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Food Fortification and Supplementation

Food Fortification and Supplementation
Technological, Safety and Regulatory Aspects

by Peter Berry Ottaway

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-03-31
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 1845694260
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fortified foods and food supplements remain popular with today’s health-conscious consumers and the range of bioactives added to food is increasing. This collection provides a comprehensive summary of the technology of food fortification and supplementation and associated safety and regulatory aspects. The first part covers methods of fortifying foods, not only with vitamins and minerals but also with other nutraceuticals such as polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It also includes a discussion of the stability of vitamins in fortified foods and supplements. The second part contains chapters on the analysis of vitamins, fatty acids and other nutraceuticals, as well as a chapter on assessing the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. It concludes with a discussion of regulation and legislation affecting fortified foods and supplements and a chapter on the safety of vitamins and minerals added to foods. Food fortification and supplementation presents current research from leading innovators from around the world. It is an important reference for those working in the food industry. Provides a comprehensive summary of the technology of food fortification Examines associated safety and regulatory aspects Covers methods for fortifying foods with vitamins and minerals and other nutraceuticals

Food Fortification in a Globalized World

Food Fortification in a Globalized World
A Book

by M.G.Venkatesh Mannar,Richard F. Hurrell

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-06-29
  • Pages : 414
  • ISBN : 0128028971
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food Fortification in a Globalized World outlines experiences over the past 50 years—and future potential—for the application of food fortification across a variety of foods in the industrialized and developing world. The book captures recent science and applications trends in fortification, including emerging areas such as biofortification, nutraceuticals and new nutrient intake recommendations, standards, policy and regulation. The book proposes a balanced and effective food fortification strategy for nations to adopt. In covering the most technical scientific details in an approachable style, this work is accessible to a range of practitioners in industry, government, NGOs, academia and research. Food fortification has become an increasingly significant strategy to address gaps in micronutrient intakes in populations with measurable impact in both industrialized and developing countries. While the positive impacts are well recognized there are new concerns in some countries that excessive fortification of foods, outdated nutritional labeling rules and misleading marketing tactics used by food manufacturers may result in young children consuming harmful amounts of some vitamins and minerals. Presents the latest science on fortification for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies Includes emerging areas such as biofortification, nutraceuticals and new nutrient intake recommendations, standards, regulations, practices and policies from around the world Summarizes evidence of application of food fortification and measured impact on public health Discusses how public policy impacts fortification of foods and nutritional deficiencies Considers the complex economics of and market for fortified foods

Food Fortification

Food Fortification
The evidence, ethics, and politics of adding nutrients to food

by Mark Lawrence

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2013-01-03
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 0199691975
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food Fortification critically analyses mandatory food fortification as a technology for protecting and promoting public health through presenting the findings from research investigation into three topical case studies.

Food Fortification and Supplementation (9781845691448) KE-QTN/0016/09

Food Fortification and Supplementation (9781845691448) KE-QTN/0016/09
A Book

by Peter Berry Ottaway

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food Fortification and Supplementation: Technological, Safety and Regulatory Aspects. (9781420072013) KE-QTN/0016/09

Food Fortification and Supplementation: Technological, Safety and Regulatory Aspects. (9781420072013) KE-QTN/0016/09
A Book

by P. Berry Ottaway

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Food Fortification and Health

Handbook of Food Fortification and Health
From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 1

by Victor R. Preedy,Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan,Vinood B. Patel

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-07-04
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 1461470765
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 1 represents a multidisciplinary approach to food fortification. This book aims to disseminate important material pertaining to the fortification of foods from strategic initiatives to public health applications. Optimal nutritional intake is an essential component of health and wellbeing. Unfortunately situations arise on a local or national scale when nutrient supply or intake is deemed to be suboptimal. As a consequence, ill health occurs affecting individual organs or causing premature death. In terms of public health, malnutrition due to micronutrient deficiency can be quite profound imposing economic and social burdens on individuals and whole communities. This comprehensive text examines the broad spectrum of food fortification in all its manifestations. Coverage includes sections on definitions of fortifications, fortified foods, beverages and nutrients, fortifications with micronutrients, biofortification, impact on individuals, public health concepts and issues, and selective methods and food chemistry. Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 1 is an indispensable text designed for nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health related professionals.

Handbook of Food Fortification and Health

Handbook of Food Fortification and Health
From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 2

by Victor R. Preedy,Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan,Vinood B. Patel

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-07-04
  • Pages : 461
  • ISBN : 1461471109
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 2 represents a multidisciplinary approach to food fortification. This book aims to disseminate important material pertaining to the fortification of foods from strategic initiatives to public health applications. Optimal nutritional intake is an essential component of health and wellbeing. Unfortunately situations arise on a local or national scale when nutrient supply or intake is deemed to be suboptimal. As a consequence, ill health occurs affecting individual organs or causing premature death. In terms of public health, malnutrition due to micronutrient deficiency can be quite profound imposing economic and social burdens on individuals and whole communities. This comprehensive text examines the broad spectrum of food fortification in all its manifestations. Coverage includes sections on definitions of fortifications, fortified foods, beverages and nutrients, fortifications with micronutrients, biofortification, impact on individuals, public health concepts and issues, and selective methods and food chemistry. Handbook of Food Fortification and Health: From Concepts to Public Health Applications Volume 2 is an indispensable text designed for nutritionists, dietitians, clinicians and health related professionals.

Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients

Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients
A Book

by Richard Hurrell,World Health Organization

  • Publisher : WHO
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This publication contains practical guidance on the design, implementation and evaluation of appropriate food fortification programmes. They are designed primarily for use by nutrition-related public health programme managers, but should also be useful to all those working to control micronutrient malnutrition, including the food industry.The guidelines are written from a nutrition and public health perspective, and topics discussed include: the concept of food fortification as a potential strategy for the control of micronutrient malnutrition; the prevalence, causes, and consequences of micronutrient deficiencies, and the public health benefits of micronutrient malnutrition control; technical information on the various chemical forms of micronutrients that can be used to fortify foods; regulation and international harmonisation, communication, advocacy, consumer marketing and public education.

Supplement Large Scale Food Fortification

Supplement Large Scale Food Fortification
Optimizing Program Implementation - Country Experiences and Technical Considerations

by Regina Moench-Pfanner

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 135
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food Fortification in Developing Countries

Food Fortification in Developing Countries
A Book

by Penelope Nestel

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 47
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Vitamin A, iron iodine and multi.nutrients mixes. Foods fortified with vitamin A, iron, iodine and pre-mixes. Quality assurance and control. Monitoring and evaluation. Economic aspects and sustainability. Political and legal dimensions.

P3-04-02 - The Role of Fortified Foods and Nutritional Supplements in the Diets of Older Irish Adults

P3-04-02 - The Role of Fortified Foods and Nutritional Supplements in the Diets of Older Irish Adults
A Book

by Laura Kehoe

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Low intakes and suboptimal status of vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate and calcium have been reported in older adults across Europe. Dietary strategies to improve micronutrient intakes and status could include food fortification (mandatory or voluntary) and/or the use of nutritional supplements. This study aims to examine the impact of fortified food consumption and nutritional supplement use on nutrient intakes and nutritional status of vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B12, dietary folate equivalents (DFE) and calcium in older Irish adults.Analyses were based on the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010). A 4 day semi-weighed food record was used to collect food and beverage intake data (including nutritional supplement use) from a nationally representative sample of 1500 adults (226 older adults (u226565y)). Blood samples (n 1126 (n 145 u226565y)) were collected, processed and analysed using standard operating procedures. Nutrient intakes were estimated using WISPu00a9 based on UK and Irish food composition data. Fortified foods were identified as those that had one or more micronutrients added in the ingredient list and a nutritional supplement was defined as a supplement containing vitamins and/or minerals (i.e. excludes herbal/non-nutritional supplements). A fortified food consumer or nutritional supplement user was defined as a participant who consumed a fortified food or took a nutritional supplement at any time over the 4-day recording period. Usual intakes of micronutrients were calculated via the NCI-method using SASu00a9 Enterprise Guide and analyses of biomarker data were carried out using SPSSu00a9. The consumption of fortified foods and/or use of nutritional supplements increased mean intakes of vitamin D (3.6 to 6.9u00b5g/d), riboflavin (1.6 to 2.3mg/d), vitamin B12 (4.5 to 6.0u00b5g/d), DFE (228 to 408u00b5g/d) and calcium (784 to 947mg/d) in older Irish adults and reduced the prevalence of inadequate intakes of these micronutrients by up to 40%. Furthermore, consumers of fortified foods and/or nutritional supplements had improved biomarker status and reduced prevalence of low/deficient status for vitamin D (62 vs 16%), riboflavin (65 vs 11%), vitamin B12 (8 vs 0%) and folate (serum folate:18 vs 0%; red blood cell folate: 0% across all groups) when compared to non-consumers.This study has shown that fortified foods and/or nutritional supplements represent an opportunity to improve intakes and status of key micronutrients in older adults. The data presented in this study will serve to inform the development and implementation of updated dietary recommendations for older adults in Ireland.

Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies

Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies
Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers

by Committee on Micronutrient Deficiencies,Institute of Medicine

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1998-03-10
  • Pages : 198
  • ISBN : 0309591627
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Micronutrient malnutrition affects approximately 2 billion people worldwide. The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies are profound and include premature death, poor health, blindness, growth stunting, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and low work capacity. Preventing Micronutrient Deficiencies provides a conceptual framework based on past experience that will allow funders to tailor programs to existing regional/country capabilities and to incorporate within these programs the capacity to address multiple strategies (i.e., supplementation/fortification/food-based approaches/public health measures) and multiple micronutrient deficiencies. The book does not offer recommendations on how to alleviate specific micronutrient deficiencies--such recommendations are already available through the publications of diverse organizations, including the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Micronutrient Initiative, World Bank, United Nations Childrens' Fund, and the World Health Organization. Instead, this volume examines key elements in the design and implementation of micronutrient interventions, including such issues as: The importance of iron, vitamin A, and iodine to health. Populations at risk for micronutrient deficiency. Options for successful interventions and their cost. The feasibility of involving societal sectors in the planning and implementation of interventions. Characteristics of successful interventions. The book also contains three in-depth background papers that address the prevention of deficiencies of iron, vitamin A, and iodine.

Drivers of micronutrient policy change in Zambia

Drivers of micronutrient policy change in Zambia
An application of the Kaleidoscope Model

by Haggblade, Steven,Babu, Suresh Chandra,Harris, Jody,Mkandawire, Elizabeth,Nthani, Dorothy,Hendriks, Sheryl L.

  • Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
  • Release : 2016-04-01
  • Pages : 98
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This review of the micro-nutrient policy process in Zambia serves as a companion piece to two parallel studies in Malawi and South Africa. All three studies employ the Kaleidoscope Model of policy change to trace the causal forces leading to key micro-nutrient policy decisions in each of the three countries. After outlining the overall micronutrient policy process in Zambia, the study focuses on policy decisions affecting three micro-nutrients – iodine, iron and Vitamin A. Although iodine deficiency has dropped precipitously as a result of Zambia’s salt iodization mandate, progress in combatting iron and Vitamin A deficiencies has proven more difficult. As a result, micro-nutrient policies have changed over time, in an effort to find effective tools for combatting these lingering micro-nutrient deficiencies and the considerable health risks they impose. The analysis in this paper traces the evolution of policies adopted through multiple iterations beginning in 1978 and running through to the present time. To supplement the voluminous published and grey literature on micro-nutrient status and policies in Zambia, the research team conducted semi-structured interviews with several dozen policy stakeholders in Zambia in June and July 2015 using a standardized interview guide

Food Fortification

Food Fortification
The Evidence, Ethics, and Politics of Adding Nutrients to Food

by Mark Lawrence

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2013-01-03
  • Pages : 257
  • ISBN : 0199691975
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food Fortification critically analyses mandatory food fortification as a technology for protecting and promoting public health through presenting the findings from research investigation into three topical case studies.

Nutrition Intervention Strategies in National Development

Nutrition Intervention Strategies in National Development
A Book

by Barbara Underwood

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-12-02
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 0323149952
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nutrition Intervention Strategies in National Development reviews nutritional programs as key components of policy planning for national development in general and health programs in particular. It summarizes research on targeted application of nutrition knowledge in public health and efforts to reduce worldwide malnutrition, and it highlights the importance of planned controlled change in the quality of diet as a preventive strategy against widespread disease. Organized into seven sections encompassing 33 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic concepts of nutrition intervention and some elements of successful nutrition intervention strategies. It then discusses the economic effects of early malnutrition and economic considerations for nutrition intervention programs; the role of the government in income distribution and nutritional improvement; supplementary feeding programs; and strategies for addressing protein energy malnutrition. The reader is also introduced to the nutrition-infection cycle in relation to intervention techniques, nutrient-specific interventions including prevention of iron deficiency, and nutrition education. Scientists, nutritionists, policymakers, medical doctors, economists, education specialists, and health workers concerned with nutrition intervention programs will find this book extremely helpful.

Food Applications of Nanotechnology

Food Applications of Nanotechnology
A Book

by Gustavo Molina,Inamuddin,Franciele Maria Pelissari,Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-08-29
  • Pages : 546
  • ISBN : 1000022676
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanotechnology has developed remarkably in recent years and, applied in the food industry, has allowed new industrial advances, the improvement of conventional technologies, and the commercialization of products with new features and functionalities. This progress offers the potential to increase productivity for producers, food security for consumers and economic growth for industries. Food Applications of Nanotechnology presents the main advances of nanotechnology for food industry development. The fundamental concepts of the technique are presented, followed by examples of application in several sectors, such as the enhancement of flavor, color and sensory characteristics; the description of the general concepts of nano-supplements, antimicrobial nanoparticles and other active compounds into food; and developments in the field of packaging, among others. In addition, this work updates readers on the industrial development and the main regulatory aspects for the safety and commercialization of nanofoods. Features: Provides a general overview of nanotechnology in the food industry Discusses the current status of the production and use of nanomaterials as food additives Covers the technological developments in the areas of flavor, color and sensory characteristics of food and food additives Reviews nanosupplements and how they provide improvements in nutritional functionality Explains the antibacterial properties of nanoparticles for food applications This book will serve food scientists and technologists, food engineers, chemists and innovators working in food or ingredient research and new product development. Gustavo Molina is associate professor at the UFVJM (Diamantina—Brazil) in Food Engineering and head of the Laboratory of Food Biotechnology and conducts scientific and technical research. His research interests are focused on industrial biotechnology. Dr. Inamuddin is currently working as assistant professor in the chemistry department of Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He is also a permanent faculty member (assistant professor) at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in multidisciplinary fields of analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, and electrochemistry and, more specifically, renewable energy and environment. Prof. Abdullah M. Asiri is professor of organic photochemistry and has been the head of the chemistry department at King Abdulaziz University since October 2009, as well as the director of the Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR) since 2010. His research interest covers color chemistry, synthesis of novel photochromic and thermochromic systems, synthesis of novel coloring matters and dyeing of textiles, materials chemistry, nanochemistry and nanotechnology, polymers, and plastics. Franciele Maria Pelissari graduated in Food Engineering; earned her master’s degree (2009) at the University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, Brazil; and her PhD (2013) at the University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, Brazil. Since 2013, she has been associate professor at the Institute of Science and Technology program at the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil, in Food Engineering, and also full professor in the graduate program in Food Science and Technology.

Micronutrient policy process in Malawi

Micronutrient policy process in Malawi
A Book

by Babu, Suresh Chandra,Haggblade, Steven,Mkandawire, Elizabeth,Nankhuni, Flora,Hendriks, Sheryl L.

  • Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
  • Release : 2016-11-14
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Micronutrient deficiencies are common across the developing world and have major effects on the health outcomes of its population. Although this is well understood, many countries find it difficult to bring about policy change in this regard. This paper uses micronutrient policies designed and implemented in Malawi as a case study to shed light on the barriers and gaps faced by developing countries for similar programs and policies. To understand the drivers of policy change, this paper uses the kaleidoscope model to trace the policy processes of three major micronutrients—iodine, vitamin A, and iron. Using a select set of policy process tools, as well as field interviews with key informants who were part of Malawi’s micronutrient policy process, the authors test a set of hypotheses on 16 variables that drive policy change in the micronutrient policy sphere. Results indicate that much of the agenda setting for micronutrient policies and programs was triggered by external events that focused on the elimination of micronutrient deficiencies as part of the global development agenda. These events include the International Conference on Nutrition, the Millennium Development Goals, and, more recently, Scaling up Nutrition. The design of micronutrient policies and program interventions in Malawi was adopted by locally mandated ministries and institutions, in collaboration with development partners who provided both financial and technical support at the design stage. The adoption of micronutrient policies and intervention programs was driven primarily by external funding, particularly through supplementation programs related to vitamin A and iron. Adoption of fortification standards for vitamin A has been going on for more than a decade due to continuous resistance from the private sector, which faces additional costs and needs greater technical expertise. The biofortification method of micronutrient interventions for iron and vitamin A is externally driven and relatively new in Malawi. Although this method is widely accepted by policy makers, no concrete strategy has been developed for its design, adoption, and implementation. Further, supplementation and fortification programs continue to face implementation challenges due to poor physical infrastructure and monitoring systems. However, the national institutional architecture required for agenda setting, design, adoption, implementation, evaluation, and review to address micronutrient deficiencies is in place in Malawi. The system needs continued support from development partners for effective functioning at all levels. The use of various tools for the policy change part of the kaleidoscope model indicate that policy change is a dynamic process; over time, changes in the nature and composition of the members of policy and institutional architecture can result in different policy outcomes. The Malawi case study demonstrates two things. First, local leadership is crucial in keeping micronutrient deficiencies on the policy-making agenda, and second, it matters where coordinating power is placed in the policy hierarchy. This paper finds that, even with policy champions, adopted policies will face implementation challenges unless they are supported with adequate resources and are systematically followed through to final execution and delivery.

Supplement Measurement of Food Consumption to Inform Food Fortification and Other Nutrition Programs

Supplement Measurement of Food Consumption to Inform Food Fortification and Other Nutrition Programs
Methods and Applications ; Proceedings of a Workshop Organized by the Monitoring, Assessment, and Data Working Group of the Ten Year Strategy for the Reduction of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies ; [took Place on April 14 and 15, 2011, in Washington, DC]

by Lynnette M. Neufeld

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 111
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nutrition in Older Adults

Nutrition in Older Adults
Factors Influencing Compliance to Oral Nutritional Supplements and Methods to Improve Compliance

by Emily Sarah Alice Norris

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 472
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Risk of malnutrition is prevalent in care home residents. Prescription of oral nutritional supplements is common practice in nutritional management of these residents; yet compliance rates in care homes are low. In the present studies risk of malnutrition was assessed, reasons for poor compliance investigated and an intervention developed to improve compliance in older adult care home residents. It was clear that nursing care residents were significantly more vulnerable to malnutrition risk than residential care; those with the lowest BMI experienced the greatest weight loss; and despite notification to carers, risk remained stable. Improvements in energy intake by enhancing meals with additional energy through food fortification or providing supplementation in covert versus overt presentation were assessed. There was no benefit of covert presentation relative to overt but food fortification and supplementation increased the energy density and nutrient quality of the meals consumed. ONS benefits depend on high compliance; carers acknowledged residents" need for additional support; residents wanted to exert control over the flavour and type of supplement given; and residents" knowledge about why they take ONS was identified as an important factor for compliance. These findings shaped the development of an intervention in which choice and variety were compared against motivation and education. In comparison with baseline, both arms of the intervention significantly improved compliance (from 60% to 93%). This indicates that personal choice which can enhance perceived efficacy and autonomy; motivation (through implementation intention and reward); and education (through information about the benefits of supplementation) can improve compliance. Therefore, compliance to ONS depends on three major components; the attributes of the resident taking the supplement; the support and education of the residents" carer; and the sensory properties of the products prescribed. The research confirmed the importance of the care environment in identification and action upon malnutrition risk, and that for the beneficial effects of ONS to be achieved, compliance must be enhanced through personal choice, variety, motivation and education.

2017 Near East and North Africa Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition

2017 Near East and North Africa Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition
Building Resilience for Food Conflict and Crisis: A Perspective from Security and Nutrition in times of the near East and North Africa Region

by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  • Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
  • Release : 2018-04-17
  • Pages : 75
  • ISBN : 9251301115
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The 2017 Near East and North Africa (NENA) edition of the Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition comes under the theme of “building resilience for food security and nutrition in times of conflict and crisis”. The report establishes a baseline against which to measure future progress towards achieving SDG 2 on ending hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition in NENA by monitoring the latest indicators for the SDG targets on hunger and food insecurity (SDG Target 2.1) and malnutrition (SDG Target 2.2). Beyond numbers, the report focuses on the fundamental factors that have driven improvements in food security and malnutrition: poverty reduction, economic growth, improvements in maternal and childhood nutrition and public health, increases in the quantity and quality of the food supply and cessation of violence. Moreover, the report brings into sharp focus the issue of conflict, which is the major driver of food insecurity in the NENA region. Food security in the NENA region is fast deteriorating, driven by conflict and leading to a widening gap in well-being between conflict and non-conflict countries. Conflicts have long-lasting impacts on the food security and nutrition of both affected and surrounding countries in the region. Not only is food security deteriorating in the conflict and spill over countries, but the high costs of perpetrating, containing, preventing and dealing with the consequences of violence undermine their ability to mitigate the decline in living standards.