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Green Chemistry and Water Remediation: Research and Applications

Green Chemistry and Water Remediation: Research and Applications
A Book

by Sanjay K. Sharma

  • Publisher : Advances in Green Chemistry
  • Release : 2020-01-10
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 9780128177426
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Green Chemistry and Water Remediation: Research and Applications explores how integrating the principles of green chemistry into remediation research and practice can have a great impact from multiple directions. This volume reviews both common sources of chemical pollution and how using green chemistry as the basis for new or improved remediation techniques can ensure that remediation itself is conducted in a sustainable way. By outlining the main types of chemical pollutants in water and sustainable ways to address them, the authors hope to help chemists identify key areas and encourage them to integrate green chemistry into the design of new processes and products. In addition, the books highlights and encourages the use of the growing range of green remediation approaches available to experts, helping researchers, planners and managers make informed decisions in their selection of remediation techniques. Puts the naturally-aligned fields of green chemistry and environmental remediation in context, providing key background to both Highlights the use of both established and cutting-edge techniques for sustainable water remediation, including nanotechnology, biofiltration and phytoremediation Explores the potential impact of policy and sustainability goals in chemical waste production and water remediation

Green Chemistry and Water Remediation: Research and Applications

Green Chemistry and Water Remediation: Research and Applications
A Book

by Sanjay K. Sharma

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-10-22
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 0128177438
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Green Chemistry and Water Remediation: Research and Applications explores how integrating the principles of green chemistry into remediation research and practice can have a great impact from multiple directions. This volume reviews both common sources of chemical pollution and how using green chemistry as the basis for new or improved remediation techniques can ensure that remediation itself is conducted in a sustainable way. By outlining the main types of chemical pollutants in water and sustainable ways to address them, the authors hope to help chemists identify key areas and encourage them to integrate green chemistry into the design of new processes and products. In addition, the books highlights and encourages the use of the growing range of green remediation approaches available to experts, helping researchers, planners and managers make informed decisions in their selection of remediation techniques. Puts the naturally-aligned fields of green chemistry and environmental remediation in context, providing key background to both Highlights the use of both established and cutting-edge techniques for sustainable water remediation, including nanotechnology, biofiltration and phytoremediation Explores the potential impact sustainability goals in chemical waste production and water remediation

Green Materials for Sustainable Water Remediation and Treatment

Green Materials for Sustainable Water Remediation and Treatment
A Book

by Anuradha Mishra,James H Clark

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2013-09-06
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN : 184973500X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inadequate access to clean water afflicts people throughout the world, and in developing countries any solution to this challenge must be achieved at a low cost and low energy demand. At the same time, the use of chemicals, and subsequent environmental impact must also be reduced. Green and sustainable water remediation is a rapidly growing field of interest to governments and corporations alike, with considerable input from academics, environmental consultants and public interest groups. This book presents a focused set of articles covering a range of topics in the field, examining not only the adoption of natural products for water remediation, but also the synthesis of new materials and emerging clean technologies. Contributors from across the globe (including some "on the ground" in the developing world) present a comprehensive digest in the form of review-style articles highlighting the current thinking and direction in the field. Interested stakeholders from all sectors will find this book invaluable, and postgraduate students of chemical engineering or environmental science will benefit from the real-world applications presented.

Biomass for Sustainable Applications

Biomass for Sustainable Applications
Pollution Remediation and Energy

by Sarra Gaspard,Mohamed Chaker Ncibi

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 430
  • ISBN : 1849737142
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sustainable sources of energy and a supply of good quality water are two major challenges facing modern societies across the globe. Biomass from cultivated plants may be used to generate energy, but at the cost of contaminated surface waters from pesticide and fertiliser use. This two-volume set examines the potential use of biomass as both a source of sustainable energy and a resource to tackle contaminated soils and wastewaters. Consideration is given to non-food crops, bacteria ,and fungi as sources of biomass and the book enables the reader to identify the best local bioresources according to the desired application. With contributions from across the globe, this is an essential guide to meeting the demand for energy and pollution remediation by exploiting local and renewable resources. The example scenarios given may inspire policy makers and local officers, while chemical engineers and environmental scientists in both academia and industry will benefit from the comprehensive review of current thinking and application.

Bioremediation

Bioremediation
A Sustainable Approach to Preserving Earth’s Water

by Sanjay K. Sharma

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-10-24
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 0429952554
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioremediation: A Sustainable Approach to Preserving Earth’s Water discusses the latest research in green chemistry practices and principles that are involved in water remediation and the quality improvement of water. The presence of heavy metals, dyes, fluoride, dissolved solids and many other pollutants are responsible for water pollution and poor water quality. The removal of these pollutants in water resources is necessary, yet challenging. Water preservation is of great importance globally and researchers are making significant progress in ensuring this precious commodity is safe and potable. This volume illustrates how bioremediation in particular is a promising green technique globally. Features: Addresses bioremediation of all the major water pollutants Approaches the chemistry of water and the concept of water as a renewable resource from a green chemistry aspect Discusses environmental chemistry and the practice of industrial ecology Explains the global concern of adequate high quality water supplies, and how bioremediation can resolve this Explores sustainable development through green engineering

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science

Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science
Green Solvents for Environmental Remediation

by Dr. Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Abdullah M. Asiri

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-12-01
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 0128218983
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Green Solvents for Environmental Remediation provides an in-depth overview of environmental remediation by using eutectic solvents, ionic liquids, biosolvents, and switchable solvents, of ionic-liquids, biosolvents, Gas-expanded solvents Liquid polymers, supercritical fluids, Polymer-based green solvents, Switchable solvents, etc. This book offers all-types of green solvents for the removal of contaminations from the soil, air, and water. It summarizes in-depth literature on the application of various green solvents in the areas such as municipal water, extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, soil and sediment remediation, toxic gases removal, and various industrial effluents. A brief introduction, limitations, and advantages to the practical use of green solvents are also discussed. This book is authored by experts in a broad range of fields. It is an invaluable reference guide for the sustainable and environmentally friendly development of synthetic methodologies for environmental, analytical, engineering, and industrial technology. Provides an up-to-date research record on green solvents for environmental protection Includes latest advances in environmental remediation Outlines eco-friendly green solvents for toxic contaminants degradation and purification Covers all-types of green solvent-driven environmental remediation technologies Key references to obtain great results in environmental remediation using green solvents

Ultrasound Technology in Green Chemistry

Ultrasound Technology in Green Chemistry
A Book

by Mika Sillanpää,Thuy-Duong Pham,Reena Amatya Shrestha

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-08-26
  • Pages : 21
  • ISBN : 9789400724099
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As a new and rapidly growing science, the applications of ultrasound methods in environmental technology hold a promising future. Compared to conventional methods, ultrasonication can bring several benefits such as being environmentally friendly (no toxic chemical are used or produced), low cost, and compact, allowing on-site treatment. Besides an overview featuring the background behind ultrasonic technology, this brief summarizes the main studies and innovations reported in recent research that has utilized ultrasound methods in environmental analysis, water, and sludge treatment, soil and sediment remediation to air purification.

Environmental Water

Environmental Water
Advances in Treatment, Remediation and Recycling

by V. K. Gupta,Imran Ali

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN : 0444593993
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The world is facing a drinking water crisis. Besides continuous population growth, uneven distribution of water resources and periodic droughts have forced scientists to search for new and effective water treatment, remediation and recycling technologies. Therefore, there is a great need for the development of suitable, inexpensive and rapid wastewater treatment and reuse or conservation methods. This title discusses different types of wastewater treatment, remediation and recycling techniques, like adsorption, membrane filtration and reverse osmosis. It also provides guidance for the selection of the appropriate technologies or their combinations for specific applications so that one can select the exact and accurate technology without any problem. The book comprises detailed discussion on the application of various technologies for water treatment, remediation and recycling technologies and provides an update on the development in water treatment, detailed analysis of their features and economic analysis, bridging the current existing information gap. Each chapter is also documented by references and updated citations. Provides guidance for the selection of the appropriate technologies to industrialists and government authorities for the selection of exact, inexpensive technologies for specific problem solving Discusses the developments of inexpensive and rapid wastewater treatment, remediation and recycling Gives information on the application of analytical techniques, such as GC, LC, IR, and XRF for analysing and measuring water Provides an updated development in water treatment technologies, detailed analysis of their features and economic analysis, enabling to choose a problem-specific solution Completely updates the current knowledge in this field, bridging the current existing information gap

Electrochemical Water Treatment Methods

Electrochemical Water Treatment Methods
Fundamentals, Methods and Full Scale Applications

by Mika Sillanpää,Marina Shestakova

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2017-06-19
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN : 0128114630
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Electrochemical Methods for Water Treatment: Fundamentals, Methods and Full Scale Applications covers all traditional, emerging and combined methods currently available for the treatment of surface, drinkable water and industrial wastewater. Topics covered include an overview of pollutants and treatment methods, an extended introduction to electrochemical processes in water treatment, electrochemical oxidation (including electrodesinfection, electrochemical reduction, electrocoagulation, electroflotation, and electrodialysis. In addition, emerging and combined methods are presented, as is a discussion on the available equipment necessary to scale up the operation of all methods. Electrochemical technologies have many common issues in terms of design, operation and performance. This book brings together a wealth of information on all different methods in a single source to provide broad insights and enable the connection between challenges and opportunities for different methods. The combination of technical information, design and case studies offered helps researchers better understand the challenges associated with scale up and implementation. Covers all electrochemical methods for water treatment Includes methods for the treatment of surface, drinking water and industrial wastewater Presents discussions on equipment in the context of scaling up the operation

Natural Water Remediation

Natural Water Remediation
Chemistry and Technology

by James G. Speight

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2019-08-29
  • Pages : 392
  • ISBN : 0128038829
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Natural Water Remediation: Chemistry and Technology considers topics such as metal ion solubility controls, pH, carbonate equilibria, adsorption reactions, redox reactions and the kinetics of oxygenation reactions that occur in natural water environments. The book begins with the fundamentals of acid-base and redox chemistry to provide a better understanding of the natural system. Other sections cover the relationships among environmental factors and natural water (including biochemical factors, hydrologic cycles and sources of solutes in the atmosphere). Chemical thermodynamic models, as applied to natural water, are then discussed in detail. Final sections cover self-contained applications concerning composition, quality measurement and analyses for river, lake, reservoir and groundwater sampling. Covers the fundamentals of acid-base and redox chemistry for environmental engineers Focuses on the practical uses of water, soil mineral and bedrock chemistry and how they impact surface and groundwater Includes applications concerning composition, quality measurement and analyses for river, lake, reservoir and groundwater sampling

Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research

Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research
A Book

by Ajay Kumar Mishra

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-06-23
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 1118496302
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Details the water research applications of nanotechnology in various areas including environmental science, remediation, membranes, nanomaterials, and water treatment At the nano size, materials often take on unique and sometimes unexpected properties that result in them being ‘tuned’ to build faster, lighter, stronger, and more efficient devices and systems, as well as creating new classes of materials. In water research, nanotechnology is applied to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems, as well as to provide instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. This volume presents an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications including treatment, remediation, sensing, and pollution prevention. Nanotechnology applications for waste water research have significant impact in maintaining the long-term quality, availability, and viability of water. Regardless of the origin, such as municipal or industrial waste water, its remediation utilizing nanotechnology can not only be recycled and desalinized, but it can simultaneously detect biological and chemical contamination. Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research describes a broad area of nanotechnology and water research where membrane processes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and nanoreactive membranes) are considered key components of advanced water purification and desalination technologies that remove, reduce, or neutralize water contaminants that threaten human health and/or ecosystem productivity and integrity. Various nanoparticles and nanomaterials that could be used in water remediation (zeolites, carbon nanotubes, self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports, biopolymers, single-enzyme nanoparticles, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bimetallic iron nanoparticles, and nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts) are discussed. The book also covers water-borne infectious diseases as well as water-borne pathogens, microbes, and toxicity approach.

Sustainable Water Technologies

Sustainable Water Technologies
A Book

by Daniel H. Chen

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-10-14
  • Pages : 392
  • ISBN : 1498780067
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Development of advanced technologies is a critical component in overcoming the looming water crisis. Stressing emerging technologies and strategies that facilitate water sustainability for future generations, the second volume in the two-volume set Sustainable Water Management and Technologies provides current and forthcoming technologies research, development, and applications to help ensure availability of water for all. The book emphasizes emerging nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology applications as well as sustainable processes and products to protect the environment and human health, save water and energy, and minimize material use. It also discusses such topics as groundwater transport, protection, and remediation, industrial and wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal, membrane technology for water purification and desalination, treatment and disposal in unconventional oil and gas development, biodegradation, and bioremediation for soil and water. Stresses emerging technologies and strategies that facilitate water sustainability. Covers a wide array of topics including drinking water, wastewater, and groundwater treatment, protection, and remediation. Discusses oil and gas drilling impacts and pollution prevention, membrane technology for water desalination and purification, biodegradation, and bioremediation for soil and water. Details emerging nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information technology applications, as well as sustainable processes and products.

Bioremediation and Sustainability

Bioremediation and Sustainability
Research and Applications

by Romeela Mohee,Ackmez Mudhoo

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-03-27
  • Pages : 438
  • ISBN : 1118062841
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioremediation and Sustainability is an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of research and applications for some of the most important low-cost, "green," emerging technologies in chemical and environmental engineering.

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment
Fundamentals and Applications

by Mihaela I. Stefan

  • Publisher : IWA Publishing
  • Release : 2017-09-15
  • Pages : 710
  • ISBN : 1780407181
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) rely on the efficient generation of reactive radical species and are increasingly attractive options for water remediation from a wide variety of organic micropollutants of human health and/or environmental concern. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment covers the key advanced oxidation processes developed for chemical contaminant destruction in polluted water sources, some of which have been implemented successfully at water treatment plants around the world. The book is structured in two sections; the first part is dedicated to the most relevant AOPs, whereas the topics covered in the second section include the photochemistry of chemical contaminants in the aquatic environment, advanced water treatment for water reuse, implementation of advanced treatment processes for drinking water production at a state-of-the art water treatment plant in Europe, advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, and green technologies for water remediation. The advanced oxidation processes discussed in the book cover the following aspects: - Process principles including the most recent scientific findings and interpretation. - Classes of compounds suitable to AOP treatment and examples of reaction mechanisms. - Chemical and photochemical degradation kinetics and modelling. - Water quality impact on process performance and practical considerations on process parameter selection criteria. - Process limitations and byproduct formation and strategies to mitigate any potential adverse effects on the treated water quality. - AOP equipment design and economics considerations. - Research studies and outcomes. - Case studies relevant to process implementation to water treatment. - Commercial applications. - Future research needs. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment presents the most recent scientific and technological achievements in process understanding and implementation, and addresses to anyone interested in water remediation, including water industry professionals, consulting engineers, regulators, academics, students. Editor: Mihaela I. Stefan - Trojan Technologies - Canada

Ultrasound Technology in Green Chemistry

Ultrasound Technology in Green Chemistry
A Book

by Mika Sillanpää,Thuy-Duong Pham,Reena Amatya Shrestha

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2011-08-31
  • Pages : 21
  • ISBN : 9789400724105
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As a new and rapidly growing science, the applications of ultrasound methods in environmental technology hold a promising future. Compared to conventional methods, ultrasonication can bring several benefits such as being environmentally friendly (no toxic chemical are used or produced), low cost, and compact, allowing on-site treatment. Besides an overview featuring the background behind ultrasonic technology, this brief summarizes the main studies and innovations reported in recent research that has utilized ultrasound methods in environmental analysis, water, and sludge treatment, soil and sediment remediation to air purification.

Nanomaterials Applications for Environmental Matrices

Nanomaterials Applications for Environmental Matrices
Water, Soil and Air

by Ronaldo do Nascimento,Odair Pastor Ferreira,Amauri Jardim De Paula,Vicente de Oliveira Sousa Neto

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-06-14
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 0128148306
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanomaterials Applications for Environmental Matrices: Water, Soil and Air takes a highly interdisciplinary approach in evaluating the use of a range of nanomaterials for various environmental applications, focusing, in particular, on their use in soil remediation, in improving water cleanliness, and in improving air quality. The book will not only help both materials scientists and environmental scientists understand the role played by nanomaterials in achieving these goals, but also give them practical ways they can be used to this end. Brings together the various applications and experimental aspects of nanoscience in the fields of chemistry, biology, environmental science and physics Maps the relationship between synthesis, properties and environmental interactions of nanomaterials, enabling greater understanding Describes new application opportunities for using nanomaterials in pollution trace detection and environmental improvement

Emerging Nanotechnologies for Water Treatment

Emerging Nanotechnologies for Water Treatment
A Book

by Yanbiao Liu,Chong-Chen Wang,Wen Liu

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021-10-13
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 9781839163029
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rapid population growth, urbanisation and industrialisation have caused serious problems in terms of water pollution and the supply of safe water. Solutions for monitoring pollutants in water and for removing them are urgently needed and they must be both efficient and sustainable. Recent advances in emerging environmental nanotechnologies provide promising solutions for these issues. The physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be tailored by controlling attributes such as their size, shape, composition, and surface, so that they can be both highly specific and highly efficient. This makes them perfect platforms for a variety of environmental applications including sensing, treatment and remediation. Providing an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications, including sensing, treatment, and remediation, as well as a discussion of progress in the rational design and engineering of nanomaterials for environmental applications, this book is a valuable reference for researchers working in applications for nanotechnology, environmental chemistry and environmental engineering as well as those working in the water treatment industry.

Sustainability Set

Sustainability Set
Rsc

by Royal Society Of Chemistry

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2014-02-14
  • Pages : 1746
  • ISBN : 9781782620990
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Drawing on the wealth of information and expertise available in the Royal Society of Chemistry's Green Chemistry Book series, this set of books demonstrates a sustainable approach to some of the environmental and technical challenges facing the world today. Topics include water remediation, recovery of elements from electronic waste, and re-using food co-products. This set contains the following volumes: Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies (ISBN 9781847559050) 524 pages, 2009 Edited by Rainer Höfer Outlines the contribution of chemistry and renewable chemical or biological resources to the sustainability concept and potential resolution of the world's energy problems. Element Recovery and Sustainability (ISBN 9781849736169) 270 pages, 2013 Edited by Andrew Hunt This book will be essential reading for researchers in academia and industry tackling sustainable element recovery, as well as postgraduate students in chemistry, engineering and biotechnology. Environmental scientists and policy makers will also benefit from reading about potential benefits of recovery from waste streams. The Economic Utilisation of Food Co-Products (ISBN 9781849736152) 270 pages, 2013 Edited by Abbas Kazmi and Peter Shuttleworth No longer considered simply as "waste", many food co-products are being identified as economically-viable raw materials and their potential is enhanced by modern processing technologies and the biorefinery concept. Biomass for Sustainable Applications (ISBN 9781849736008) 430 pages, 2013 Edited by Sara Gaspard and Mohamed C Ncibi This book guides the reader to identifying the local bioresources which could be valorized and chosen for the remediation of a pollution-related problem or a response to an energetic need. Green Materials for Sustainable Water Remediation and Treatment (ISBN 9781849736213) 259 pages, 2013 Edited by Anuradha Mishra and James Clark Green and sustainable water remediation is a rapidly growing field of interest to governments and corporations alike, with considerable input from academics, environmental consultants and public interest groups.

Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry
An Inclusive Approach

by Bela Torok,Timothy Dransfield

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-11-07
  • Pages : 1058
  • ISBN : 0128095490
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Green Chemistry: An Inclusive Approach provides a broad overview of green chemistry for researchers from either an environmental science or chemistry background, starting at a more elementary level, incorporating more advanced concepts, and including more chemistry as the book progresses. Every chapter includes recent, state-of-the-art references, in particular, review articles, to introduce researchers to this field of interest and provide them with information that can be easily built upon. By bringing together experts in multiple subdisciplines of green chemistry, the editors have curated a single central resource for an introduction to the discipline as a whole. Topics include a broad array of research fields, including the chemistry of Earth’s atmosphere, water and soil, the synthesis of fine chemicals, and sections on pharmaceuticals, plastics, energy related issues (energy storage, fuel cells, solar, and wind energy conversion etc., greenhouse gases and their handling, chemical toxicology issues of everyday products (from perfumes to detergents or clothing), and environmental policy issues. Introduces the topic of green chemistry with an overview of key concepts Expands upon presented concepts with the latest research and applications, providing both the breadth and depth researchers need Includes a broad range of application based problems to make the content accessible for professional researchers and undergraduate and graduate students Authored by experts in a broad range of fields, providing insider information on the aspects or challenges of a given field that are most important and urgent

Handbook of Water Purity and Quality

Handbook of Water Purity and Quality
A Book

by Satinder Ahuja

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-04-26
  • Pages : 518
  • ISBN : 032385138X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Water Purity and Quality, Second Edition provides those involved in water purification research and administration with a comprehensive resource of methods for analyzing water to assure its safety from contaminants, both natural and human caused. The book includes an overview of the subject and discusses major water-related issues in developing and developed countries. Issues covered include sampling for water analysis, regulatory considerations, and forensics in water quality and purity investigations. Microbial as well as chemical contaminations from inorganic compounds, radionuclides, disinfectants, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals, including endocrine disruptors, are discussed at length. In addition, the luxury of municipal water purified for human consumption is unavailable for a very large number of people. To help solve this problem, some economical water purification techniques, including a million-dollar Grainger prizewinner that can save millions of lives have been included. This fully updated second edition includes four new chapters on topics such as the GenX Water Contamination Problem, the impact of climate change on water, and green chemistry solutions to water pollution. Covers the scope of water contamination problems on a worldwide scale with an overview of major water-related issues in developing and developed countries, including monitoring techniques for potential terrorist-related activities Provides a rich source of methods for analyzing water to ensure its safety from natural and deliberate contaminants Includes a review of water quality forensics with the objective of tracking new potential water contaminants