform a range of duties; even so, the operator may have to use a machine designed for another purpose and not necessarily suitable for the polymer, process or product in hand. The operator's experience enables him to make good product in unpromising circumstances, but a large number of variables and interactions often give apparently contradictory results. The hope is that this book will provide a logical background, based on both theory and experience, which will help the industrial processor to obtain the best performance from his equipment, to recognize its limitations, and to face new problems with confidence. Mathematics is used only to the extent that it clarifies effects which cannot easily be expressed in words; ifit is passed over, at least a qualitative understanding should remain. The approximate theory will not satisfy the purist, but this seems to the authors less important than a clear representation of the physical mechanisms on which so much of the polymer processing industry depends. M. J. STEVENS J. A.

Polyethylene Film Extrusion

Polyethylene Film Extrusion
A Process Manual

by B. H. Gregory

  • Publisher : Trafford Publishing
  • Release : 2009-11
  • Pages : 226
  • ISBN : 1426918100
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A revised version of this book is now available. The polyethylene industry has been in the midst of major restructuring and rationalization. This has lead to joint ventures and alliances to combine technologies and exploit opportunities to maximize improvements in process productivity, catalyst innovations, and enhancements in extrusion technology and converting. This comprehensive study of the polyethylene film extrusion process describes this technology in detail. In depth descriptions of the manufacturing processes for polyethylene homopolymers and copolymers, including metallocenes, are reviewed. All aspects of machine design with particular emphasis on screws and dies including coextrusion are discussed comprehensively. With computer modeling, the interactions between equipment and polymer are quantified. All aspects of equipment design and polymer features that control melt fracture, interfacial instabilities, gauge control, output and temperature, and cooling of blown and cast film processes are presented quantitatively. This methodology will highlight solutions in troubleshooting for optimum design and operation and the best available polymer and formulation choices. All polyethylene film applications in packaging, agriculture, lamination, and construction, consumer, industrial, and health care are reviewed and discussed in depth.

Extrusion

Extrusion
The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook

by Harold F. Giles Jr,John R. Wagner, Jr.,Eldridge M. Mount

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2013-09-21
  • Pages : 636
  • ISBN : 1437734820
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The second edition of Extrusion is designed to aid operators, engineers, and managers in extrusion processing in quickly answering practical day-to-day questions. The first part of the book provides the fundamental principles, for operators and engineers, of polymeric materials extrusion processing in single and twin screw extruders. The next section covers advanced topics including troubleshooting, auxiliary equipment, and coextrusion for operators, engineers, and managers. The final part provides applications case studies in key areas for engineers such as compounding, blown film, extrusion blow molding, coating, foam, and reprocessing. This practical guide to extrusion brings together both equipment and materials processing aspects. It covers basic and advanced topics, for reference and training, in thermoplastics processing in the extruder. Detailed reference data are provided on such important operating conditions as temperatures, start-up procedures, shear rates, pressure drops, and safety. A practical guide to the selection, design and optimization of extrusion processes and equipment Designed to improve production efficiency and product quality Focuses on practical fault analysis and troubleshooting techniques

Plastics Extrusion Technology Handbook

Plastics Extrusion Technology Handbook
A Book

by Sidney Levy,James F. Carley

  • Publisher : Industrial Press Inc.
  • Release : 1989
  • Pages : 388
  • ISBN : 9780831111854
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Offering complete and in-depth data and information on plastics extrusion, this practical handbook presents the technology of the subject rather than the theory. Presents an overview of extrusion technology as applied to the operation of extrusion systems and the design of tooling and equipment for use in the process. Provides basic technical information on the behavior of polymer and plastics materials in the extrusion process. Contains tool descriptions that provide a basis for the analysis of existing product lines as examples for the design of new systems. Includes illustrations of and background material on control systems for the extruder and extrusion process.

Polymer Process Engineering

Polymer Process Engineering
A Book

by R. Griskey

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1995-07-31
  • Pages : 478
  • ISBN : 9780412985416
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The first survey of polymer processing written on an introductory level, this presentation is grounded in industrial practice. It covers fundamental chemical engineering principles as they are exhibited in polymers, basic operations for production, and product design for applications, as well as recycling and environmental considerations.

Advances in Polymer Processing

Advances in Polymer Processing
From Macro- To Nano- Scales

by S Thomas,Weimin Yang

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-05-30
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN : 1845696425
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Processing techniques are critical to the performance of polymer products which are used in a wide range of industries. Advances in polymer processing: From macro- to nano- scales reviews the latest advances in polymer processing, techniques and materials. Part one reviews the fundamentals of polymer processing with chapters on rheology, materials and polymer extrusion. Part two then discusses advances in moulding technology with chapters on such topics as compression, rotational and blow moulding of polymers. Chapters in Part three review alternative processing technologies such as calendaring and coating, foam processing and radiation processing of polymers. Part four discusses micro and nano-technologies with coverage of themes such as processing of macro, micro and nanocomposites and processing of carbon nanotubes. The final section of the book addresses post-processing technologies with chapters on online monitoring and computer modelling as well as joining, machining, finishing and decorating of polymers. With is distinguished editors and team of international contributors, Advances in polymer processing: From macro- to nano- scales is an invaluable reference for engineers and academics concerned with polymer processing. Reviews the latest advances in polymer processing, techniques and materials analysing new challenges and opportunities Discusses the fundamentals of polymer processing considering the compounding and mixing of polymers as well as extrusion Assesses alternative processing technologies including calendaring and coating and thermoforming of polymers

Update on Troubleshooting the PVC Extrusion Process

Update on Troubleshooting the PVC Extrusion Process
A Book

by Natamai Subramanian

  • Publisher : Smithers Rapra
  • Release : 2011-06-15
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN : 184735551X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This comprehensive book on troubleshooting PVC extrusion contains information on a wide range of topics with the emphasis on compounding, additives and also giving the knowledge about the combination of woody materials with PVC to wood polymer composites (WPC) is gaining more and more attraction in USA and Europe and a wide range of commercial products are already available on the market, but the troubleshooting areas are not covered well.

Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing
Principles and Design

by Donald G. Baird,Dimitris I. Collias

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-03-24
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0470930586
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fundamental concepts coupled with practical, step-by-step guidance With its emphasis on core principles, this text equips readers with the skills and knowledge to design the many processes needed to safely and successfully manufacture thermoplastic parts. The first half of the text sets forth the general theory and concepts underlying polymer processing, such as the viscoelastic response of polymeric fluids and diffusion and mass transfer. Next, the text explores specific practical aspects of polymer processing, including mixing, extrusion dies, and post-die processing. By addressing a broad range of design issues and methods, the authors demonstrate how to solve most common processing problems. This Second Edition of the highly acclaimed Polymer Processing has been thoroughly updated to reflect current polymer processing issues and practices. New areas of coverage include: Micro-injection molding to produce objects weighing a fraction of a gram, such as miniature gears and biomedical devices New chapter dedicated to the recycling of thermoplastics and the processing of renewable polymers Life-cycle assessment, a systematic method for determining whether recycling is appropriate and which form of recycling is optimal Rheology of polymers containing fibers Chapters feature problem sets, enabling readers to assess and reinforce their knowledge as they progress through the text. There are also special design problems throughout the text that reflect real-world polymer processing issues. A companion website features numerical subroutines as well as guidance for using MATLAB®, IMSL®, and Excel to solve the sample problems from the text. By providing both underlying theory and practical step-by-step guidance, Polymer Processing is recommended for students in chemical, mechanical, materials, and polymer engineering.

Rubber Extrusion

Rubber Extrusion
Theory and Development

by B. G. Crowther

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 102
  • ISBN : 9781859571569
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent changes in Screw extruders for rubber have been driven by demands for accuracy and economy, increased understanding of the underlying principles, and improvements in related technologies such as control systems and computing power. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Extrusion, Moulding And Mould Designs

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Extrusion, Moulding And Mould Designs
A Book

by NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers

  • Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
  • Release : 2006-10-01
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 8178330083
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics extrusion is a high volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing, weather stripping, fence, deck railing, window frames, adhesive tape and wire insulation. There are fundamentally two different methods of extruding film, namely, below extrusion and slit die extrusion. The design and operation of the extruder up to the die is the same for both methods. The moulding process is one of the most important plastic processing operations. It is an important commercial process whereby a resinous polymeric compound is converted into useful finished articles. The origin of this process is dates back about a century to the invention of a plunger type machine. The mould has its own importance, which give the required shapes of the products. The vast growth of injection moulding is reflected dramatically in many types and sizes of equipment available today. Plastic moulding especially thermoplastic items may be produced by compression moulding methods, but since they are soft at the temperature involved, it is necessary to cool down the mould before they may be ejected. Injection moulding differs from compression moulding is that the plastic material is rendered fluid in a separate chamber or barrel, outside the mould is then forced into the mould cavity by external pressure. Plastic technology is one of the most vigorous manufacturing branches, characterised by new raw materials, changing requirements, and continuous development in processing methods. The injection moulding machines manufacturers plays an important part in the creation of injection moulding technology, process control, to essential mechanical engineering. Even though design is a specialized phase in engineering field, in tool and mould engineering it is totally divided into two wings as product design and tool and die design. This book basically deals with transport phenomena in polymer films, reinforcements for thermosets, miscellaneous thermoset processes, injection molding, blow molding, extrusion, basic principles of injection moulding, correct injection speed is necessary for filling the mould, plastic melt should not suffer degradation, the mould must be controlled for better quality product, logical consideration of moulding profile and material is important than standard setting guide lines, economical setting of the machine, proper maintenance of machine;, safety operations., preliminary checking for moulding, material, component, mould, machine, injection moulding technique, the various type of injection moulding machines, specifications, platen mounting of moulds, locating spigots, mould clamping, etc. The book covers manufacturing processes of extruded and moulded products with the various mould designs. This is very useful book for new entrepreneurs, technocrats, researchers, libraries etc.