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Forensic Practitioner's Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles

Forensic Practitioner's Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles
A Book

by Peter Gill,Øyvind Bleka,Oskar Hansson,Corina Benschop,Hinda Haned

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-06-10
  • Pages : 530
  • ISBN : 0128205687
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the past twenty years, there’s been a gradual shift in the way forensic scientists approach the evaluation of DNA profiling evidence that is taken to court. Many laboratories are now adopting ‘probabilistic genotyping’ to interpret complex DNA mixtures. However, current practice is very diverse, where a whole range of technologies are used to interpret DNA profiles and the software approaches advocated are commonly used throughout the world. Forensic Practitioner’s Guide to the Interpretation of Complex DNA Profiles places the main concepts of DNA profiling into context and fills a niche that is unoccupied in current literature. The book begins with an introduction to basic forensic genetics, covering a brief historical description of the development and harmonization of STR markers and national DNA databases. The laws of statistics are described, along with the likelihood ratio based on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and alternative models considering sub-structuring and relatedness. The historical development of low template mixture analysis, theory and practice, is also described, so the reader has a full understanding of rationale and progression. Evaluation of evidence and statement writing is described in detail, along with common pitfalls and their avoidance. The authors have been at the forefront of the revolution, having made substantial contributions to theory and practice over the past two decades. All methods described are open-source and freely available, supported by sets of test-data and links to web-sites with further information. This book is written primarily for the biologist with little or no statistical training. However, sufficient information will also be provided for the experienced statistician. Consequently, the book appeals to a diverse audience Covers short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, including database searching and massive parallel sequencing (both STRs and SNPs) Encourages dissemination and understanding of probabilistic genotyping by including practical examples of varying complexity Written by authors intimately involved with software development, training at international workshops and reporting cases worldwide using the methods described in this book

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Interpretation

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Interpretation
A Book

by John M. Butler

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-07-28
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN : 012405854X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Interpretation builds upon the previous two editions of John Butler’s internationally acclaimed Forensic DNA Typing textbook with forensic DNA analysts as its primary audience. Intended as a third-edition companion to the Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing volume published in 2010 and Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology published in 2012, this book contains 16 chapters with 4 appendices providing up-to-date coverage of essential topics in this important field. Over 80 % of the content of this book is new compared to previous editions. Provides forensic DNA analysts coverage of the crucial topic of DNA mixture interpretation and statistical analysis of DNA evidence Worked mixture examples illustrate the impact of different statistical approaches for reporting results Includes allele frequencies for 24 commonly used autosomal STR loci, the revised Quality Assurance Standards which went into effect September 2011

Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence

Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence
A Book

by Jane Moira Taupin

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-11-14
  • Pages : 162
  • ISBN : 1351023764
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence is a handy guide to recent advances—and emerging issues—in interpreting complex DNA evidence and profiles for use in criminal investigations. In certain cases, DNA cannot be connected to a specific biological material such as blood, semen or saliva. How or when the DNA was deposited may be an issue. However, the possibility of generating DNA profiles from touched objects, where there may not be a visible deposit, has expanded the scope and number of exhibits submitted for DNA analysis. With such advances, and increasing improvements in technological capabilities in testing samples, this means it is possible to detect ever smaller amounts of DNA. There are also many efforts underway to seek was to interpret DNA profiles that are sub-optimal—either relative to the amount required by the testing kit and, potentially, the quality of the obtained sample. Laboratories often use enhancements in order to obtain a readable DNA profile. The broad-reaching implications of improving DNA sensitivity have led to this next, emerging generation of more complex profiles. Examples partial profiles that do not faithfully reflect the proposed donor, or mixtures of partial DNA from multiple people. A complexity threshold has been proposed to limit interpretation of poor-quality data. Research is now addressing the interpretation of transfer of trace amounts of DNA. Complex issues are arising in trial that need to be reconciled as such complexity has added challenges to the interpretation of evidence and its introduction or dismissal in certain cases in the courts. Interpreting Complex Forensic DNA Evidence provides tools to assist the criminal investigator, forensic expert, and legal professional when posed with a DNA result in a forensic report or testimony. The result—and any associated statistic—may not reveal any ambiguity, complexity, or the assumptions involved in deriving it. Questions from resolved criminal cases are posed, and the relevant forensic literature, are provided for the reader to assess a DNA result and any associated statistic. Case studies included throughout illustrate concepts and emphasize the need for conclusions in the forensic report that are data-driven and supported by the data.

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony

Forensic Science Evidence and Expert Witness Testimony
Reliability through Reform?

by Paul Roberts,Michael Stockdale

  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release : 2018-11-30
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1788111036
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic science evidence plays a pivotal role in modern criminal proceedings. Yet such evidence poses intense practical and theoretical challenges. It can be unreliable or misleading and has been associated with miscarriages of justice. In this original and insightful book, a global team of prominent scholars and practitioners explore the contemporary challenges of forensic science evidence and expert witness testimony from a variety of theoretical, practical and jurisdictional perspectives. Chapters encompass the institutional organisation of forensic science, its procedural regulation, evaluation and reform, and brim with comparative insight.

Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial

Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial
A Case Study Approach

by Jane Moira Taupin

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-21
  • Pages : 196
  • ISBN : 1482255820
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial: A Case Study Approach covers the most common DNA analysis methods used in criminal trials today, including STR techniques, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-STRs. It presents some novel techniques—including familial testing and analyzing domestic animal hair—that have been recently introduced in unique cases, each of which is outlined in detail. It also illustrates special issues related to forensic DNA evidence by using court proceedings such as trials and appeals, commissions of inquiry, and government and laboratory reviews. With forensic DNA analysis becoming increasingly important at trial, the lively and sometimes bizarre cases presented in this book have been carefully chosen to highlight specific concepts, methods, and interpretations used in DNA analysis. Sections throughout examine the nature of expertise with a special focus on the role of subjectivity in the interpretation of forensic DNA evidence, emphasizing cognitive bias and extraneous context. Using both convictions and exonerations as examples, the book also discusses the strengths and limitations of DNA evidence and testing. The book is written in an accessible manner for the non-scientific reader, such that criminal lawyers, judges, and forensic experts will all understand the nature of analysis and application of DNA evidence in a variety of court cases. Extensive references—including notable trial proceedings, cross references of cases, and specific forensic statistics—round out the book and help to provide a complete understanding of forensic DNA analysis and its current usage in the courtroom.

Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals

Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals
A Book

by Jane Moira Taupin

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-07-27
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 143989910X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The use of DNA profiling in forensic cases has been considered the most innovative technique in forensic science since fingerprinting, yet for those with limited scientific knowledge, understanding DNA enough to utilize it properly can be a daunting task. Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals is designed for nonsc

Expert Evidence

Expert Evidence
A Practitioner's Guide to Law, Science, and the FJC Manual

by Bert Black,Patrick W. Lee

  • Publisher : West Group Publishing
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 637
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Current Law Index

Current Law Index
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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