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Fire Debris Analysis

Fire Debris Analysis
A Book

by Eric Stauffer,Julia A. Dolan,Reta Newman

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2007-12-10
  • Pages : 672
  • ISBN : 9780080556260
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The study of fire debris analysis is vital to the function of all fire investigations, and, as such, Fire Debris Analysis is an essential resource for fire investigators. The present methods of analysis include the use of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, techniques which are well established and used by crime laboratories throughout the world. However, despite their universality, this is the first comprehensive resource that addresses their application to fire debris analysis. Fire Debris Analysis covers topics such as the physics and chemistry of fire and liquid fuels, the interpretation of data obtained from fire debris, and the future of the subject. Its cutting-edge material and experienced author team distinguishes this book as a quality reference that should be on the shelves of all crime laboratories. Serves as a comprehensive guide to the science of fire debris analysis Presents both basic and advanced concepts in an easily readable, logical sequence Includes a full-color insert with figures that illustrate key concepts discussed in the text

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris

Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris
A Guideline for Forensic Experts

by Jeanet Hendrikse,Michiel Grutters,Frank Schäfer

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2015-10-05
  • Pages : 142
  • ISBN : 0128043873
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Identifying Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris: A Guideline for Forensic Experts discusses and illustrates the characteristics of different ignitable liquid products. This guideline builds on the minimum criteria of the ignitable liquid classes defined in the internationally accepted standard ASTM E1618 Standard Test Method for Ignitable Liquid Residues in Extracts from Fire Debris Samples by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The volume provides information on the origin of the characteristics of these ignitable liquid products and provides a summary of characteristics to demonstrate a positive identification of the particular product class. Topics such as the term ignitable liquid, relevant guidelines for fire debris analysis, production processes of ignitable liquids, fire debris analysis methods, and interferences in fire debris analysis, are briefly discussed as these topics are essential for the understanding of the identification and classification of ignitable liquid residues in fire debris. Discusses the characteristics and variations in chemical composition of different classes of the ignitable liquid products defined by ASTM E1618:14 Covers the General Production Processes of Ignitable Liquid Products Includes a guide for the Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris

Fire Debris Analysis

Fire Debris Analysis
A Book

by Eric Stauffer,Julia A. Dolan,Reta Newman

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2007-12-24
  • Pages : 672
  • ISBN : 9780126639711
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The study of fire debris analysis is vital to the function of all fire investigations, and, as such, Fire Debris Analysis is an essential resource for fire investigators. The present methods of analysis include the use of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, techniques which are well established and used by crime laboratories throughout the world. However, despite their universality, this is the first comprehensive resource that addresses their application to fire debris analysis. Fire Debris Analysis covers topics such as the physics and chemistry of fire and liquid fuels, the interpretation of data obtained from fire debris, and the future of the subject. Its cutting-edge material and experienced author team distinguishes this book as a quality reference that should be on the shelves of all crime laboratories. Serves as a comprehensive guide to the science of fire debris analysis Presents both basic and advanced concepts in an easily readable, logical sequence Includes a full-color insert with figures that illustrate key concepts discussed in the text

A Survey on the Interpretive GC/MS Analysis of Fire Debris

A Survey on the Interpretive GC/MS Analysis of Fire Debris
A Book

by Anthony Thomas Parks

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 43
  • ISBN : 9780438372801
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The practice of arson analysis in a forensic science laboratory is based upon detecting the presence of ignitable liquids. If an ignitable liquid is present, it is suggestive of arson; if no ignitable liquid is found an arson claim is more difficult to assert. Ignitable liquids are detected using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Instrumental results from a GC/MS can display components of an ignitable liquid but an analyst needs to make the final decision. Even with correct instrumentation and suggested guidelines, ignitable liquid analysis can be subjective and based upon the analysts' education and experience. To better understand the interpretive practices of the fire debris analysis community, a survey consisting of reference samples, mixture standards, and multiple unknowns was created in consultation with the Los Angeles Police Department Arson Unit. The samples consisted of different substrates with varying classes and volumes of ignitable liquid. They were created using a destructive distillation method first developed by the State of Florida Bureau of Forensic Fire and Explosives Analysis. Extraction of the samples was completed using a carbon strip to perform passive headspace absorption following the ASTM E 1412 method. The samples were analyzed with a GC/MS following National Commission on Forensic Science parameters. To maintain confidentiality, participant responses are stripped of identifiers and the results of the survey, details about the procedure, and discussions will be presented.

Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives

Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives
A Book

by Kenyon Evans-Nguyen,Katherine Hutches

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-10-08
  • Pages : 356
  • ISBN : 3030258343
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This text provides training on the fundamental tools and methodologies used in active forensic laboratories for the complicated analysis of fire debris and explosives evidence. It is intended to serve as a gateway for students and transitioning forensic science or chemistry professionals. The book is divided between the two disciplines of fire debris and explosives, with a final pair of chapters devoted to the interplay between the two disciplines and with other disciplines, such as DNA and fingerprint analysis. It brings together a multi-national group of technical experts, ranging from academic researchers to active practitioners, including members of some of the premier forensic agencies of the world. Readers will gain knowledge of practical methods of analysis and will develop a strong foundation for laboratory work in forensic chemistry. End-of-chapter questions based on relevant topics and real-world data provide a realistic arena for learners to test newly-acquired techniques.

Advances in Fire Debris Analysis

Advances in Fire Debris Analysis
A Book

by Mary R. Williams

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 106
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fire incidents are a major contributor to the number of deaths and property losses within the United States each year. Fire investigations determine the cause of the fire resulting in an assignment of responsibility. Current methods of fire debris analysis are reviewed including the preservation, extraction, detection and characterization of ignitable liquids from fire debris. Leak rates were calculated for the three most common types of fire debris evidence containers. The consequences of leaking containers on the recovery and characterization of ignitable liquids were demonstrated. The interactions of hydrocarbons with activated carbon during the extraction of ignitable liquids from the fire debris were studied. An estimation of available adsorption sites on the activated carbon surface area was calculated based on the number of moles of each hydrocarbon onto the activated carbon. Upon saturation of the surface area, hydrocarbons with weaker interactions with the activated carbon were displaced by more strongly interacting hydrocarbons thus resulting in distortion of the chromatographic profiles used in the interpretation of the GC/MS data. The incorporation of an additional sub-sampling step in the separation of ignitable liquids by passive headspace sampling reduces the concentration of ignitable liquid accessible for adsorption on the activated carbon thus avoiding saturation of the activated carbon. A statistical method of covariance mapping with a coincident measurement to compare GC/MS data sets of two ignitable liquids was able to distinguish ignitable liquids of different classes, sub-classes and states of evaporation. In addition, the method was able to distinguish 10 gasoline samples as having originated from different sources with a known statistical certainty. In a blind test, an unknown gasoline sample was correctly identified from the set of 10 gasoline samples without making a Type II error.

Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence

Analysis and Interpretation of Fire Scene Evidence
A Book

by Jose R. Almirall,Kenneth G. Furton

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2004-02-11
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 0203492722
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ongoing advances in arson detection tools and techniques increase the importance of scientific evidence in related court proceedings. In order to assemble an airtight case, investigators and forensic scientists need a resource that assists them in properly conducting the chemical analysis and interpretation of physical evidence found at scenes of s

Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis

Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis
Likelihood Ratios from Naïve Bayes and Frequency of Component and Pyrolysis Product Occurrence

by Anuradha Gayathri Akmeemana

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 181
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the major challenges in fire investigation is the determination of the cause of fire. The fire can be accidental or intentional. The determination of ignitable liquid residue (ILR) from fire debris helps the process and this process is called fire debris analysis in forensic science. This is one of the most complex areas in the field of forensics because of the evaporation of the ILR from the debris and the interferences of the substrate matrix with the ILR if present. In the present, the final decisions in fire debris analysis are based on categorical statements and it only represents the qualitative but not the quantitative value of the data. The likelihood ratio approach is one of the most widely used methods in forensic science in expressing the evidentiary value.

Fire Debris Analysis and Scene Reconstruction

Fire Debris Analysis and Scene Reconstruction
A Book

by Alberto Sturaro,Alvise Vianello,Pablo Denti,Rocco Rella

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 5
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Identification and Characterization of Interfering Products in Fire Debris Analysis

Identification and Characterization of Interfering Products in Fire Debris Analysis
A Book

by Éric Stauffer

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Overcoming Challenges in Fire Debris Analysis Caused by Evaporation

Overcoming Challenges in Fire Debris Analysis Caused by Evaporation
A Book

by Rebecca Brehe

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 126
  • ISBN : 9781339186603
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent Advances in the Applications of Forensic Science to Fire Debris Analysis

Recent Advances in the Applications of Forensic Science to Fire Debris Analysis
A Book

by J. Dolan

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 4
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chemometric Applications to a Complex Classification Problem

Chemometric Applications to a Complex Classification Problem
Forensic Fire Debris Analysis

by Erin Elizabeth Waddell

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 298
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fire debris analysis currently relies on visual pattern recognition of the total ion chromatograms, extracted ion profiles, and target compound chromatograms to identify the presence of an ignitable liquid. This procedure is described in the ASTM International E1618-10 standard method. For large data sets, this methodology can be time consuming and is a subjective method, the accuracy of which is dependent upon the skill and experience of the analyst. This research aimed to develop an automated classification method for large data sets and investigated the use of the total ion spectrum (TIS). The TIS is calculated by taking an average mass spectrum across the entire chromatographic range and has been shown to contain sufficient information content for the identification of ignitable liquids. The TIS of ignitable liquids and substrates were compiled into model data sets. Substrates are defined as common building materials and household furnishings that are typically found at the scene of a fire and are, therefore, present in fire debris samples. Fire debris samples were also used which were obtained from laboratory-scale and large-scale burns. An automated classification method was developed using computational software, that was written in-house. Within this method, a multi-step classification scheme was used to detect ignitable liquid residues in fire debris samples and assign these to the classes defined in ASTM E1618-10. Classifications were made using linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The model data sets were tested by cross-validation and used to classify fire debris samples. Correct classification rates were calculated for each data set. Classifier performance metrics were also calculated for the first step of the classification scheme which included false positive rates, true positive rates, and the precision of the method. The first step, which determines a sample to be positive or negative for ignitable liquid residue, is arguably the most important in the forensic application. Overall, the highest correct classification rates were achieved using QDA for the first step of the scheme and SIMCA for the remaining steps. In the first step of the classification scheme, correct classification rates of 95.3% and 89.2% were obtained using QDA to classify the cross-validation test set and fire debris samples, respectively. For this step, the cross-validation test set resulted in a true positive rate of 96.2%, a false positive rate of 9.3%, and a precision of 98.2%. The fire debris data set had a true positive rate of 82.9%, a false positive rate of 1.3%, and a precision of 99.0%. Correct classifications rates of 100% were achieved for both data sets in the majority of the remaining steps which used SIMCA for classification. The lowest correct classification rate, 69.2%, was obtained for the fire debris samples in one of the final steps in the classification scheme. In this research, the first statistically valid error rates for fire debris analysis have been developed through cross-validation of large data sets. The fire debris analyst can use the automated method as a tool for detecting and classifying ignitable liquid residues in fire debris samples. The error rates reduce the subjectivity associated with the current methods and provide a level of confidence in sample classification that does not currently exist in forensic fire debris analysis.

Investigation and Separation of Interferences from Fire Debris Analysis by Solid Phase Extraction

Investigation and Separation of Interferences from Fire Debris Analysis by Solid Phase Extraction
A Book

by Michelle Y. Shortell

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 334
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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ASTM Standards for Fire Debris Analysis

ASTM Standards for Fire Debris Analysis
A Review

by Eric Stauffer,John J. Lentini

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 5
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Determining the Presence of an Ignitable Liquid Residue in Fire Debris Samples Utilizing Target Factor Analysis

Determining the Presence of an Ignitable Liquid Residue in Fire Debris Samples Utilizing Target Factor Analysis
A Book

by Kelly M. McHugh

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 106
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Current fire debris analysis procedure involves using the chromatographic patterns of total ion chromatograms, extracted ion chromatograms, and target compound analysis to identify an ignitable liquid according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 1618 standard method. Classifying the ignitable liquid is accomplished by a visual comparison of chromatographic data obtained from any extracted ignitable liquid residue in the debris to the chromatograms of ignitable liquids in a database, i.e. by visual pattern recognition. Pattern recognition proves time consuming and introduces potential for human error. One particularly difficult aspect of fire debris analysis is recognizing an ignitable liquid residue when the intensity of its chromatographic pattern is extremely low or masked by pyrolysis products. In this research, a unique approach to fire debris analysis was applied by utilizing the samples' total ion spectrum (TIS) to identify an ignitable liquid, if present. The TIS, created by summing the intensity of each ion across all elution times in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) dataset retains sufficient information content for the identification of complex mixtures . Computer assisted spectral comparison was then performed on the samples' TIS by target factor analysis (TFA). This approach allowed rapid automated searching against a library of ignitable liquid summed ion spectra. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves measured how well TFA identified ignitable liquids in the database that were of the same ASTM classification as the ignitable liquid in fire debris samples, as depicted in their corresponding area under the ROC curve. This study incorporated statistical analysis to aid in classification of an ignitable liquid, therefore alleviating interpretive error inherent in visual pattern recognition. This method could allow an analyst to declare an ignitable liquid present when utilization of visual pattern recognition alone is not sufficient.

Forensic Analysis of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris by Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography

Forensic Analysis of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris by Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography
A Book

by Glenn S. Frysinger,Richard B. Gaines

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 12
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Evaluation of Classifier Performance on the Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and the Expansion of the Substrate Database

The Evaluation of Classifier Performance on the Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and the Expansion of the Substrate Database
A Book

by Alyssa Nicole Allen

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 311
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The current protocols in fire debris analysis rely on ignitable liquid pattern recognition and the identification of target compounds. These practices allow fire debris analysts to determine whether a sample contains or is absent of ignitable liquid residue and to classify that type of ignitable liquid based upon subjective thresholds.

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation, Third Edition

Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation, Third Edition
A Book

by John J. Lentini

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-09-28
  • Pages : 586
  • ISBN : 1351712373
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Scientific Protocols for Fire Investigation, Third Edition focuses on the practical application of fundamental scientific principles to determine the causes of fires. Originally published in 2006, the First Edition was very well received by fire investigators and those who work with them. Since fire investigation is a rapidly evolving field—driven by new discoveries about fire behavior—the Second Edition was published in late 2012. This latest, fully updated Third Edition reflects the most recent developments in the field. Currently, serious research is underway to try to understand the role of ventilation in structure fires. Likewise, there is improved understanding of the kinds of errors investigators can make that lead to incorrect determinations of the causes of fires. In addition to the scientific aspects, the litigation of fire related events is rapidly changing, particularly with respect to an investigator's qualifications to serve as an expert witness. This book covers these latest developments and ties together the changing standards for fire investigations with the fundamental scientific knowledge presented in the early chapters of the book. The book is intended for those individuals who have recently entered the field of fire investigation, and those who are studying fire investigation with a plan to become certified professionals. In addition, professionals in the insurance industry who hire fire investigators will find this an invaluable resource. Insurance companies have sustained significant losses by hiring individuals who are not qualified, resulting in cases being settled or lost at a cost of millions. Insurance adjusters and investigators will learn to recognize quality fire investigations and those that are not up to today's standards. Lastly, this book is also for the many attorneys who litigate fire cases. Written with language and terms that make the science accessible even to the non-scientist, this new edition will be a welcome resource to any professional involved in fire and arson cases.

Statistical Assessment of the Probability of Correct Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris Analysis

Statistical Assessment of the Probability of Correct Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Fire Debris Analysis
A Book

by United States. Department of Justice,Mary Williams,Erin Waddell

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 114
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Identification of ignitable liquid residues in the presence of background interferences, especially those arising from pyrolysis processes, is a major challenge for the fire debris analyst. The proposed research will lead to a mathematical model that allows for the detection of an ignitable liquid in a fire debris sample and the classification of the ignitable liquid according to the ASTM E1618 classification scheme. The research will examine the influence of substrate pyrolysis and non-pyrolysis interferences on: (1) probability of correct prediction of the presence of an ignitable liquid in real and simulated fire debris samples (Type I and Type II error rates) and (2) probability of correct prediction of the associated ignitable liquid ASTM class and sub-class (heavy, medium or light) in positive samples. Potential alternative sub-groupings of ignitable liquids will be examined based on cluster analysis techniques. Models will be examined which are based on principal components analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent model classification analogy (SIMCA). The model will be developed from the summed ion spectra of nearly 500 ignitable liquid and 50 pyrolysis sample GC-MS data sets with ANOVA-assisted variable selection. Training data sets will be taken from the National Center for Forensic Science ignitable liquid and substrate pyrolysis databases. Simulated fire debris samples generated in the laboratory and samples from large-scale burns will also be employed in model testing. Model performance will be statistically evaluated by receiver operator characteristic analysis. The final model will be implemented in a software solution for forensic laboratory use. This project proposed to investigate the development of a method for classifying fire debris GC-MS data sets as: (1) containing or not containing an ignitable liquid, (2) classifying any ignitable liquid that may be present under the ASTM E1618 classification scheme and (3) estimating the statistical certainty of the answers to questions 1 and 2. The proposed approach is to build a mathematical model that can correctly classify GC-MS data from ignitable liquids and pyrolyzed substrates (wood, plastic, etc.). The model will then be applied to GC-MS data from laboratory-generated fire debris samples, as well as ignitable liquids and substrates that were not used to build the model. The classification success of the model will allow a determination of the statistical performance of the model by ROC analysis. The model will be developed based on the total ion spectrum, which has already shown a propensity for classifying a set of ignitable liquids drawn from multiple ASTM classes.