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Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste
A Book

by Michael J Apted,Joonhong Ahn

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2017-05-25
  • Pages : 802
  • ISBN : 0081006527
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste, Second Edition, critically reviews state-of-the-art technologies and scientific methods relating to the implementation of the most effective approaches to the long-term, safe disposition of nuclear waste, also discussing regulatory developments and social engagement approaches as major themes. Chapters in Part One introduce the topic of geological disposal, providing an overview of near-surface, intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal, spanning low-, medium- and high-level wastes. Part Two addresses the different types of repository systems – crystalline, clay, and salt, also discussing methods of site surveying and construction. The critical safety issue of engineered barrier systems is the focus of Part Three, with coverage ranging from nuclear waste canisters, to buffer and backfill materials. Lastly, Parts Four and Five focus on safety, security, and acceptability, concentrating on repository performance assessment, then radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and social engagement. Comprehensively revised, updated, and expanded with 25% new material on topics of current importance, this is the standard reference for all nuclear waste management and geological repository professionals and researchers. Contains 25% more material on topics of current importance in this new, comprehensive edition Fully updated coverage of both near-surface/intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal in one convenient volume Goes beyond the scientific and technical aspects of disposal to include the political, regulatory, and societal issues involved, all from an international perspective

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste

Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste
A Book

by Michael J Apted,Joonhong Ahn

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2017-06-18
  • Pages : 802
  • ISBN : 9780081006429
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Geological Repository Systems for Safe Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Radioactive Waste, Second Edition, critically reviews state-of-the-art technologies and scientific methods relating to the implementation of the most effective approaches to the long-term, safe disposition of nuclear waste, also discussing regulatory developments and social engagement approaches as major themes. Chapters in Part One introduce the topic of geological disposal, providing an overview of near-surface, intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal, spanning low-, medium- and high-level wastes. Part Two addresses the different types of repository systems - crystalline, clay, and salt, also discussing methods of site surveying and construction. The critical safety issue of engineered barrier systems is the focus of Part Three, with coverage ranging from nuclear waste canisters, to buffer and backfill materials. Lastly, Parts Four and Five focus on safety, security, and acceptability, concentrating on repository performance assessment, then radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and social engagement. Comprehensively revised, updated, and expanded with 25% new material on topics of current importance, this is the standard reference for all nuclear waste management and geological repository professionals and researchers. Contains 25% more material on topics of current importance in this new, comprehensive edition Fully updated coverage of both near-surface/intermediate depth, and deep borehole disposal in one convenient volume Goes beyond the scientific and technical aspects of disposal to include the political, regulatory, and societal issues involved, all from an international perspective

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository, Rev. 03, ICN 02

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository, Rev. 03, ICN 02
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 5
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the systems (natural and engineered) that ensure continued safety after closure. Section 8 offers design options that may be adopted in the future, and Section 9 provides a summary statement on the repository. The design work for the engineering systems described in this document was accomplished using established engineering practices and state-of-the-art technology. Technical design work and scientific activities described in this document were conducted in accordance with quality assurance/quality control requirements outlined in the DOE Quality Assurance Requirements and Description document and its associated implementing procedures.

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the systems (natural and engineered) that ensure continued safety after closure. Section 8 offers design options that may be adopted in the future, and Section 9 provides a summary statement on the repository.

One Step at a Time

One Step at a Time
The Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Radioactive Waste

by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on Principles and Operational Strategies for Staged Repository Systems

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2003-03-10
  • Pages : 215
  • ISBN : 0309087082
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Compared to other large engineering projects, geologic repositories for high-level waste present distinctive challenges because: 1) they are first-of-a-kind, complex, and long-term projects that must actively manage hazardous materials for many decades: 2) they are expected to hold these hazardous materials passively safe for many millennia after repository closure; and 3) they are widely perceived to pose serious risks. As is the case for other complex projects, repository programs should proceed in stages. One Step at a Time focuses on a management approach called "adaptive staging" as a promising means to develop geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste such as the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Adaptive staging is a learn-as-you-go process that enables project managers to continuously reevaluate and adjust the program in response to new knowledge and stakeholder input. Advice is given on how to implement staging during the construction, operation, closure, and post-closure phases of a repository program.

Nuclear Waste Governance

Nuclear Waste Governance
An International Comparison

by Achim Brunnengräber,Maria Rosaria Di Nucci,Ana Maria Isidoro Losada,Lutz Mez,Miranda A. Schreurs

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-02-19
  • Pages : 327
  • ISBN : 3658089628
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.​

Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
A Book

by W. R. Alexander,Linda McKinley

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2011-07-29
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 9780080468884
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste presents a critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic: providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved and with extensive references to sources of more detailed information. Emphasis is very much on “deep geological disposal – at least some tens of metres below land surface and, in many cases, many hundred of metres deep. Additionally, only radioactive wastes are considered directly – even though such wastes often contain also significant chemotoxic or otherwise hazardous components. Many of the principles involved are generally applicable to other repository options (e.g. near-surface or on-surface disposal) and, indeed, to other types of hazardous waste. Presents a current critical review in designing, siting, constructing and demonsrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radwaste Addresses the fundamental principles of radioactive waste with up-to-date examples and real-world case studies Written for a multi-disciplinary audience, with an appropriate level of detail to allow a non-specialist to understand

Direct Investigations Of The Immobilization Of Radionuclides In The Alteration Phases Of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Direct Investigations Of The Immobilization Of Radionuclides In The Alteration Phases Of Spent Nuclear Fuel
A Book

by Peter C. Burns,David J. Wronkiewicz,Robert J. Finch

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 5
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geologic repository is one of the most significant and difficult scientific endeavors of the twenty-first century. Unique scientific challenges are posed by the very long-lived radioactivity of nuclear waste. Many radionuclides of vastly different chemical character must be retained by the repository for several thousand years. Some with longer half-lives, such as Pu-239 and Tc-99, need to be isolated for periods approaching a million years. In order to ensure the safety of a geologic repository, a detailed understanding of the mobility of radionuclides in complex natural systems is essential. Most of the radioactivity in a geological repository will be associated with spent nuclear fuel. In the United States spent fuel is derived from several sources. The majority is UO2 (LWR) spent fuel from commercial reactors. About 30,000 metric tons of spent fuel was in storage at commercial reactors by 1995, with the expectation that this quantity will more than double by 2010 (Integrated Data Report 1995). All spent fuel derived from commercial reactors is intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. In addition, the DOE is the custodian of about 8000 metric tons of spent fuel, most of which is also intended for disposal in a geological repository. Although there are more than 250 types of spent fuel in the DOE inventory, the fuels may be broadly classified into (1) uranium metal fuel, (2) aluminum-based fuel, (3) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel containing substantial plutonium, and (4) graphite fuel (Colleen Shelton-Davis, personal communications, January 2000). Disposal of spent fuel in a geological repository requires detailed knowledge of the longterm behavior of the waste forms under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the waste packages as containers are breached. The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is intended to hold 70,000 metric tons of high-level nuclear waste. Nine radionuclides considered in the TSPA-VA (Total System Performance Analysis - Viability Assessment) Base Case Performance Analysis (CRWMS, 1998, cf. Table 3-14 in section 3.5.1) are of special concern because of their long half-lives, radiological toxicities, and potential mobilities under repository conditions. These are five actinide isotopes, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-242, U-234, and Pa- 231, and four fission products, Tc-99, I-129, Se-79, and C-14. In addition, Am-241 is important because it is a parent of Np-237. An understanding of the behaviors of these elements under repository-relevant conditions is essential to safe disposal. Natural analogue studies of the mineral uraninite, UO2+x (an analogue for UO2 in spent fuel), as well as several laboratory-scale simulations, confirm that spent fuel is unstable under the moist, oxidizing conditions expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Once containers are breached, alteration of the spent fuel m ay be rapid, with the most abundant alteration products being uranyl (U6+) phases. Shortly after groundwater or condensed water vapor contacts spent fuel in the proposed repository, uranyl phases are likely to be abundant in the vicinity of the spent fuel. Most of the uranyl phases that will form in the repository are already known as minerals from natural systems. Many of these uranyl phases can persist for thousands of years, as demonstrated by studies of natural analogues (Finch et al. 1996). It is likely that uranyl phases forming due to the alteration of spent fuel will incorporate many of the radionuclides contained in the spent fuel (Burns et al. 1997), thus having a profound impact upon the mobility of the radionuclides. Our ongoing research is leading to an understanding of the impact of incorporation of radionuclides into uranyl phases. Such information is essential to an understanding of the long-term performance of the geological repository. Knowledge of the crystal structures, chemistries, stabilities and paragenesis of uranyl minerals lag far behind most other mineral groups, owing in large part to the occurrence of these minerals as complex intergrowths of multiple phases, making routine analysis very difficult.

Geologic Repository for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain

Geologic Repository for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain
Environmental Impact Statement

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 8
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Working Together for a Safe Environment

Working Together for a Safe Environment
Ten Companies with a Common Goal : the Safe, Permanent Disposal of the Nation's Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 19
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Radioactive Waste Repository Licensing

Radioactive Waste Repository Licensing
Synopsis of a Symposium

by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Commission on Geosciences Environment and Resources

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1992-02-01
  • Pages : 112
  • ISBN : 0309046912
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book recounts the issues raised and the viewpoints aired at a recent symposium on repository licensing. It summarizes the problems surrounding the setting of an Environmental Protection Agency standard for the release of radionuclides and the regulatory problems inherent in meeting such a standard. Symposium participants came from a variety of federal agencies and advisory groups, state governments, public interest groups, engineering firms, national laboratories, and foreign and international organizations. The book illustrates the strong feeling in the radioactive waste disposal community that changes must be made if the United States is to fulfill its promise of safe management of current and future nuclear waste.

Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues

Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and Natural Analogues
A Book

by W. Miller,R. Alexander,N. Chapman,John C McKinley,J.A.T. Smellie

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2000-11-09
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 9780080532455
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Many countries are currently exploring the option to dispose of highly radioactive solid wastes deep underground in purpose built, engineered repositories. A number of surface and shallow repositories for less radioactive wastes are already in operation. One of the challenges facing the nuclear industry is to demonstrate confidently that a repository will contain wastes for so long that any releases that might take place in the future will pose no significant health or environmental risk. One method for building confidence in the long-term future safety of a repository is to look at the physical and chemical processes which operate in natural and archaeological systems, and to draw appropriate parallels with the repository. For example, to understand why some uranium orebodies have remained isolated underground for billions of years. Such studies are called 'natural analogues'. This book investigates the concept of geological disposal and examines the wide range of natural analogues which have been studied. Lessons learnt from studies of archaeological and natural systems can be used to improve our capabilities for assessing the future safety of a radioactive waste repository.

Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: Inventory and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste and other materials

Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: Inventory and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste and other materials
A Book

by United States. Department of Energy. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reference Analysis on the Utility of Engineered Barriers for Geologic Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Reference Analysis on the Utility of Engineered Barriers for Geologic Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel
Overview

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1981
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The development and characterization of waste forms, containers and other engineered barriers destined for use in the isolation of nuclear waste in deep geologic repositories has progressed to the point where there are several options for barrier systems that are available to help assure safe disposal of nuclear wastes. However, a rigorous basis has not yet developed to define whether various concepts or products are required or desirable, or how effective they should be for how long. This analysis is an attempt to contribute to that basis. Intent of the study is to determine what incentives exist for providing highly effective engineered barriers for the isolation of radioactive waste (spent fuel in this case) in a deep geologic repository. 6 figures.

Blume, Ludwig

Blume, Ludwig
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The folder may include clippings, announcements, small exhibition catalogs, and other ephemeral items.

Disposition of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Geological Isolation

Disposition of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Geological Isolation
Development, Current Status, and Technical and Policy Challenges

by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Board on Radioactive Waste Management

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1999-10-07
  • Pages : 44
  • ISBN : 9780309184588
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During the next several years, decisions are expected to be made in several countries on the further development and implementation of the geological disposition option. The Board on Radioactive Waste Management (BRWM) of the U.S. National Academies believes that informed and reasoned discussion of relevant scientific, engineering and social issues can-and should-play a constructive role in the decision process by providing information to decision makers on relevant technical and policy issues. A BRWM-initiated project including a workshop at Irvine, California on November 4-5, 1999, and subsequent National Academies' report to be published in spring, 2000, are intended to provide such information to national policy makers both in the U.S. and abroad. To inform national policies, it is essential that experts from the physical, geological, and engineering sciences, and experts from the policy and social science communities work together. Some national programs have involved social science and policy experts from the beginning, while other programs have only recently recognized the importance of this collaboration. An important goal of the November workshop is to facilitate dialogue between these communities, as well as to encourage the sharing of experiences from many national programs. The workshop steering committee has prepared this discussion for participants at the workshop. It should elicit critical comments and help identify topics requiring in-depth discussion at the workshop. It is not intended as a statement of findings, conclusions, or recommendations. It is rather intended as a vehicle for stimulating dialogue among the workshop participants. Out of that dialogue will emerge the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the National Academies' report.

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: Appendixes A through O

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada: Appendixes A through O
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Radioactive Waste Engineering and Management

Radioactive Waste Engineering and Management
A Book

by Shinya Nagasaki,Shinichi Nakayama

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-04-07
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 4431554173
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

Principles and Standards for the Disposal of Long-lived Radioactive Wastes

Principles and Standards for the Disposal of Long-lived Radioactive Wastes
A Book

by N. Chapman,C. McCombie

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2003-10-07
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN : 9780080539522
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This handbook is concerned with developing principles and standards for the safe disposal of solid radioactive wastes by burial deep in the Earth's crust. Radioactive wastes have focussed thinking on long-term environmental protection issues in an unprecedented way. Consequently, the way in which principles and standards are set, and the thinking behind this, is of wider interest than to the nuclear field alone. The issues are not just technical and scientific. There is also a much wider philosophical context to the debate, centering on ethics, human values and the expectations of society. In this handbook it is intended that all theses issues are brought together, suggesting appropriate ways forward in each area, culminating in a proposed structure for safety regulations. It also aims to provide a detailed discussion of some of the most difficult logical an ethical issues facing those wishing to dispose of long-lived radioactive wastes.

Nuclear Wastes

Nuclear Wastes
Technologies for Separations and Transmutation

by Committee on Separations Technology and Transmutation Systems,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1996-03-08
  • Pages : 562
  • ISBN : 0309561957
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear weapons production and power generation has caused public outcry and political consternation. Nuclear Wastes presents a critical review of some waste management and disposal alternatives to the current national policy of direct disposal of light water reactor spent fuel. The book offers clearcut conclusions for what the nation should do today and what solutions should be explored for tomorrow. The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted to nuclides that are either stable or radioactive with short half-lives. The volume provides detailed findings and conclusions about the status and feasibility of plutonium extraction and more advanced separations technologies, as well as three principal transmutation concepts for commercial reactor spent fuel. The book discusses nuclear proliferation; the U.S. nuclear regulatory structure; issues of health, safety and transportation; the proposed sale of electrical energy as a means of paying for the transmutation system; and other key issues.