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Flash Memory Integration

Flash Memory Integration
Performance and Energy Issues

by Jalil Boukhobza,Pierre Olivier

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-03-10
  • Pages : 266
  • ISBN : 008101158X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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4 zettabytes (4 billion terabytes) of data generated in 2013, 44 zettabytes predicted for 2020 and 185 zettabytes for 2025. These figures are staggering and perfectly illustrate this new era of data deluge. Data has become a major economic and social challenge. The speed of processing of these data is the weakest link in a computer system: the storage system. It is therefore crucial to optimize this operation. During the last decade, storage systems have experienced a major revolution: the advent of flash memory. Flash Memory Integration: Performance and Energy Issues contributes to a better understanding of these revolutions. The authors offer us an insight into the integration of flash memory in computer systems, their behavior in performance and in power consumption compared to traditional storage systems. The book also presents, in their entirety, various methods for measuring the performance and energy consumption of storage systems for embedded as well as desktop/server computer systems. We are invited on a journey to the memories of the future. Ideal for computer scientists, featuring low level details to concentrate on system issues Tackles flash memory aspects while spanning domains such as embedded systems and HPC Contains an exhaustive set of experimental results conducted in the Lab-STICC laboratory Provides details on methodologies to perform performance and energy measurements on flash storage systems

Flash Memory Integration

Flash Memory Integration
Performance and Energy Issues

by Jalil Boukhobza,Pierre Olivier

  • Publisher : Iste Press - Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-03-06
  • Pages : 266
  • ISBN : 9781785481246
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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4 zettabytes (4 billion terabytes) of data generated in 2013, 44 zettabytes predicted for 2020 and 185 zettabytes for 2025. These figures are staggering and perfectly illustrate this new era of data deluge. Data has become a major economic and social challenge. The speed of processing of these data is the weakest link in a computer system: the storage system. It is therefore crucial to optimize this operation. During the last decade, storage systems have experienced a major revolution: the advent of flash memory. Flash Memory Integration: Performance and Energy Issues contributes to a better understanding of these revolutions. The authors offer us an insight into the integration of flash memory in computer systems, their behavior in performance and in power consumption compared to traditional storage systems. The book also presents, in their entirety, various methods for measuring the performance and energy consumption of storage systems for embedded as well as desktop/server computer systems. We are invited on a journey to the memories of the future. Ideal for computer scientists, featuring low level details to concentrate on system issues Tackles flash memory aspects while spanning domains such as embedded systems and HPC Contains an exhaustive set of experimental results conducted in the Lab-STICC laboratory Provides details on methodologies to perform performance and energy measurements on flash storage systems

3D Flash Memories

3D Flash Memories
A Book

by Rino Micheloni

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-05-26
  • Pages : 380
  • ISBN : 9401775125
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book walks the reader through the next step in the evolution of NAND flash memory technology, namely the development of 3D flash memories, in which multiple layers of memory cells are grown within the same piece of silicon. It describes their working principles, device architectures, fabrication techniques and practical implementations, and highlights why 3D flash is a brand new technology. After reviewing market trends for both NAND and solid state drives (SSDs), the book digs into the details of the flash memory cell itself, covering both floating gate and emerging charge trap technologies. There is a plethora of different materials and vertical integration schemes out there. New memory cells, new materials, new architectures (3D Stacked, BiCS and P-BiCS, 3D FG, 3D VG, 3D advanced architectures); basically, each NAND manufacturer has its own solution. Chapter 3 to chapter 7 offer a broad overview of how 3D can materialize. The 3D wave is impacting emerging memories as well and chapter 8 covers 3D RRAM (resistive RAM) crosspoint arrays. Visualizing 3D structures can be a challenge for the human brain: this is way all these chapters contain a lot of bird’s-eye views and cross sections along the 3 axes. The second part of the book is devoted to other important aspects, such as advanced packaging technology (i.e. TSV in chapter 9) and error correction codes, which have been leveraged to improve flash reliability for decades. Chapter 10 describes the evolution from legacy BCH to the most recent LDPC codes, while chapter 11 deals with some of the most recent advancements in the ECC field. Last but not least, chapter 12 looks at 3D flash memories from a system perspective. Is 14nm the last step for planar cells? Can 100 layers be integrated within the same piece of silicon? Is 4 bit/cell possible with 3D? Will 3D be reliable enough for enterprise and datacenter applications? These are some of the questions that this book helps answering by providing insights into 3D flash memory design, process technology and applications.

Flash Memories

Flash Memories
Economic Principles of Performance, Cost and Reliability Optimization

by Detlev Richter

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-09-12
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 9400760825
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined. Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based product development process. The Performance Indicator methodology is applied to demonstrate the importance of hidden memory parameters for a successful product and system development roadmap. Flash Memories offers an opportunity to enhance your understanding of product development key topics such as: · Reliability optimization of flash memories is all about threshold voltage margin understanding and definition; · Product performance parameter are analyzed in-depth in all aspects in relation to the threshold voltage operation window; · Technical characteristics are translated into quantitative performance indicators; · Performance indicators are applied to identify and quantify product and technology innovation within adjacent areas to fulfill the application requirements with an overall cost optimized solution; · Cost, density, performance and durability values are combined into a common factor – performance indicator - which fulfills the application requirements

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology
A Book

by Yoshio Nishi

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-06-24
  • Pages : 532
  • ISBN : 0857098098
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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New solutions are needed for future scaling down of nonvolatile memory. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology provides an overview of developing technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses. After an overview of the current market, part one introduces improvements in flash technologies, including developments in 3D NAND flash technologies and flash memory for ultra-high density storage devices. Part two looks at the advantages of designing phase change memory and resistive random access memory technologies. It looks in particular at the fabrication, properties, and performance of nanowire phase change memory technologies. Later chapters also consider modeling of both metal oxide and resistive random access memory switching mechanisms, as well as conductive bridge random access memory technologies. Finally, part three looks to the future of alternative technologies. The areas covered include molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic memory devices, and a variety of random access memory devices such as nano-electromechanical, ferroelectric, and spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive devices. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology is a key resource for postgraduate students and academic researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering. It is a valuable tool for research and development managers concerned with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, solid-state memories, magnetic materials, organic materials, and portable electronic devices. Provides an overview of developing nonvolatile memory and storage technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses Examines improvements to flash technology, charge trapping, and resistive random access memory Discusses emerging devices such as those based on polymer and molecular electronics, and nanoelectromechanical random access memory (RAM)

Data Intensive Storage Services for Cloud Environments

Data Intensive Storage Services for Cloud Environments
A Book

by Kyriazis, Dimosthenis

  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Release : 2013-04-30
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 1466639350
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With the evolution of digitized data, our society has become dependent on services to extract valuable information and enhance decision making by individuals, businesses, and government in all aspects of life. Therefore, emerging cloud-based infrastructures for storage have been widely thought of as the next generation solution for the reliance on data increases. Data Intensive Storage Services for Cloud Environments provides an overview of the current and potential approaches towards data storage services and its relationship to cloud environments. This reference source brings together research on storage technologies in cloud environments and various disciplines useful for both professionals and researchers.

Digital Storage in Consumer Electronics

Digital Storage in Consumer Electronics
The Essential Guide

by Thomas M. Coughlin

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2011-08-30
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 9780080558493
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Can you imagine life without your cell phone, laptop, digital camera, iPod, BlackBerry, flat-screen TV, or DVD player? The skyrocketing demand for devices that provide simple, immediate access to large amounts of content is driving required digital storage capacity to unprecedented levels. Designing digital storage into consumer electronics is crucial to the performance and cost of these devices. However, as our requirements for digital content storage grow, so does the formidable difficulty of implementing design solutions that are rugged, long-lasting, power-miserly, secure, network-accessible and can still fit in the palm of your hand! This book provides the background necessary to understand common digital storage devices and media. It helps readers decide which methods of storage work best for which kinds of devices, and then teaches designers how to successfully integrate them into consumer products. * Presents best practices for selecting, integrating, and using storage devices to achieve higher performance, greater reliability and lower cost * Teardown photos provide rare visuals of the "guts" of the devices discussed * Covers hot topics including flash memory, DVRs, Apple iPods, home networks, and automotive electronics, from basic layouts to standards, advanced features, and exciting growth opportunities

Embedded Flash Memory for Embedded Systems: Technology, Design for Sub-systems, and Innovations

Embedded Flash Memory for Embedded Systems: Technology, Design for Sub-systems, and Innovations
A Book

by Hideto Hidaka

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-09-09
  • Pages : 247
  • ISBN : 3319553062
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded flash memory, describing the history, current status, and future projections for technology, circuits, and systems applications. The authors describe current main-stream embedded flash technologies from floating-gate 1Tr, floating-gate with split-gate (1.5Tr), and 1Tr/1.5Tr SONOS flash technologies and their successful creation of various applications. Comparisons of these embedded flash technologies and future projections are also provided. The authors demonstrate a variety of embedded applications for auto-motive, smart-IC cards, and low-power, representing the leading-edge technology developments for eFlash. The discussion also includes insights into future prospects of application-driven non-volatile memory technology in the era of smart advanced automotive system, such as ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) and IoE (Internet of Everything). Trials on technology convergence and future prospects of embedded non-volatile memory in the new memory hierarchy are also described. Introduces the history of embedded flash memory technology for micro-controller products and how embedded flash innovations developed; Includes comprehensive and detailed descriptions of current main-stream embedded flash memory technologies, sub-system designs and applications; Explains why embedded flash memory requirements are different from those of stand-alone flash memory and how to achieve specific goals with technology development and circuit designs; Describes a mature and stable floating-gate 1Tr cell technology imported from stand-alone flash memory products - that then introduces embedded-specific split-gate memory cell technologies based on floating-gate storage structure and charge-trapping SONOS technology and their eFlash sub-system designs; Describes automotive and smart-IC card applications requirements and achievements in advanced eFlash beyond 4 0nm node.

Flash Memories

Flash Memories
A Book

by Paulo Cappelletti,Carla Golla,Piero Olivo,Enrico Zanoni

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-27
  • Pages : 540
  • ISBN : 1461550157
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Flash memory is a Non Volatile Memory (NVM) whose "unit cells" are fabricated in CMOS technology and programmed and erased electrically. In 1971, Frohman-Bentchkowsky developed a folating polysilicon gate tran sistor [1, 2], in which hot electrons were injected in the floating gate and removed by either Ultra-Violet (UV) internal photoemission or by Fowler Nordheim tunneling. This is the "unit cell" of EPROM (Electrically Pro grammable Read Only Memory), which, consisting of a single transistor, can be very densely integrated. EPROM memories are electrically programmed and erased by UV exposure for 20-30 mins. In the late 1970s, there have been many efforts to develop an electrically erasable EPROM, which resulted in EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROMs). EEPROMs use hot electron tunneling for program and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for erase. The EEPROM cell consists of two transistors and a tunnel oxide, thus it is two or three times the size of an EPROM. Successively, the combination of hot carrier programming and tunnel erase was rediscovered to achieve a single transistor EEPROM, called Flash EEPROM. The first cell based on this concept has been presented in 1979 [3]; the first commercial product, a 256K memory chip, has been presented by Toshiba in 1984 [4]. The market did not take off until this technology was proven to be reliable and manufacturable [5].

Inside NAND Flash Memories

Inside NAND Flash Memories
A Book

by Rino Micheloni,Luca Crippa,Alessia Marelli

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2010-07-27
  • Pages : 582
  • ISBN : 9789048194315
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Digital photography, MP3, digital video, etc. make extensive use of NAND-based Flash cards as storage media. To realize how much NAND Flash memories pervade every aspect of our life, just imagine how our recent habits would change if the NAND memories suddenly disappeared. To take a picture it would be necessary to find a film (as well as a traditional camera...), disks or even magnetic tapes would be used to record a video or to listen a song, and a cellular phone would return to be a simple mean of communication rather than a multimedia console. The development of NAND Flash memories will not be set down on the mere evolution of personal entertainment systems since a new killer application can trigger a further success: the replacement of Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) with Solid State Drives (SSDs). SSD is made up by a microcontroller and several NANDs. As NAND is the technology driver for IC circuits, Flash designers and technologists have to deal with a lot of challenges. Therefore, SSD (system) developers must understand Flash technology in order to exploit its benefits and countermeasure its weaknesses. Inside NAND Flash Memories is a comprehensive guide of the NAND world: from circuits design (analog and digital) to Flash reliability (including radiation effects), from testing issues to high-performance (DDR) interface, from error correction codes to NAND applications like Flash cards and SSDs.

ULSI Process Integration 6

ULSI Process Integration 6
A Book

by C. Claeys

  • Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
  • Release : 2009-09
  • Pages : 533
  • ISBN : 1566777445
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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ULSI Process Integration 6 covers all aspects of process integration. Sections are devoted to 1) Device Technologies, 2) Front-end-of-line integration (gate stacks, shallow junctions, dry etching, etc.), 3) Back-end-of-line integration (CMP, low-k, Cu interconnect, air-gaps, 3D packaging, etc.), 4) Alternative channel technologies (Ge, III-V, hybrid integration), and 5) Emerging technologies (CNT, graphene, polymer electronics, nanotubes).

ULSI Process Integration 5

ULSI Process Integration 5
A Book

by Cor L. Claeys

  • Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
  • Release : 2007-01-01
  • Pages : 495
  • ISBN : 1566775728
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The symposium provided a forum for reviewing and discussing all aspects of process integration, with special focus on nanoscaled technologies, 65 nm and beyond on DRAM, SRAM, flash memory, high density logic-low power, RF, mixed analog-digital, process integration yield, CMP chemistries, low-k processes, gate stacks, metal gates, rapid thermal processing, silicides, copper interconnects, carbon nanotubes, novel materials, high mobility substrates (SOI, sSi, SiGe, GeOI), strain engineering, and hybrid integration.

Semiconductor Flash Memory Scaling

Semiconductor Flash Memory Scaling
A Book

by Min She

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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1995 Product Line Databooks: Flash memory (3 v.)

1995 Product Line Databooks: Flash memory (3 v.)
A Book

by Intel Corporation

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Integrated Interconnect Technologies for 3D Nanoelectronic Systems

Integrated Interconnect Technologies for 3D Nanoelectronic Systems
A Book

by Muhannad S. Bakir,James D. Meindl

  • Publisher : Artech House
  • Release : 2008-11-30
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 1596932473
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This cutting-edge book on off-chip technologies puts the hottest breakthroughs in high-density compliant electrical interconnects, nanophotonics, and microfluidics at your fingertips, integrating the full range of mathematics, physics, and technology issues together in a single comprehensive source. You get full details on state-of-the-art I/O interconnects and packaging, including mechanically compliant I/O approaches, fabrication, and assembly, followed by the latest advances and applications in power delivery design, analysis, and modeling. The book explores interconnect structures, materials, and packages for achieving high-bandwidth off-chip electrical communication, including optical interconnects and chip-to-chip signaling approaches, and brings you up to speed on CMOS integrated optical devices, 3D integration, wafer stacking technology, and through-wafer interconnects.

Advances in Computer Systems Architecture

Advances in Computer Systems Architecture
12th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 23-25, 2007, Proceedings

by Lynn Choi

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-07-30
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 3540743081
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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On behalf of the program and organizing committee members of this conference, we th are pleased to present you with the proceedings of the 12 Asia-Pacific Computer Systems Architecture Conference (ACSAC 2007), which was hosted in Seoul, Korea on August 23-25, 2007. This conference has traditionally been a forum for leading researchers in the Asian, American and Oceanian regions to share recent progress and the latest results in both architectural and system issues. In the past few years the c- ference has become more international in the sense that the geographic origin of p- ticipants has become broader to include researchers from all around the world, incl- ing Europe and the Middle East. This year, we received 92 paper submissions. Each submission was reviewed by at least three primary reviewers along with up to three secondary reviewers. The total number of completed reviews reached 333, giving each submission 3.6 reviews on average. All the reviews were carefully examined during the paper selection process, and finally 26 papers were accepted, resulting in an acceptance rate of about 28%. The selected papers encompass a wide range of topics, with much emphasis on hardware and software techniques for state-of-the-art multicore and multithreaded architectures.

JEE, Journal of Electronic Engineering

JEE, Journal of Electronic Engineering
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory

Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory
Nanocrystals in Nonvolatile Memory

by Writam Banerjee

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-10-09
  • Pages : 534
  • ISBN : 1351203258
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In recent years, utilization of the abundant advantages of quantum physics, quantum dots, quantum wires, quantum wells, and nanocrystals has attracted considerable scientific attention in the field of nonvolatile memory. Nanocrystals are the driving element that have brought the nonvolatile flash memory technology to a distinguished height. However, new approaches are still required to strengthen this technology for future applications. This book details the methods of fabrication of nanocrystals and their application in baseline nonvolatile memory and emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. The chapters have been written by renowned experts of the field and will provide an in-depth understanding of these technologies. The book is a valuable tool for research and development sectors associated with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, material sciences, solid state memories, and electronic devices.

System-in-a-package Implementation Platform for Memory and Logic Integration

System-in-a-package Implementation Platform for Memory and Logic Integration
A Book

by Xiaonan Wang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 282
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Vertical 3D Memory Technologies

Vertical 3D Memory Technologies
A Book

by Betty Prince

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-08-13
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 1118760468
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The large scale integration and planar scaling of individual system chips is reaching an expensive limit. If individual chips now, and later terrabyte memory blocks, memory macros, and processing cores, can be tightly linked in optimally designed and processed small footprint vertical stacks, then performance can be increased, power reduced and cost contained. This book reviews for the electronics industry engineer, professional and student the critical areas of development for 3D vertical memory chips including: gate-all-around and junction-less nanowire memories, stacked thin film and double gate memories, terrabit vertical channel and vertical gate stacked NAND flash, large scale stacking of Resistance RAM cross-point arrays, and 2.5D/3D stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-via connections now and remote links later. Key features: Presents a review of the status and trends in 3-dimensional vertical memory chip technologies. Extensively reviews advanced vertical memory chip technology and development Explores technology process routes and 3D chip integration in a single reference