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Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Chapter 10. Genetics of Domesticated Behavior in Dogs and Foxes

by Anna V. Kukekova,Lyudmila N. Trut,Gregory M. Acland

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-04-22
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 0128060018
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Dog domestication involved long-term genetic selection for behavior. The genetics-centered view of domestication is supported by experimental selection of farm-foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that began in the 1950s. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior, has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined behavioral phenotypes. Tame-strain foxes communicate with humans in a positive manner and are eager to establish human contact. Foxes from aggressive strains are aggressive to humans and difficult to handle. Although selected solely for behavior, changes in physiology, morphology, and appearance with significant parallels to characteristics of the domestic dog, were observed in tame-strain. Ongoing research is focused on identification of molecular genetic mechanisms associated with selection of foxes for behavior. Identification of behavioral loci in the fox genome in the region which is homologous to the region in the dog genome that differentiates dogs from wolves lead to the hypothesis that domesticated behavior in dogs and foxes may have similar genetic bases.

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
A Book

by Temple Grandin,Mark J. Deesing

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2013-04-22
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 0124055087
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Behavior is shaped by both genetics and experience--nature and nurture. This book synthesizes research from behavioral genetics and animal and veterinary science, bridging the gap between these fields. The objective is to show that principles of behavioral genetics have practical applications to agricultural and companion animals. The continuing domestication of animals is a complex process whose myriad impacts on animal behavior are commonly under-appreciated. Genetic factors play a significant role in both species-specific behaviors and behavioral differences exhibited by individuals in the same species. Leading authorities explore the impact of increased intensities of selection on domestic animal behavior. Rodents, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, herding and guard dogs, and poultry are all included in these discussions of genetics and behavior, making this book useful to veterinarians, livestock producers, laboratory animal researchers and technicians, animal trainers and breeders, and any researcher interested in animal behavior. Includes four new chapters on dog and fox behavior, pig behavior, the effects of domestication and horse behavior Synthesizes research from behavioral genetics, animal science, and veterinary literature Broaches fields of behavior genetics and behavioral research Includes practical applications of principles discovered by behavioral genetics researchers Covers many species ranging from pigs, dogs, foxes, rodents, cattle, horses, and cats

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals

Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals
Chapter 11. Behavioral Genetics in Pigs and Relations to Welfare

by Lotta Rydhmer,Laurianne Canario

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-04-22
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 0128060026
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Research in behavioral genetics is important for pig welfare. Consequences of the ongoing selection for high production on pigs’ behavior need to be studied, as well as possibilities to select directly for changed behavior. The Farm Animal Welfare Council’s definition of welfare is based on five freedoms related to hunger and thirst, discomfort, pain, injury or disease, fear and distress and normal behavior. All these freedoms are associated with pig behavior. Maternal behavior related to piglet survival and aggressive behavior of pigs kept in groups are especially important for welfare. Pig breeding programs could be further developed by including behavioral traits relevant for welfare.

Dog behaviour

Dog behaviour
Intricate picture of genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations

by Ann-Sofie Sundman

  • Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
  • Release : 2019-04-17
  • Pages : 49
  • ISBN : 9176850722
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Dogs, Canis familiaris, share the lives of humans all over the world. That dogs, and the behavior of dogs, are of interest to many is therefore no surprise. In this thesis, the main aim has been to identify factors that affect dogs’ behaviours. The dog, Canis familiaris, is our first domesticated animal. Since domestication, various types of dogs have developed through adaptation to an environment shared with humans and through our selective breeding, resulting in a unique variation in morphology and behaviour. Although there is an individual variation in the behaviour of dogs, there is also a difference between breeds. Moreover, selection during the last decades has split some breeds into divergent types. Labrador and golden retrievers are divided into a common type, for show and companionship, and a field type, for hunting. By comparing the breed types, we can study the effects of recent selection. In Paper I, we investigate differences in general behavioural traits between Labrador and golden retriever and between common and field type within the two breeds by using results from the standardized behaviour test Dog Mentality Assessment. There were differences between breeds and types for all behavioural traits. However, there was also an interaction between breed and type. Thus, a common/field-type Labrador does not behave like a common/field-type golden retriever. Even though they have been selected for similar traits, the selection has affected the general behavioural traits differently in the two breeds. In paper II, we were interested in dogs’ human-directed social skills. Dogs have a high social competence when it comes to humans. Two experiments commonly used to study these skills are the problem-solving test, where dogs’ human-directed behaviours when faced with a problem are measured, and the pointing test, where dogs are tested on how well they understand human gestures. We compared the social skills of German shepherds and Labrador retrievers, and of common- and field-type Labradors. Labradors were more successful in the pointing test and German shepherds stayed closer to their owners during the problem solving. Among Labrador types, the field type had more human eye contact than the common type. Importantly, when comparing the two experiments, we found no positive correlations between the problem-solving test and the pointing test, suggesting that the two tests measure different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs. A previous study has identified two suggestive genetic regions for human-directed social behaviours during the problem-solving test in beagles. In paper III, we show that these SNPs are also associated to social behaviours in Labrador and golden retrievers. Moreover, the Labrador breed types differed significantly in allele frequencies. This indicates that the two SNPs have been affected by recent selection and may have a part in the differences in sociability between common and field type. The behaviour of dogs cannot simply be explained by genetics, there is also an environmental component. In paper IV, we study which factors that affect long-term stress in dogs. Long-term cortisol can be measured by hair samples. We found a clear synchronization in hair cortisol concentrations between dogs and their owners. Neither dogs’ activity levels nor their behavioural traits affected the cortisol, however, the personality of the owners did. Therefore, we suggest that dogs mirror the stress level of their owners. The mediator between genes and the environment is epigenetics, and one epigenetic factor is DNA methylation. In paper V, we compared methylation patterns of wolves and dogs as well as dog breeds. Between both wolves and dogs and among dogs there were substantial differences in methylated DNA regions, suggesting that DNA methylation is likely to contribute to the vast variation among canines. We hypothesize that epigenetic factors have been important during domestication and in breed formation. In this thesis, I cover several aspects on how dogs’ behaviours can be affected, and paint an intricate picture on how genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations forms dog behaviour.

Bibliography of Agriculture

Bibliography of Agriculture
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Behavior Genetics and Evolution

Behavior Genetics and Evolution
A Book

by Lee Ehrman,Peter Angas Parsons

  • Publisher : McGraw-Hill Companies
  • Release : 1981
  • Pages : 450
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Genetics of Behavior

The Genetics of Behavior
A Book

by Lee Ehrman,Peter Angas Parsons

  • Publisher : Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
  • Release : 1976
  • Pages : 390
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Heritability of Behavior in Dogs with Reference to the Canine Companions for Independence Puppy Test

Heritability of Behavior in Dogs with Reference to the Canine Companions for Independence Puppy Test
A Book

by Ruth B. Daniels

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1989
  • Pages : 64
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Encyclopedia of Animal Science (Print)

Encyclopedia of Animal Science (Print)
A Book

by Wilson G. Pond

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2004-11-16
  • Pages : 952
  • ISBN : 0824754964
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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PRINT/ONLINE PRICING OPTIONS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST AT e-reference@taylorandfrancis.com

Behavior Genetics

Behavior Genetics
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1990
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Animal Science

Animal Science
A Book

by M. Eugene Ensminger

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 1047
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Soviet Genetics

Soviet Genetics
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Poultry Science

Poultry Science
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Vol. 5 includes a separately paged special issue, dated June 1926.

Bulletin

Bulletin
A Book

by Mahāwitthayālai Chīang Mai

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Animal Stress

Animal Stress
A Book

by Gary P. Moberg,University of California, Davis. College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1985
  • Pages : 324
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Based on a recent symposium that brought together experts in behavior, nutrition, physiology, immunology, and human and animal medicine, this volume presents an up-to-date discussion of the problems and methods of studying animal stress today. Section one reviews the evolutionary and ontogenetic determinants of animal suffering and the assessment of well-being. The second section examines biological responses to stress and methods of monitoring stress in animals. Section three shows how stress can threaten animal health, disrupt normal reproduction, and influence growth and metabolism. The final section relates the importance of animal stress to developing guidelines on the use of animals in scientific research. This is an invaluable reference for exploring these complex responses.

Chiang Mai University - Bulletin

Chiang Mai University - Bulletin
A Book

by Mahāwitthayālai Chīang Mai

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1994
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia
A Book

by Bernhard Grzimek,Melissa C. McDade

  • Publisher : Gale / Cengage Learning
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 576
  • ISBN : 9780787657918
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This is a revised and updated edition of one of the most authoritative and comprehensive sources on the world's animals. Similar to the first edition written by noted zoologist Bernard Grzimek and published in 1972, the second edition covers all types of animals in geographic areas around the world. It includes high-quality photographs and illustrations and a comprehensive index to all volumes."--"The Top 20 Reference Titles of the Year," American Libraries, May 2004.

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V
A Book

by Bernhard Grzimek

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Behavioral Genetics

Behavioral Genetics
A Book

by Robert Plomin,John C. DeFries,Gerald E. McClearn

  • Publisher : Macmillan
  • Release : 2008-02-22
  • Pages : 532
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides an overview of human and animal behavioral genetics and examines the crossroads where the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and genetics intersect.

Who's who in Technology Today

Who's who in Technology Today
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1980
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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