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Fire Toxicity

Fire Toxicity
A Book

by A A Stec,T R Hull

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2010-03-12
  • Pages : 728
  • ISBN : 184569807X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Toxic fire effluents are responsible for the majority of fire deaths, and an increasing large majority of fire injuries, driven by the widespread and increasing use of synthetic polymers. Fire safety has focused on preventing ignition and reducing flame spread through reducing the rate of heat release, while neglecting the important issue of fire toxicity. This is the first reference work on fire toxicity and the only scientific publication on the subject in the last 15 years. Assessment of toxic effects of fires is increasingly being recognised as a key factor in the assessment of fire hazards. This book raises important issues including the types of toxic effluents that different fires produce, their physiological effects, methods for generation and assessment of fire toxicity, current and proposed regulations and approaches to modelling the toxic impact of fires. The contributors to Fire toxicity represent an international team of the leading experts in each aspect of this challenging and important field. This book provides an important reference work for professionals in the fire community, including fire fighters, fire investigators, regulators, fire safety engineers, and formulators of fire-safe materials. It will also prove invaluable to researchers in academia and industry. Investigates the controversial subject of toxic effluents as the cause of the majority of fire deaths and injuries Describes the different types of toxic effluents and the specific fires that they produce, their physiological effects and methods for generation Provides an overview of national and international fire safety regulations including current and proposed regulations such as a standardized framework for prediction of fire gas toxicity

Fire Toxicity of Plastics

Fire Toxicity of Plastics
Papers from a One Day Seminar

by Rapra Technology Limited

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 1989
  • Pages : 64
  • ISBN : 9780902348448
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire

Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire
A Book

by P. J. Fardell

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 101
  • ISBN : 9781859570012
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report does not seek to single out synthetic polymers as a special case. It aims to provide an overview of the whole subject of combustion toxicity and threat to life, whilst supplying specific information on the most frequently encountered polymeric materials, and combustion products such as dioxins which have received high levels of media attention. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Fire Toxicity

Fire Toxicity
A Book

by G. Caird Ramsay,Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia). Division of Building, Construction and Engineering

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Combustion Products from Ventilation Controlled Fires

Combustion Products from Ventilation Controlled Fires
Toxicity Assessment and Modelling

by Omar Abdulaziz O. Aljumaiah

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 301
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Toxic smoke from fires is regularly identified as the leading cause of death in fire casualties. In most countries statistics suggest more than 70% of fire deaths are caused by either toxic smoke inhalation, or heat burns and toxic smoke inhalation. In most cases, fire victims are impaired from escape due to smoke irritation and poor visibility. The fire community is now recognising the need for further research into the sub-lethal toxicity, as in most cases fire victims are impaired by these sub-lethal effects from making a safe escape. However, despite the recognition of the importance of the fire toxicity problem, limited work is done on quantifying the different fire smoke products. The available information is incomplete, and in many cases misleading. This work, attempts to address the fire toxicity problem in depth. By using state of the art experimental techniques, a thorough investigation into toxic components of fire effluent is conducted. Using a specially designed reduced scale enclosure, and an FTIR sampling system, a series of experiments were conducted examining the toxic products of low ventilation compartment fires. As a first objective, a review was conducted into the current practice of fire toxicity assessment; it was found out, that in most cases, the previously developed models, overlook the irritancy and sub-lethal quantification by adopting the lethal end-point for assessment. A review on the work exposure limits, and its relation to fire was provided. In addition, this research included experimentally examining different types of fire fuels, relevant to residential and industrial fires. The fuels studied included wood cribs, cotton towels, acrylic curtains, and hydrocarbon pool fires. The fires were burnt at ventilation rates corresponding to 5, 11, 21, 37 ACH, which simulated conditions of a limited ventilation enclosures in modern buildings. Quantified yields of irritant species, such as Acrolein, Formaldehyde, Benzene, Acetic Acid, and Acetaldehyde, are reported on a scale never accomplished before. In addition, detailed assessment of the measured species in terms of lethality and irritancy was reported. The amount of information gained from the experimental work, expanded our current understanding on toxic fire effluent, and was published in a series of publications. Finally, the gained knowledge from the experimental work was then used in an attempt to propose a new methodology for toxic fire prediction in fire models.

Fire Toxicity Scaling

Fire Toxicity Scaling
A Book

by Emil Braun

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1987
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Bibliography of Published Information Relevant to Fire Toxicity

A Bibliography of Published Information Relevant to Fire Toxicity
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 75
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fire and Explosion Hazards

Fire and Explosion Hazards
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Research Publishing Service
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 1140
  • ISBN : 9810877242
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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States Symposium on Fire Toxicity

States Symposium on Fire Toxicity
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 131
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fires, Explosions, and Toxic Gas Dispersions

Fires, Explosions, and Toxic Gas Dispersions
Effects Calculation and Risk Analysis

by Marc J. Assael,Konstantinos E. Kakosimos

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2010-02-23
  • Pages : 349
  • ISBN : 9781439826768
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Today’s risk analysis is a very challenging field, and a solid understanding of the calculations procedure associated with it is essential for anyone involved. Fires, Explosions, and Toxic Gas Dispersions: Effects Calculation and Risk Analysis provides an overview of the methods used to assess the risk of fires, explosions, and toxic gas dispersion, and then deduce the subsequent effects and consequences of these events. The authors cover various aspects of such incidents, including the probability that an accident will occur, and how to calculate leaks, heat flux, overpressure, and the concentration of toxic clouds. The book follows by describing the consequences to people (injury or death) and material damages, and it concludes with a discussion of possible causes of destruction and common circumstances that can result in accidents. Some key features of this book include: Introduction of basic techniques of hazard identification, emphasizing "what if" and HAZOP analyses Step-by-step procedures for the calculation of fires (i.e., pool fire, jet fire, fire ball), explosions (VCE, BLEVE), and concentration of toxic clouds (light and heavy gases) Methods for determining probability of injuries or lethality Invaluable to professionals, researchers, and students whose work involves predicting the consequences of accidents, this book describes simple modern methods, which are a great aid for understanding the meaning of all the variables involved—in contrast to current complicated computer packages, which produce only results. Filling the existing gap in useful literature on risk analysis, this book follows a logical structure and presents straightforward, step-by-step calculation procedures and numerous examples that will be valuable in both teaching and learning the content.

Chemical Forest Fire Retardants

Chemical Forest Fire Retardants
Acute Toxicity to Five Freshwater Fishes and a Scud

by W. Waynon Johnson,Herman O. Sanders

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 7
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Toxicities of four chemical forest fire retardants, Fire-Trol 100 and 931 (ammonium sulfate, or polyphosphate with an attapulgit clay thickner) and Phos-Chek 202A and 259 (diammonium phosphate with guar gum derivative thickner) were determined by static and flow-through toxicity tests for fry and fingerling coho salmon and rainbow trout; fingerling fathead minnows, bluegills, and largemouth bass; and mature scuds. In static tests, Phos-Chek formulations were more toxic than either of the Fire-Trol formulations to scuds and all life stages of fish. In salmon and trout, fry were generally more susceptible than fingerlings to all formulations; yolk-sac fry were more susceptible than swim-up friy. Toxicities of all formulations to salmon and trout were similar at 6 to 11 degress centigrade. Un-ionized ammonia is believed to be the most toxic component of thes fire retardants.

Fires in Mass Transit Vehicles

Fires in Mass Transit Vehicles
Guidelines for the Evaluation of Toxic Hazards : Report

by Anonim

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 88
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Noteworthy progress has been made recently toward understanding and quantifying the smoke toxicity factors involved in fire hazard assessment. Such progress has led to increased attention to the significance of fire growth parameters for toxic hazard. Methodology has been proposed to use fire test data, including information on the toxic potency of smoke in engineering calculations for the assessment of overall fire hazard. Confidence in the methodology may evolve from comparison with full-scale fire tests as well as from human fire fatality experience. This book addresses fire modeling, fire testing, smoke toxicity testing, fire hazard assessment, and fire risk assessment.

Fire Retardancy of Polymers

Fire Retardancy of Polymers
New Strategies and Mechanisms

by T Richard Hull,Baljinder K Kandola

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2008-12-03
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN : 1847559212
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Globally, fire retardants are needed to satisfy a multibillion dollar market. Fire retardancy of polymeric materials is an important component of fire safety. Fire retardants either reduce the likelihood of ignition and/or reduce the rate of flame spread and hence, escalation of fire. The need to comply with safety legislations forces industry to use fire retardants in materials in order to save lives. With growing consumer demands and new legislations, the development of new systems is an on-going process, which also involves understanding their mechanisms of action. This book covers the latest developments in fire retardant strategies including: " new fire retardant systems (including nanoparticulate fillers, sometimes combined with conventional fire retardants) " intumescent formulations and their recent applications in bulk polymers, fibres and textiles " test-methods for material flammability " material-specific aspects of combustion, smoke and toxicity. Fire retardant strategies covered, include the use of synergistic combinations of alumina with organoclay, organophosphorus compunds, silica and organosilicones, clay-phosphate combinations and a novel tecnhique for investigating fire rerardant behaviour. The section on nanoparticulate fillers includes an investigation on the effect of filler shape, the use of carbon nanofibres and nanotubes, the interpretation of nanocomposite behaviour in the cone calorimeter, and groundbreaking new research on the influence of rheological properties on burning behaviour. The coverage of fibres and textiles includes a discussion on trends in textile fire retardancy and flammability regulations, and some novel halogen-free approaches to fire retardancy of cellulose, acrylic and polypropylene textiles. Finally, the influence of fire retardants on fire toxicity is discussed in detail, followed by an investigation of the toxic products from burning fire retarded polymer nanocomposites. This book will update fire retardant materials' developers with latest in research and design of new fire retardant materials. It will also provide a snapshot of the state-of-the-art for a range of other groups including environmentalists looking for alternatives to brominated flame retardants and engineers needing to use fire safe materials in their projects.

Compartment Fire Toxicity

Compartment Fire Toxicity
Measurements and Aspects of Modelling

by Abdulaziz Abdulrahman S. Alarifi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 332
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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National Conference on Fire Toxicity

National Conference on Fire Toxicity
Final Report

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1984*
  • Pages : 58
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Suggested Role of Combustion Toxicity in Fire Risk Assessment

A Suggested Role of Combustion Toxicity in Fire Risk Assessment
A Book

by GV. Alexeeff,SC. Packham

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1986
  • Pages : 5
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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At least 17 test methods have been developed to examine the acute toxicity of thermal decomposition products produced in fires. However, a consensus has not been reached on a method of integrating this information into a fire risk assessment. This paper suggests a fire risk assessment methodology with the goal of improving risk management and reducing future fire deaths. Following hazard identification, four steps are presented: (1) calculation of the probability that a material will be present in a fire, (2) estimation of smoke concentrations in specific fire scenarios, (3) determination of the qualitative and quantitative nature of toxic effects of smokes, and (4) estimation of the likelihood of the toxic injury resulting to humans based on correlations between animal models and humans. A concentration-time product is used in estimating exposure, since recent reports indicate it is likely to be the most appropriate method for comparing the toxicity of smokes with each other and to pure gases.

Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents. Guidance for Regulators and Specifiers on the Assessment of Toxic Hazard in Fires in Buildings and Transport

Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents. Guidance for Regulators and Specifiers on the Assessment of Toxic Hazard in Fires in Buildings and Transport
A Book

by British Standards Institute Staff

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996-12
  • Pages : 18
  • ISBN : 9780580260964
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Combustion products, Toxic gases, Toxicity, Fire tests, Toxic materials, Chemical analysis and testing, Gas analysis, Particulate air pollutants, Fire, Hazards, Poisoning, Buildings, Transportation, Calibration, Testing conditions

The Role of Bench-Scale Test Data in Assessing Real-Scale Fire Toxicity (Classic Reprint)

The Role of Bench-Scale Test Data in Assessing Real-Scale Fire Toxicity (Classic Reprint)
A Book

by Vytenis Babrauskas

  • Publisher : Forgotten Books
  • Release : 2018-02-23
  • Pages : 124
  • ISBN : 9780666208781
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Excerpt from The Role of Bench-Scale Test Data in Assessing Real-Scale Fire Toxicity 5. Discussion The equal lcso hypothesis The primary toxic gases hypothesis The equal yields hypothesis The N -gas hypothesis The type of death hypothesis Alternative acceptable levels of agreement. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

Fire Smoke and Toxicity of Composites on High Speed Craft

Fire Smoke and Toxicity of Composites on High Speed Craft
A Book

by Marc L. Janssens

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 38
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents. Prediction of Toxic Effects of Fire Effluents

Toxicity Testing of Fire Effluents. Prediction of Toxic Effects of Fire Effluents
A Book

by British Standards Institute Staff

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996-12
  • Pages : 26
  • ISBN : 9780580260957
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Combustion products, Toxic gases, Toxicity, Fire tests, Fire safety, Fire safety in buildings, Carbon monoxide, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen chloride, Nitrogen dioxide, Hydrogen fluoride, Chemical analysis and testing, Biological analysis and testing, Physiological effects (human body), Toxic materials, Gases, Mass, Forecasting, Mathematical calculations, Testing conditions, Bibliography, Fire effluents