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Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids
A Book

by Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-11-15
  • Pages : 482
  • ISBN : 9780444637246
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Foaming with Supercritical Fluids provides a comprehensive description of the use of supercritical fluids as blowing agents in polymer foaming. To this aim, the fundamental issues on which the proper design and control of such a process are rooted are discussed in detail, with specific attention devoted to (1) the theoretical and experimental aspects of sorption thermodynamics of a blowing agent within a polymer, (2) the effect of the absorbed blowing agent on the thermal, interfacial and rheological properties of the expanding matter, and (3) the phase separation of the gaseous phase and of the related bubble nucleation and growth phenomena. Several foaming technologies based on the use of supercritical blowing agents are then described, addressing the main issues in the light of the underlying chemical-physical phenomena. Offers strong fundamentals on polymer properties important on foaming Outlines the use of Supercritical Fluids for foaming Covers several steps leading to the foam formation from a modelling as well as theoretical point of view, including foam formation of the polymer/gas solution to the setting of the final foam Discusses the several processing technologies and applications

Supercritical Fluid Foaming

Supercritical Fluid Foaming
A Novel Route to Polymeric Allografts?

by Matthew S. Purcell

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Blend- and Surface-assisted Foaming of Polymers with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Blend- and Surface-assisted Foaming of Polymers with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
A Book

by Srinivas Siripurapu

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Keywords: polymer surfactants, polymer blends, high pressure rheology, controlled foam nucleation, carbon dioxide, nanoporous polymers, microcellular foam, supercritical fluids.

Polymer-supercritical Fluid Systems and Foams (P-(SF)2)

Polymer-supercritical Fluid Systems and Foams (P-(SF)2)
The International Workshop on Foam Processing & Supercritical Fluid Aided Polymer Processing, Tower Hall Funabori, Tokyo, Japan, December 4-5 2003

by Japan Society of Polymer Processing,SPE Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Division

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 228
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids
A Book

by Vannessa Goodship,Erich Okoth Ogur

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 9781859574942
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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SCFs are currently the subjects of intense research and commercial interest. Applications such as the RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions) process are part of standard industrial practice. In view of their ever-growing importance in the polymer industry there is a need to fully comprehend how supercritical fluids interrelate with polymeric materials to realise the potential that can be gained from their use. The authors review the basic principles of SCFs and their application within the polymer industry: characteristics and properties, extraction of unwanted residual products, polymerisation solvents, and polymer impregnation. Processing applications such as plasticisation, foaming and blending are also considered. There is discussion of the potential within the polymer recycling industry for use of SCFs as cleaning agents or within supercritical oxidation processes. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids
A Book

by Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-07-27
  • Pages : 245
  • ISBN : 303044984X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Globalization and industrialization involve a number of reactions, products, extractions, and separations that require the use of organic solvents. These solvents are responsible for a number of ecological concerns, including atmospheric and land toxicity. Conventional organic solvents are regarded as volatile organic compounds; some are even limited due to their potential for ozone layer depletion. While supercritical liquids exhibit physical properties that could make them ideal substitutes for these volatile compounds, there is particular interest in the use of carbon dioxide as a solvent of crude material. In particular, carbon dioxide has apparent ‘green’ properties, like its noncombustible nature, the fact that it is generally nonpoisonous, and its relative inertness. Thus, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide can provide practical improvements to the sustainability of industrial products and processes. This book provides in-depth literature in the area of industrial green processes, focusing on the separation, purification, and extraction of compounds utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent.

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies
A Book

by Igor Pioro

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2020-05-20
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN : 183880708X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams
A Book

by Vikas Mittal

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-10-18
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 146655813X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advancements in polymer nanocomposite foams have led to their application in a variety of fields, such as automotive, packaging, and insulation. Employing nanocomposites in foam formation enhances their property profiles, enabling a broader range of uses, from conventional to advanced applications. Since many factors affect the generation of nanost

Biofoams

Biofoams
Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials

by Salvatore Iannace,Chul B. Park

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-10-28
  • Pages : 450
  • ISBN : 1466561807
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Addresses a Growing Need for the Development of Cellular and Porous Materials in Industry Building blocks used by nature are motivating researchers to create bio-inspired cellular structures that can be used in the development of products for the plastic, food, and biomedical industry. Representing a unified effort by international experts, Biofoams: Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials highlights the latest research and development of biofoams and porous systems, and specifically examines the aspects related to the formation of gas bubbles in drink and food. The book offers a detailed analysis of bio-polymers and foaming technologies, biodegradable and sustainable foams, biomedical foams, food foams, and bio-inspired foams. Explores the Generation of New Materials with Wide-Ranging Technological Applicability This book introduces the science, technologies, and applications related to the use of biopolymers and biomaterials in the development of porous structures. It presents topics that include bio-based polymers for the development of biodegradable and sustainable polymeric foams, foams in food, foams in biomedical applications, biohybrids, and bio-inspired cellular and porous systems. It also includes recent studies on the design of polymer-based composites and hybrid scaffolds, weighs in on the challenges related to the production of porous polymers, and presents relevant examples of cellular architecture present in nature. In addition, this book: Focuses on materials compatible with natural tissues Discusses the engineering of bio-inspired scaffolds with the ability to mimic living tissue Reveals how to use renewable resources to develop more sustainable lightweight materials Illustrates the state of the art of porous scaffold and process techniques A book dedicated to material science, Biofoams: Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials focuses on food technology, polymers and composites, biomedical, and chemical engineering, and examines how the principles used in the creation of cellular structures can be applied in modern industry.

Polymer processing using supercritical fluids

Polymer processing using supercritical fluids
doctoral dissertation

by Elena Aionicesei,Željko Knez,Mojca Škerget

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 183
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The traditional methods for polymer processing use environmentally hazardous volatile organic solvents and chlorofluorocarbons. Due to the increase of hazardous solvent emission and generation of aqueous waste streams, there is an obvious need of finding new and cleaner methods for the processing of polymers. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has attracted particular attention for these applications due to its tremendous potential as a plasticizer in polymer processing. A particular interest is shown to the use of supercritical fluids for processing polymers destined for biomedical applications (as microspheres, microcapsules, foams, membranes, polymer/drug composites). The method offers important advantages related to the absence of harmful organic solvents or, when necessary, the efficient extraction of solvents and impurities, the mild processing conditions and the control of particle and foams morphology by simple variation of pressure and temperature. Despite the huge potential of scCO2 as a ʺgreenʺ solvent for processing biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, the phase equilibrium data, essential for process design, are quite scarce. Optimum processing techniques and parameters (pressure, temperature) still need consideration andstudy. The data are especially scarce regarding the scCO2 processing of polymer/ceramic composites for biomedical applications. On this basis, this thesis is aimed to open new perspectives over the use of scCO2 as a ʺgreenʺ solvent for the processing of biodegradable polymers and composites used as biomaterials. Two biodegradable polymers were chosen for this study, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Their composite with a bioactive ceramic powder, hydroxyapatite (HA), was also studied. The main idea followed by this thesis was the obtaining of porous polymeric or composite material scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering under mild temperature conditions and without the use of additional organic solvents. The behavior of the two polymers under dense CO2 had been studied and explained. More data about the polymer-gas phase equilibrium, necessary for understanding and optimizing the effect of processing parameters, were obtained by determining the solubility and diffusion coefficients of CO2 in the polymers for certain values of temperature and pressure. The solubility ofCO2 was measured for each polymer for three different temperatures (308, 313and 323 K) in the pressure range 10 - 30 MPa. The temperatures were chosen higher than the critical temperature for CO2, but still low enough so as not to affect the bioactivity of any drugs or proteins that could be introduced in the system during processing. The same range of temperature and pressure was employed for all tests involving the studied polymers or their composite materials. The efficiency of mixing in the presence of scCO2 for obtaining composite materials from PLLA and HA and respectively PLGA and HA was studied by comparison with coprecipitation. The solubility and diffusion coefficient of CO2 in the composite materials were afterward determined, and the results were compared with the ones obtained for the polymer alone in order to determine the effect of the ceramic filler on the gas uptake. The possibility of obtaining porous scaffolds was assessed by using a pressure quench technique using dense CO2 as blowing agent, with and without the presence of aporogen. The effect of pressure, temperature, depressurization rate and porogen on the final porous structure was investigated. The experimental results were compared with literature data and with data obtained by mathematical modeling, employing equations of state commonly used for polymersor polymer/solvent systems. The results indicate that gas foaming of biodegradable polymers represents a promising technique for obtaining tissue engineering scaffolds with the desired structure. Still the processing parameters need to be studied and optimized, according to the nature of the substrate and of the aimed final product.

Construction of Novel Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Supercritical Fluid Gas Foaming

Construction of Novel Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Supercritical Fluid Gas Foaming
A Book

by Nikki Jane Collins

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Three dimensional scaffolds were created from a biodegradable polymer (polylactide) and the mineral silica utilising supercritical fluid (SCF) gas foaming. The effect of silica on the scaffold pore architecture was investigated through X-ray computed microtomography (microCT); the scaffolds were shown to be up to 60% porous with pore diameters in the range of 0.088-0.924 mm (0% silica) to 0.044-0.342 mm (33.3% silica), demonstrating that silica controlled both pore size and overall scaffold porosity; Silica was found to enhance connectivity of the pores and pore wall thickness and pore connectivity were found have an inverse relationship. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the effect of silica on the Tm, Tg and crystallinity of the PLA pre and post SCF processing; increases in [Delta]Hf (4J/g) Tg (1oC) and crystallinity (3%) showed that silica had a beneficial effect pre-SCF but post-SCF the PLA reverted to an amorphous state; An isothermal conditioning process was found to restore the previous levels of crystallinity. Mechanical strength testing of the scaffolds showed that silica incorporation increased the load tolerated at yield by up to 60N and the strength by up to 1.5 mPa. The scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF), where the presence of silica was found to enhance mineral deposition by up to 10%; they were also subjected to degradation experiments in physiological saline solution and enzyme buffer solution, where degradation was found to occur most rapidly in the amorphous regions of the polymer (0% and 9.1% silica). The formation of degradation products (lactic acid, isopropanol and lactate) were monitored through HPLC. In conclusion, addition of silica up to a loading of 9.1-16.7% was found to have many beneficial effects on the PLA scaffolds but no observable benefit was found with additions higher than this.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
A Spreadsheet-based Approach

by Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-12-08
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN : 0080931308
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Process Dynamics and Material Properties for Supercritical Fluid Extrusion of Starch-based Microcellular Foams

Process Dynamics and Material Properties for Supercritical Fluid Extrusion of Starch-based Microcellular Foams
A Book

by Sajid H. Alavi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology
Advances and Applications in Composites and Hybrid Nanomaterials

by Concepcion Domingo Pascual,Pascale Subra-Paternault

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-10-22
  • Pages : 566
  • ISBN : 981461341X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemical

Polymeric Foams

Polymeric Foams
Technology and Developments in Regulation, Process, and Products

by Shau-Tarng Lee,Dieter Peter Klaus Scholz

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2008-12-24
  • Pages : 302
  • ISBN : 9781420061260
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Explores the Latest Developments in Polymeric Foams Since the 1960s polymeric foams have grown into a solid industry that affects almost every aspect of modern life. The industry has weathered the energy crisis in the 70s, ozone issues in the 80s, and recycle/reuse in the 90s. However, the pace of development and social climate is rapidly changing again, putting the spotlight even more firmly on performance, sustainable resources, and energy security. Coverage of New Products, Technologies, and Regulations Exploring new concepts, innovations, and developments in the field, Polymeric Foams: Technology and Development in Regulation, Process, and Products provides an international perspective on the direction of foam technologies and applications, focusing on the progress in blowing agent research and hydrofluorocarbons for the polyurethane foam industry. The text covers new foam products, including PP/PS interpolymer, nano-, and biodegradable foams. It also examines new technologies, such as injection foam molding and PVC foam; industry and environmental regulations; and research on foam performance, emission impact, and economic effects. Clearly Follows the Development Process As in most fields these days, efforts to be environmentally friendly and achieve enhanced performance for specialty applications drive research and development. Presenting a clear picture of the development process, this book covers not only new directions in the industry, but how they will impact current and future development.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
Fundamentals for Application

by E. Kiran,Johanna M.H. Levelt Sengers

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 796
  • ISBN : 9401582955
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development
A Book

by Peter York,Uday B. Kompella,Boris Y. Shekunov

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2004-03-23
  • Pages : 632
  • ISBN : 0824751027
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical products-from drug powders for respiratory delivery to drug delivery systems for controlled release.

Biomaterials and Their Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Biomaterials and Their Processing with Supercritical Fluids
A Book

by Elena Markočič,Adriana Dumitru

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2014-05
  • Pages : 108
  • ISBN : 9783659545993
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book offers a short introduction into the field of biomaterials, focusing on their requirements for specific applications and classification according to their nature. Next supercritical fluids are described as green alternatives to the solvents and plasticizers traditionally employed for biomaterial processing. Supercritical fluids (especially supercritical carbon dioxide) have been used successfully for particle production, microcellular foaming, impregnation, solvent extraction and material drying.

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents

Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents
A Book

by George Wypych

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-01-13
  • Pages : 258
  • ISBN : 1927885183
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Foaming and Blowing Agents provides useful guidance to assist practitioners in the more efficient and effective selection of foaming methods and blowing agents. The book focuses on the selection of additives for a diverse range of foaming processes, which can be enhanced using modern chemical means to improve product quality, speed up the process, and broaden the range of products that can be produced using foaming technology. Foamed polymers have many beneficial properties, including lower density, high heat and sound insulation, and shock absorbency. Foamed plastic parts are now a ubiquitous part of everyday life—from food packaging to seat cushions. As the application of foamed polymers expands and diversifies, a variety of foaming techniques and equipment are available to produce very diverse range of products. Foaming methods are generally established, but very little is known about the composition of materials to be processed and the additives to enhance foam products or make the foam production more economical. The book introduces useful analytical techniques for foaming, and thoroughly discusses the environmental impact of foaming processes. Introduces the fundamental mechanisms of action of blowing agents and foaming Includes best practice guidance to help engineers and technicians improve the efficiency of their existing foaming processes Enables practitioners to select blowing agents and foaming methods more effectively, reducing the risk of poor specification Introduces useful analytical techniques for foaming Discusses the environmental impact of foaming processes

Nanoparticle-stabilized Supercritical CO2 Foams for Potential Mobility Control Applications

Nanoparticle-stabilized Supercritical CO2 Foams for Potential Mobility Control Applications
A Book

by David Ryan Espinosa

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The petroleum industry has been utilizing surfactant stabilized foams for mobility control and enhanced oil recovery applications. However, if surface-treated nanoparticles were utilized instead of surfactants, the foams could have a number of important advantages. The solid-stabilized foams are known to have a much better stability than the surfactant-stabilized foams, because the energy required to bring nanoparticles to, and detach from the foam bubble surface is much larger than that of surfactants, and thus the resulting foam will be more stable. Since nanoparticles are the stabilizing component of the foam and are solid, they have potential to stabilize foam at high temperature conditions for extended periods of time. Since they are inherently small, nanoparticles, as well as the foam that they stabilize, can be transported through rocks without causing plugging in pore throats. Stable supercritical carbon dioxide-in-water foams were created using 5 nm silica-core nanoparticles whose surface had short polyethylene-glycol chains covalently bonded to it. The foams were made by injecting CO2 and an dispersion of with surface-treated nanoparticles simultaneously through a glass-bead pack. The fluids flowing through this permeable media created shear rates of about 1350 sec-1. Nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle coating, water salinity, volume ratios between CO2 and water, temperature and shear rates were systematically varied in order to define the range of conditions for foam generation. Using de-ionized water to dilute the nanoparticle concentration, we were able to generate stable foams were at nanoparticle concentrations as low as 0.05 weight percent. Among the different surface coatings that we tested PEG coatings were the only type that was able to stabilize foam. As the salinity of the aqueous phase increased, the nanoparticle concentration required to maintain foam also increased; for example, 0.5 weight percent nanoparticles were required for 4 weight percent NaCl brine. Foam stability was weakly correlated with volume ratios as foams were made across ratios from two to fourteen, and the normalized viscosity ratio increased with the increase of the phase ratio. Foams were created at temperatures up to 95 degrees Celsius. Foam generation was also determined to require a critical shear rate, which increased with temperature. When foam was stabilized by the nanoparticles, the foam exhibited an increase of between two and twenty times in the resistance of flow compared to the two fluids flowing without nanoparticles.